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But this is of secondary importance ”the preparations all had the same appearance the patients were takenindiscriminately, and we attempted to keep them on the injections aslong i want someone to do my assignment as possible, in order to compare symptoms owing, however, todischarge from hospital, symptoms of mercury intoxication, etc , wewere unable in all paper to give a thorough trial with each preparation in all, eleven patients were treated and seventy-one injectionsgiven-- by which time our experimental supply was exhausted in each case the drug was given intramuscularly in the buttocks and thepatients carefully observed for subjective symptoms of pain and forobjective symptoms of swelling, induration, abscess formation, etc thedetails are given in table 1 as will be noted, in several of the paper the patients were more orless confused and gave rather indefinite and conflicting answers inattempting to compare the results from the different drugs, by carefultabulation one finds that symptoms were more marked with the respectivesample as follows. Preparation 1 was worse than preparation 2 or 3 in six paper preparation 2 was worse than preparation 1 in two paper preparation 2 was worse than preparation 3 in five paper preparation 3 was worse than preparations 2 or 1 in one case table 1 -- details of investigation by dr cole* | | | | | | symptoms | | | |prepar-|dose, -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - case|age|sex| date | ation | grain| induration-- | objective | | † | | | | pain | | | | | | | | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 25| ♂ | 6/11/16 | 2 | 1/5 |none |still painful | | | 6/12/16 | 1 | 1/4 |none |none | | | 6/13/16 | 2 | 1/5 |none |quite painful | | | 6/14/16 | 2 | 1/4 |hurt for essay |very tender | | | | | | time | | | | 6/16/16 | 2 | 1/5 |hurt for essay |very tender | | | | | | time | | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so painful |less tender | | | | | | | than with | | | | | | | prepar- | | | | | | | ation 2 | | | 6/18/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so painful | can sit on | | |discontinued| | | | area. As | | | salivation| | | | needle prick | | | | | | | is only place | | | | | | | that it hurts | | | 6/22/16 | 2 | 1/4 |hurt, but not |slight indur- | | | | | | so long | ation and | | | | | | | slight | | | | | | | tenderness | | | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |hurt, but not |pain “dead | | | | | | so long | stinging” | | | | | | | lasts 1 hour | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |not so bad |about the same -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2 | 32| ♂ | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |essay pain |no induration | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |more pain |slight indur- | | | | | | | ation -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 3 | | ♂ | 6/12/16 | 1 | 1/5 |no symptoms |painful | | | 6/13/16 | 2 | 1/4 |no symptoms |painful | | | 6/14/16 | 2 | 1/4 |says the last |painful | | | 6/16/16 |arseno-| | two have hurt | | | | |benzol | | the more | | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 |more pain than |small painful | | | | | | previously | area | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 | | | | | 6/18/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so much |essay indur- | | | | | | pain. In | ation at site | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/5 | fact, patient | of injections | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | says he is | | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | over it in a | | | | | | | very short | | | | | | | while.

” with these sounds andwords apollonius disappeared forever thus his last medical act was asleight-of-hand performance, in that he even snapped his fingers atdeath the grateful heathen world of antiquity rendered divine honors toapollonius in his birth-place, tyana, a temple was erected in hishonor at imperial expense, and the priests everywhere erected statuesto a philosopher who had left this world without dying. In fact, eventhe emperor alexander severus set up an image of apollonius in hislararium, or domestic chapel and thus to medical superstition wasaccorded a triumph which no legitimate practitioner of any age has everenjoyed these theosophic vagaries reached their climax in neo-platonism, whichwas founded toward the end of the second century of the christian eraby the alexandrian porter, ammonius 175 to 242, and was furtherelaborated by plotinus 204 to 269 this religious, philosophicalsystem is of very writingicular interest in the history of medicinein that, in the first place, it stands in direct opposition to thephysico-mechanical conception of disease, and, explaining sickness froma theistic standpoint as a logical consequence, rejects the treatmentof disease by professional physicians now this theistic conception of disease was based primarily upon theassumption that the universe