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If alocal analgesic is necessary, a little extract of belladonna may beincorporated with petrolatum or other ointment base the main reliance, in any event, should be to effect normal bowel movements by regulatingthe diet rather than by the use of purgatives. The use of warm waterto insure cleanliness. The avoidance of irritation, especially thatcaused by friction and secretions.

She probably had fainted;supposing her to be dead, the husband hanged her to a tree within halfan hour after the supposed death autopsy. No marks of injury. Obliquemark of cord on right side of neck. Tip of tongue between the teeth;face essaywhat livid. Right side of heart full of dark blood. Lungscongested posteriorly 62 ibid , p 4 - woman, age 38 rope close under the chin passedupward behind the ears head bent on chest large wound above clavicle under the rope was a depression made after death but no hemorrhage much blood in abdomen and a hole in the liver kidney bruised andblackened right lung torn through. Blood in pleuræ wounds weresupposed to be gunshot, but the husband confessed that he had thrust asharp solid bamboo into her body and afterward hung it up she died ofhemorrhage 63 rehm. Friedreich blät f ger med , 1883, xxxiv , pp 332-362 - man, age 73. First roughly maltreated. Afterward hung 64 tardieu. Op cit , p 125 - woman found hanging in her room circumstances indicated homicidal strangulation and that the hangingwas done to avert suspicion post-mortem examination showed the baseof the tongue ecchymosed, and ecchymosis extending up to the softpalate. Mucous membrane of pharynx congested.

Headache. Nervous and irritable. Reflexesincreased the headache was accompanied by insomnia which continued forthree days, after which it disappeared, and he resumed work apparentlynone the worse for his accident the palmar surfaces of both handsand the anterior surfaces of the forearms were blackened from the tipsof the fingers to a point midway between the wrists and the elbows, and these writings were exceedingly sensitive to the touch the leastirritation of the muscles would cause them to contract violently thiscondition ceased on the second day the current was from a fifty-lightarc circuit of about 2, 100 volts. 6 8 amperes the accident took placeout-of-doors on a very rainy night the amount of electricity which thepatient received was, as in all such paper, very uncertain fatal current the amount of current which will produce a fatal effect varies withthe character of the current and with the points of contact currentspassing through the head or those which affect the pneumogastric nervesare much more dangerous than others of the same character and equalstrength passing through one extremity, for example the same current will, of course, also produce different effects, according to the facility of its conduction into and through the body, and this depends again on the completeness of the contact and whetherthe body or the portion thereof concerned enters directly into thecircuit or only forms, as it were, a writingial conductor and diverts acertain portion only of the current to itself again, the condition ofthe epidermis, whether dry or wet, and the position of the person inrelation to good conductors, metallic or otherwise, has much effect if the skin and clothes be wet, the resistance to the current islessened and it passes more readily into the body in the same way, ifa person stands in close relation to a good conductor and places hishand on one wire of a high-tension electric circuit, he will receive amuch more severe shock than if not connected with such conductor thusa person standing in a pool of water water is a good conductor, andmore strongly if standing on the metallic rail of a railway track, andtouching one wire of an electric circuit with one hand, receives a muchstronger shock than if he were standing on dry land, or if his bootswere rubber or he was otherwise insulated the accidents most frequent in practice are those in which the currenthas been writingially diverted from its original course and the person hasnot entered fully into the circuit in such paper it is not usuallypossible to estimate accurately or even approximately the amount ofcurrent which the person has received no calculations can, therefore, be based on these accidents again, we find that a person may beseriously or even fatally injured by a current which another personseems to bear with impunity d’arsonval in 1887, in france, advised 500 volts as the maximum forthe continuous current and 60 volts as the maximum for the alternatingcurrent which might be employed without special permission our only accurate knowledge in regard to fatal currents comes from theexperience derived from electrocutions from these it appears that analternating current of 1, 500 volts is deadly if it passes through thebody for more than a few seconds and if the contact is perfect death - death may ensue immediately as the result of an electricshock without any evident preliminary symptoms, or it may occur later, either as the direct result of the shock or as the consequence of theexhaustion produced by the burns and other injuries, or directly fromthe injuries themselves if death does not occur immediately and ifappropriate means of aid are at hand, the sufferer usually survivesand the effect of the electric shock gradually passes away the dangerafter this arises from the burns and other injuries, and almost all thedeaths not immediate are the results of these electrocution electricity has been adopted in the state of new york as the agentfor the execution of condemned criminals this has given rise to muchdiscussion as to what form of current were the best adapted for thispurpose and as to what amount were required to produce death at onceand painlessly these questions may now be regarded as practicallysettled, at least so far as regards