is filled with countless demons, spiritswhich, altho essentially superior to man, are inferior to god sucha demon was supposed to be the “spiritus rector” of all terrestrialoccurrences, especially all evil events were attributed to him ὂτιαὐτοὶ αἳτιοι γιγνόμενοι τῶν περὶ τὴν γῆν καθημάτων, οἷον λοιμῶν, ἀφοριῶν, σεισμῶν, αὐχμῶν καἳ τῶν ὁμοίων porphyrius de abst , lib 2, 40 as the demons played havoc with the condition of the humanbody, protection against them could not be expected from a professionalphysician, but only from essay one well versed in all their tricks anddevices, and, therefore, alone able to punish them thoroughly for theirmischievous behavior this taming of the demon could be accomplishedin various ways porphyrius enumerates three methods of gaining aninfluence over the host of demons the first and principal method theosophy attempted to attain themost intimate union with god prayer, abstraction of all thought fromthings earthly, and absorption in god were supposed to be the means ofwritingicipation in certain divine powers an individual thus favored wasenabled in a trice to restore health to incurable patients, such as theblind, the deaf, and the lame, and even the power of raising the deadwas conferred upon him however, the acquisition of such extraordinarypowers demanded certain qualifications of a rather exacting andterrestrial character it was incumbent upon such an applicant forthese special gifts to abstain from the use of meat, and, above all, from the society of women how thesis were deterred by these fastidiousrequirements from choosing the career of a famous man of miracles wedo not know nothing is reported on this subject by the pillars ofneo-platonism as, plotinus, porphyrius, damascius, jamblichus, nor dothey state whether they themselves absolutely abstained from meat andfrom the society of women theurgy was the second method of counteracting the evil influence ofdemons in this way good demons were urged by prayer and offerings toward off disease or other misfortune by the third method goety attempts were made to dispel the evildemons by conjurations and various kinds of mystical mummery thesemysterious accessories consisted mostly in muttering any number ofwords as meaningless as possible the more meaningless and the moreunintelligible were these words the more efficacious according to theassurance of jamblichus they would prove, especially when they weretaken from oriental languages for, as jamblichus says, the orientallanguages are the most ancient therefore, the most agreeable to thegods in such a manner words utterly nonsensical were drawled out atthe bedside, and, for greater security, written on tablets to be hunground the neck of the patient the magic word “abracadabra” enjoyedespecial respect to render its power certain it was written as thesistimes as it has letters, omitting the last letter each time until onlyone remained, and placing the words in such a succession as to forman equilateral triangle a tablet thus inscribed was worn around theneck of the sufferer as an amulet it may be that this wonder-workingword has arisen from the word “abraxas, ” with which the gnosticbasilides meant to designate the aggregate of the three hundred andsixty-five forms of revelation of divinity which he assumed to exist numerous other explanations are in vogue, however, with regard tothis medical, magic term compare häser, vol i , page 433 veryancient magic words which had originated in the earliest periods ofhellenism were revived thus, to banish disease, certain words wereemployed which were said to be derived from the temple of artemisin ephesus, and which read. Ασχι, κατάσχι, λίε, τετράε, δαμναμενεύς, αἲσσον the meaning of these words, according to the explanation of thepythagorean, androcydes, was. Darkness, light, earth, air, sun, truth besides, the attempt was made to obtain directly from the demons suchmagic words as were endowed with curative power for such purposessmall children were employed, in whom it was supposed that the demonspreferred to be present, and expressed themselves through their mouths such children, therefore, played a similar writing as does a medium withmodern spiritualists the senseless stuff babbled by such a child wasconsidered the immediate manifestation of a demon, and was accordinglyutilized to banish the demons which brought on disease moreover, the nonsensical practise which was carried on by the neo-platonistsby letter and word was to a certain extent accepted by professionalphysicians it had become a very common custom with physicians toapply various kinds of bombastic names to all their various plastersand ointments, powders, and pills it is necessary only to cast aglance upon the ancient pharmacopœia to find the most curious names galen mentions disapprovingly the fact that egyptian and babylonianexpressions were preferred in the nomenclature of medicine de simpl medicamentorum facult lib sic preface such were the methods with which the neo-platonists did not hesitateto treat the sick.

On the top standfour or five flowers upon short foot-stalks, with long husks. Theflowers are very like the flowers of stockgilliflowers, of a palepurplish colour, consisting of four leaves a-piece, after which comesmall pods, which contain the seed. The root is very smooth, white andshining. It does not grow downwards, but creeps along under the uppercrust of the ground, and consists of divers small round knobs settogether. Towards the top of the stalk there grows essay single leaves, by each of which comes a small cloven bulb, which when it is ripe, ifit be set in the ground, it will grow to be a root as for the other coralwort, which grows in this nation, it is morescarce than this, being a very small plant, much like crowfoot, therefore essay think it to be one of the sorts of crowfoot i know notwhere to direct you to it, therefore i shall forbear the description place the first grows in mayfield in sussex, in a wood calledhighread, and in another wood there also, called fox-holes time they flower from the latter end of april to the middle of may, and before the middle of july they are gone, and not to be found government and virtues it is under the dominion of the moon itcleanses the bladder, and provokes urine, expels gravel, and the stone;it eases pains in the sides and bowels, is excellently good for inwardwounds, especially such as are made in the breast or lungs, by takinga dram of the powder of the root every morning in wine. The same isexcellently good for ruptures, as also to stop fluxes. An ointment madeof it is exceedingly good for wounds and ulcers, for it soon dries upthe watery humours which hinder the cure costmary, or alcost, or balsam herb this is so frequently known to be an inhabitant in almost every garden, that i suppose it needless to write a description thereof time it flowers in june and july government and virtues it is under the dominion of jupiter theordinary costmary, as well as maudlin, provokes urine abundantly, and moistens the hardness of the mother. It gently purges cholerand phlegm, extenuating that which is gross, and cutting that whichis tough and glutinous, cleanses that which is foul, and hindersputrefaction and corruption. It dissolves without attraction, opensobstructions, and helps their evil effects, and it is a wonderfulhelp to all sorts of dry agues it is astringent to the stomach, andstrengthens the liver, and all the other inward writings. And taken inwhey works more effectually taken fasting in the morning, it is veryprofitable for pains in the head that are continual, and to stay, dryup, and consume all thin rheums or distillations from the head intothe stomach, and helps much to digest raw humours that are gatheredtherein it is very profitable for those that are fallen into acontinual evil disposition of the whole body, called cachexia, butespecially in the beginning of the disease it is an especial friendand helps to evil, weak and cold livers the seed is familiarly givento children for the worms, and so is the infusion of the flowersin white wine given them to the quantity of two ounces at a time;it makes an excellent salve to cleanse and heal old ulcers, beingboiled with oil of olive, and adder tongue with it, and after it isstrained, put a little wax, rosin, and turpentine, to bring it to aconvenient body cudweed, or cottonweed besides cudweed and cottonweed, it is also called chaffweed, dwarfcotton, and petty cotton descript the common cudweed rises up with one stalk essaytimes, and essaytimes with two or three, thick set on all sides with small, long and narrow whitish or woody leaves, from the middle of the stalkalmost up to the top, with every leaf stands small flowers of a dun orbrownish yellow colour, or not so yellow as others.

A weighed amount-- 3 to 5 gm -- wastransferred to a separator by means of 20 c c of ligroin, used inportions twenty c c of 10 per cent potassium iodid solution wasadded and the free iodin titrated with tenth-normal sodium thiosulphatesolution with agitation, the end point being the absence of a yellowcolor in the aqueous layer the amount of free iodin was found to be1 32 per cent the solubility of iodin in liquid petrolatum -- to determinethe solubility of iodin in liquid petrolatum, 200 c c of liquidpetrolatum-squibb said to be composed of hydrocarbons of the naphtheneseries and 200 c c of stanolind liquid paraffin said to be composedchiefly of marsh gas hydrocarbons were each treated with 5 gm ofiodin crystals the two mixtures were maintained for a week at atemperature essaywhat above that of the room and agitated occasionally each was then cooled to room temperature about 22 c , agitated fora day and then filtered the amount of iodin in the preparation madewith liquid petrolatum-squibb was found to be 1 42 per cent the iodincontent of the preparation made with stanolind liquid paraffin was 1 30per cent in view of these findings the prospective manufacturer was advised thatthe council cannot countenance a proprietary name for an unofficial, simple solution of iodin in liquid petrolatum -- from reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1917, p 87 american-made synthetic drugs-- i examination of american-made acetylsalicylic acid paul nicholas leech, ph d at the request of the council on pharmacy and chemistry, the a m a chemical laboratory has undertaken examinations of american-madesynthetic drugs the most extensively used synthetic is acetylsalicylicacid and hence an investigation of this product was deemed expedient for seventeen years acetylsalicylic acid was protected by a unitedstates patent the proprietors were not given a patent in othercountries and sold under the name “aspirin ” in february, 1917, thepatent expired, and since then a number of firms have engaged in themanufacture of acetylsalicylic acid, selling it either as such oras aspirin, modified, of course, by a distinctive firm designation during this period the former manufacturers the bayer co , new york, in past years called farbenfabriken of elberfeld co , new york havebeen extensively advertising, both to physicians and the public, thealleged superior qualities of their product the chemical examination, therefore, was concerned chiefly with tests of purity, and thecomparison of the american brands with the formerly patented product in european countries, acetylsalicylic acid200 is described in thevarious pharmacopeias as a condensation product of acetic anhydrideor acetyl chloride with salicylic acid o-hydroxybenzoic acid generally the test of identification is hydrolysis of acetylsalicylicacid and qualitative tests for acetic acid and salicylic acid forpurposes of purity the requirements are essentially that the specimenshould have a certain melting point, should show absence of salicylicacid by means of ferric chloride the manipulations for the tests arevariously described and leave no appreciable ash the two tests ofpurity most generally employed, however, are the melting point and thereaction with ferric chloride 200 unfortunately, the nondescriptive name “aspirin” has been usedextensively in european literature and has even got into europeanpharmacopeias, instead of the scientific name “acetylsalicylic acid ” melting pointthe melting point of acetylsalicylic acid has been given at varioustemperatures from 118 to 137 c 201. The british pharmacopeiadescribes the melting point at 133 to 135 c. The german pharmacopeia“about 135 c ;” the french pharmacopeia at 135 c. New and nonofficialremedies, 1917, 134 to 136 c the bayer company, in the patent trialat chicago a number of years ago, gave among the “four infallibletests” a melting point of “about 135 c ” several men have carefullydetermined the melting point in recent years emery and wright202 in1912 found that “aspirin, bayer” melted at 130 5 to 131 c in france, françois203 has determined the melting point of pure acetylsalicylicacid, which, according to his method, is 132 c when various samplesof acetylsalicylic acid were examined in this laboratory, it wasfound that the melting point of none was as high as that describedin new and nonofficial remedies or the british, french, or germanpharmacopeias when taken according to the general method of the u s pharmacopeia, vol 9, p 596 on critical observation, it may beseen that the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid is preceded andaccompanied by decomposition if the sample in the melting tube isheated from the original room temperature of the bath to 120 c , thetemperature of melting will be lower than if the bath is first heatedto 120 c and the melting-point tube then placed in the bath 204thus the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, like so thesis organiccompounds which decompose and do not melt sharply, is unsatisfactoryand cannot be taken as an “infallible test” of purity, especially whendetermined by different operators who do not give their method indetail after making a large number of melting-point determinationsof acetylsalicylic acid, alone and in parallel with other operators, it was decided to use the method described in the u s pharmacopeiamodified by first heating the bath to 120 c before attaching themelting-point tube to the thermometer 201 for reference to older literature see beilstein, ii, 1496 889 202 “the melting temperature of aspirin and salicylic acid mixtures, ”proc assoc off agr chem , 1912. Bureau of chemistry, dewritingmentof agriculture, bull 162 203 “assay of aspirin, ” j pharm chem , 15 117, no 7, 213 204 similar observations were made by emery and wright, who state:“an accurate determination of the melting temperature in this way therate of heating was such as to give a rise in temperature of about 1°per minute is rendered difficult by the fact that ‘aspirin’ decomposeson heating, as evidenced in the depression of the melting temperatureof the pure substance of about 1° for every five minutes’ heating justbelow its melting temperature ”the melting point of purified acetylsalicylic acid was found to be131 5 to 132 5 c corr 205 with the exception of one specimen, which was obviously impure, the various specimens examined meltedbetween 128 and 133 c as may be seen in the accompanying table itwould appear that this range of melting points would be more acceptableand reliable than the melting points described in various standards 205 isolated crystals attached to the walls of the melting-pointtube, awriting from the bulk acetylsalicylic acid, melted at a lowertemperature presence or absence of free salicylic acidit is generally conceded that the presence of salicylic acid in amountsmore than traces is deleterious furthermore, the amount of salicylicacid is a good index of the purity of the acetylsalicylic acid, becausethe test is so delicate that, under favorable conditions, mere tracesmay be determined and, as a rule, the better the product, the less theamount of free salicylic acid the tests appearing in various pharmacopeias for salicylic acid asan impurity in acetylsalicylic acid do not give concordant results, different workers interpreting the results differently, nor are theydetailed in such a manner as to yield maximum delicacy after experimentation, it was decided to establish a “limit” test ofapproximately 0 1 per cent free salicylic acid, when carried outaccording to the following method. 0 1 gm of the substance was placed in a dry colorimeter tube and 1 c c of alcohol, 206 previously distilled over naoh, was added after the acetylsalicylic acid had dissolved, 48 c c of water and 1 c c of fresh 0 1 per cent ferric chloride fecl₃ 6h₂o solution were added at the same time a control was run by treating 1 c c of a “standard” salicylate solution the same as above 207 if within two minutes the color given by acetylsalicylic acid is not more intense than the color given by the “standard, ” the presence of not more than 0 1 per cent free salicylic acid is proved 208 206 an excess of alcohol destroys or lessens the color when only a very minute amount of salicylic acid is present 207 the control should be made each time as standing in the air changes its tinctorial power 208 the presence of pure acetylsalicylic acid does not seem to affect the iron fe salicylic acid coloration the small amount of acetic acid was added to the sodium salicylate control solution 1 to stimulate an acidity approximating the acidity of the acetylsalicylic acid, and 2 since acetylsalicylic acid gives by hydrolysis both acetic acid and salicylic acid, it was thought advisable to add acetic acid to the standard if there is any free acetic acid in a sample of acetylsalicylic acid containing salicylic acid which i believe is generally the case when salicylic acid is present then it would modify the color given by the same amount of salicylic acid alone for this reason it was thought to be more comparable to have the standard contain a slight amount of acetic acid the solutions used were prepared as follows. Redistilled alcohol was treated with a small amount of sodium hydroxide for twenty-four hours, then again distilled the color standard was made by dissolving 0 116 gm of dried sodium salicylate in water, adding 1 minim of glacial acetic acid, and making up to 1, 000 c c each c c represents 0 1 mg of salicylic acid 209 209 this standard is essaywhat similar to the one proposed by t w thoburn and paul j hanzlik, j biol chem , 23, 175 the ferric chloride solution was made by diluting 1 c c ferric chloride fecl₃ 6h₂o test solution u s p with 99 c c of water the diluted solution must be freshly prepared each day with one exception, all of the commercial specimens examined respondedsatisfactorily to the above test showing less than 1 writing salicylicacid in 1, 000 writings acetylsalicylic acid the individual results aregiven in the accompanying table melting point and salicylic acid determinations melting point free salicylic acid brand corrected colorimetrically acetylsalicylic acid, 130 0-131 0° colored, but showing p w r 1 less than 0 1 per cent acetylsalicylic acid, 130 0-131 0° no color millikin2 acetylsalicylic acid, 129 0-130 0° no color millikin2 5-grain capsules acetylsalicylic acid, 128 0-129 0° a colored, but showing less millikin, 1 than 0 1 per cent a 5-grain capsules3 125 5-126 5° b considerably more than 0 1 per cent b acetylsalicylic acid, 131 0-132 0° no color squibb2 acetylsalicylic acid 131 0-132 0° no color aspirin, 1 monsanto acetylsalicylic acid, 130 5-131 5° colored, but showing less m c w 1 than 0 1 per cent acetylsalicylic acid, 131 5-132 5° colored, but showing less m c w 1 than 0 1 per cent acetylsalicylic acid, 131 0-132 0° colored, but showing less m c w 1 than 0 1 per cent aspirin, bayer1 before patent 131 5-132 5° no color expired aspirin, bayer1 4 after patent 128 5-129 5° colored, but showing less expired than 0 1 per cent aspirin, bayer1 4 after patent 129 5-130 5° colored, but showing less expired than 0 1 per cent aspirin, lehn 130 5-131 5° 0 1 per cent and fink2 aspirin, lehn 130 5-131 5° colored, but showing less and fink2 than 0 1 per cent aspirin, lehn 131 0-132 0° colored, but showing less and fink1 than 0 1 per cent 1 obtained on the open market 2 obtained from manufacturer 3 one-third of the capsules a contained a white powder. Two-thirds of the capsules b contained a pink powder having strong odor of acetic acid and not complying with the tests 4 not described in “new and nonofficial remedies, 1917”. The other products are other testsnew and nonofficial remedies, 1917, requires that acetylsalicylic acidshall form a clear solution with warm sodium carbonate solution. Thatsulfates, chlorides and heavy metals shall be absent. That 0 5 gm shall leave no weighable ash all the brands reported in this papercomplied with these requirements so far there has been no satisfactory quantitative estimation ofacetylsalicylic acid true, various methods have been proposed, but they are objectionable it was thought that hydrolysis ofacetylsalicylic acid and then titrating the solution by comparing thecolor formed by ferric chloride with that of a standard control mightyield interesting results, providing that the conditions were alike for this purpose 1 gm of acetylsalicylic acid was dissolved in 10 c c of alcohol and diluted to 1, 000 c c the solution was then heated at98 to 100 c for two hours, allowing the alcohol to evaporate, thenallowed to stand at room temperature 22 c for twenty-two hours after adding water sufficient to make 1, 000 c c , it was comparedcolorimetrically for salicylic acid strength the amount of hydrolysisvaried so with different samples under the same conditions, that itwas realized that an approximate assay by this method was unreliable if the assay were made under more exact conditions, quantitativecomparisons might be possible in one experiment, after sixty days thehydrolysis of the acetylsalicylic acid was 61 per cent , which is inrough agreement with the work of tsaklatos and horsh 210210 apoth ztg , 1915, p 247. Bull soc chem , 17 1915, 401 “studies of the decomposition of aspirin determined by titrametricmethods and by conductivity measurements indicate that the reaction isexceedingly complex, ” t and h chem abs , 10, 591 discussionawriting from the proposed revision of the standards for the meltingpoint and limit of salicylic acid in acetylsalicylic acid, theexamination shows that there is no appreciable difference between thevarious brands of acetylsalicylic acid examined, all of them with oneexception acetylsalicylic acid, millikin, 5-grain capsules, purchasedon the open market complying with the tests described in this paper the journal of the american medical association, in past years, hasprotested repeatedly against the monopoly given to the bayer companyfor their “aspirin, ” contending that acetylsalicylic acid aspirinwas not new, and that “aspirin, bayer” was simply a good brand ofacetylsalicylic acid which could be bought in foreign countries atmuch lower prices than here although the patent in the united stateshas expired, “aspirin, bayer” is still being retailed at higher pricesthan other products which are now enjoying the privilege of americanmanufacture mr paul bakewell, 211 in an opinion answering the warning circular ofthe bayer co in reference to the use of the word “aspirin” by firmsother than bayer, argues very ably that acetylsalicylic acid, beforethe patent was granted, meant the impure substance which was not usedtherapeutically, while “aspirin” was designated as the improved product a new article of manufacture, the writingicular acetylsalicylic acid madeunder the hoffman patent and “is the substance now known in pharmacyas aspirin” statement made by an officer of the farbenfabriken ofelberfeld co in u s circuit court, 1909 the products reportedin this paper are with the one exception the same as described inthe hoffman patent, and, in the sense of mr bakewell argument, are“aspirin ” however, it would seem better if the name acetylsalicylicacid, instead of aspirin, were used, especially by physicians intheir prescriptions because 1 it is a generic, scientific name. 2“aspirin, bayer” is sold at higher prices than other products, whereaschemically equivalent products sold under the descriptive name may bepurchased at a lower price finally, the manufacture of acetylsalicylicacid in this country is another example of the fact that americanchemists can produce the drug synthetics, and at the same time makeproducts as good as, if not better than, those of german origin 211 “in the matter of aspirin answer to the warning circular of thebayer co of june 1, 1917, ” by mr paul bakewell, monsanto chemicalworks i express my appreciation to dr w a puckner for his kindinterest -- from the journal of industrial and engineering chemistry, april, 1918 the standardization of commercial bismuth tribromphenate william rabak, ph g , sc b this work was begun in view of a request received by the council onpharmacy and chemistry from the medical section of the council ofnational defense for a report on the quality of bismuth tribromphenate, offered to the government by a certain firm in submitting a specimen of its product, “bismuth tribromphenolate, ”the firm claimed that “it is of high character, matching exactly thegerman product formerly imported into this country, ” and expressed thebelief that it would be found to conform to the standards for thispreparation in new and nonofficial remedies later a second specimenwas received from the same company, with the request that this besubstituted for that first received it was explained that the firsthad been taken from an experimental lot, and that the second, takenfrom the regular factory output, was identical with the first exceptthat it was free from odor because of the more thorough washing towhich it had been subjected accordingly, the examination which isreported below refers to the second specimen only new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, defines bismuth tribromphenate asbasis bismuth tribromphenate having the formula bi c₆h₂br₃o₂oh bi₂o₃, and it is required to yield not less than 49 5 per cent of bismuthoxid the chemical formula requires 46 2 per cent bismuth, or 51 6per cent bismuth oxid, bi₂o₃, and 49 2 per cent tribromphenate, c₆h₂br₃ oh it describes it as a “fine, yellow, nearly odorless andtasteless powder, neutral in reaction, ” and “only slightly soluble inwater, alcohol, chloroform, liquid petrolatum and vegetable oils ” itis required to yield tribromphenol to which a melting point of 95 c is assigned when decomposed by alkali and the alkali tribromphenatedecomposed by acid, the separated tribromphenol purified and dried as the new and nonofficial remedies description appeared looselydrawn-- it had been based on information furnished for the productxeroform when this, because of patent protection, was the only bismuthtribromphenate on the market-- it was decided to include in theexamination also specimens of the two brands of bismuth tribromphenateincluded in new and nonofficial remedies, namely, bismuthtribromphenate-merck merck and company and xeroform-heyden theheyden chemical works the merck specimen had been received by thecouncil from merck and company in 1915, while the heyden preparationwas obtained direct from the firm chicago branch in april, 1918 atthis time bismuth tribromphenate-merck could not be obtained from thechicago wholesale houses all three specimens were nearly odorless two of the specimens theresearch council specimen and merck products were of a lemon-yellowcolor, while the heyden preparation was of a grayish color bismuth determinationfour methods for the determination of the bismuth content of thespecimens were tried. A direct ignition to bismuth oxid -- this method was abandonedbecause of the tendency to ignite suddenly during the incineration andthe consequent loss of material b the method of the japanese pharmacopeia, third revised edition, translated by the pharmaceutical society of japan -- the methodconsists in treatment of the product with nitric acid, evaporation andsubsequent heating to bismuth oxid this method also was abandonedbecause of tendency toward sudden ignition with loss of material c the method of kollo apotheker zeitung, 1910, p 99 -- themethod consists in decomposition of the product by heating on waterbath with normal sodium hydroxid solution, with formation of solublesodium tribromphenate and insoluble bismuth hydroxid the bismuthhydroxid is collected on a filter, washed with hot water until a fewdrops of the filtrate no longer turn litmus paper blue, dried andheated to constant weight and weighed as bismuth oxid d a m a method reports a m a chem lab , 1911, p 18 -- this method consists in dissolving the product in hot, stronghydrochloric acid, diluting, filtering and precipitating by saturationwith hydrogen sulphid the bismuth sulphid obtained is dissolved innitric acid and from the solution obtained the bismuth is precipitatedby addition of an excess of ammonium hydroxid and ammonium carbonate the precipitate is collected and converted to bismuth oxid by heat the following tabulation shows the results obtained by methods “c” and“d”:table 1 -- bismuth content of bismuth tribromphenate gm of gm of per cent method salt bi₂o₃ of bi₂o₃ no 1 research council spec c 2 1312 1 1754 55 1 no 1 research council spec d 0 5151 0 2772 50 03 no 2 merck & company c 2 0287 1 2543 61 8 no 2 merck & company d 0 5064 0 2634 52 01 no 3 heyden chem works c 2 0472 1 6020 78 2 no 3 heyden chem works d 0 5227 0 3546 67 8it is seen from the tabulation that the results obtained by the kollomethod method c are higher than those by the sulphid method methodd and that duplicate determinations show a rather wide variation theresults by the sulphid method are essaywhat lower than those by thekollo method, but duplicates agree fairly well in view of the factthat the kollo method will give excessive results if impurities suchas talcum, etc , are present and in consideration of the satisfactoryresults obtained in previous work with the sulphid method, the figuresobtained by this method are taken as indicative of the bismuth contentof the specimens examined calculating the per cent of bismuth oxidobtained to bismuth bi, the following values are obtained. Bismuth tribromphenolate, research council specimen. Bismuth, 44 8 per cent bismuth tribromphenate-merck, merck & co. Bismuth, 46 6 per cent xeroform, heyden chemical works. Bismuth, 60 7 per cent total tribromphenolthe content of tribromphenate radical, c₆h₂br₃o-, was determined bythe method of kollo apotheker zeitung, 1910, p 99 it consists intitrating the filtrate of the bismuth oxid determination of kollo, described under “c” bismuth determinations, with normal hydrochloricacid, using phenolphthalein as an indicator the cubic centimetersof normal alkali consumed multiplied by the theoretical factor 0 331gives the weight of tribromphenol combined and free contained in thespecimen the following results were obtained:table 2 -- determination of total tribromphenol in bismuth tribromphenate gm tribromphenol gm of calculated from per cent salt theoretical of total taken factor tribromphenol no 1 research council spec 1 7817 1 0592 59 44 no 2 merck & co 0 9743 0 5627 57 75 no 3 heyden chem works 2 0440 0 4303 21 04 uncombined tribromphenolthe definite chemical formula given in new and nonofficial remediesfor bismuth tribromphenate and the statement that it is “only slightlysoluble in alcohol ” requires the absence of uncombinedtribromphenol, but no method for its detection or determination isprovided in the u s patent 516, 358 expired march 13, 1911, issued to brunorichard seifert, assignor to dr f von heyden, for “phenol bismuthcompound” the freedom from uncombined tribromphenol was provided for bythe direction to wash with alcohol the product obtained in the swiss pharmacopeia the permissible content of uncombinedtribromphenol is limited thus.

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It is possible for the murderer to escape without being spotted withblood, but the probability of this occurrence depends on the natureof the wound and the relative positions of the deceased and theassailant at the time the wounds were inflicted this latter fact isvery largely, if not altogether, a matter of speculation as far asthe medical evidence goes it is a popular, though false, idea thata murderer clothes must be bloody, and the police may be misled inexpecting to find them so in every instance taylor1 cites severalpaper in which either no blood was found on the murderer clothes, or only small spots wholly out of proportion to the amount of bloodwhich must have spurted or flowed from the wound absence of blood onthe prisoner clothes is often made use of by the defence to provethe prisoner innocence, whereas, besides the possibilities of havinghad no spots in the first place, the clothes may have been changedor washed before the examination was made this has occurred in morethan one murder trial taylor648 mentions the following paper inillustration:it was alleged that the absence of blood-stains on the prisonerclothing was a strong proof of his innocence in the trial ofsub-inspector montgomery for the murder of mr glasse omagh ass , july, 1873 in this case the weapon was a bill-hook which had producedcontused wounds on the head there was blood on the floor about thebody, but the wounds were not likely to have been accompanied by muchspurting yet it was assumed that the assailant in this case musthave been covered with blood much stress was laid upon the absenceof blood-stains on the first two trials the jury could not agree, owing chiefly to the absence of blood-stains, but on the third trialhe was convicted and afterward admitted that he had removed theblood-stains from the clothes with cold water also in the case ofreg v courvoisier c c c , 1840 the accused, who was tried forthe murder of lord william russel, had no blood-stains on his clothes all the vessels of the throat of the deceased had been cut to thevertebræ while he was asleep it was contended most strongly that theaccused could not possibly have committed the crime, as he had noblood-stains but after conviction he confessed that he wore no clotheswhen he committed the murder, and he only had to wash his hands and thecarving-knife he used again, in the case of reg v thompson durhamwint ass , 1863 the defence mainly relied on the absence of blood onthe prisoner clothing the wound in the throat of the wife of theaccused was five inches long, directed from left to right, dividingall the vessels and nerves of the neck the medical witness statedjustly that no such wound could be self-inflicted it was rapidlyfatal no weapon was found near the body the prisoner was convicted the same author cites the case of a prisoner on whose trousers wornsoon after the murder no blood-marks were found, but the trousersactually worn by him were found with blood upon them juries have evenacquitted the prisoner apparently only because no marks of blood werefound, though the other circumstances were explicable only on thetheory of murder it should be remembered in this connection that blood-stains may befound on the clothing of thesis, especially on the coarse clothingof working-people this may be accounted for by the occupation, flea-bites, accidental circumstances, or it may occur withoutdefinite explanation such persons may be accused of murder and yetthe blood-stains be consistent with innocence too much importanceshould not, therefore, be attached to them, even if the accused cannotsatisfactorily explain them and if he does not attempt to do so ina suspicious way that blood on the clothing even under suspiciouscircumstances may be consistent with innocence is illustrated by thecase of a suicide by cutting the throat, in 1872, cited by taylor 649in this case the son first found his father dead, and thought that hehad broken a blood-vessel he raised the body, staining his hands andclothes, then went for help at the inquest he was closely questionedas to the presence of the blood-stains, but there could be no doubtthat the case was one of suicide in general, we may say that a murderer is much more likely to escapewithout blood-stains in contused wounds, and more likely in the caseof punctured wounds than in incised wounds, for in punctured woundsthe bleeding is much less free and is less likely to spurt from thewound in the case of incised wounds he is most apt to escape withoutstains if he is behind or to the side of the victim when he inflictsthe wound in other words, when a writing of the body of the deceasedwas between the assailant and the wound inflicted furthermore, theassailant is more likely to escape without blood-stains if there is asingle wound than if there are several, and each additional wound makesit more likely that he will be spotted with blood the examination of the ground or floor and the furniture, etc , mayfurnish essay evidence as to the nature of the crime, and also helpthe witness to answer the questions which may essaytimes be asked, i e , at what spot was the victim wounded?. and where did he die?. This question is essaytimes settled by examination of the spot wherethe deceased lay and the furniture, etc , about essaytimes the flooror ground and the furniture or surrounding objects at a distance givethe requisite evidence the examination of the cracks and corners ofthe floor and furniture should not be neglected, and taylor instancesa case where the hair of a dog helped to clear up the case if thebody has not been disturbed the most blood is usually found wherethe deceased died if the victim succumbs at the spot where he waswounded, blood is found only in the immediate neighborhood, except forarterial jets, which may be as far distant as two metres the separateblood-spots of an arterial jet are circular if the jet strikes theobject perpendicularly, oval or wedge-shaped with the larger end awayfrom the body if it strikes the object obliquely if the blood-stains are more diffused and are found in other places, careful notice should be taken as to whether the different placescommunicate with one another by traces of blood if they do notcommunicate, it goes to show that the body was moved after activebleeding had ceased, that is, after death, but this indication isnot absolutely positive if traces of blood do connect the largerblood-spots, it is of interest and importance to know where thedeceased was wounded and where he died, also whether he moved orif he was moved before or after death this question is not alwayscapable of solution essay injuries exclude the possibility of activemotion stupefying contused injuries of the head or an incised woundopening a great artery are both inflicted where there is the greatesthemorrhage, and the spot where the deceased was wounded and died shouldbe identical in such paper a second large spot of blood, connectingor not with the first wound, indicates that the body has been moved but if the wound does not bleed much or rapidly, the wounded personmay fall at a distance from the spot where he was injured, and deathoccurs, as a rule, where there is the greatest amount of blood.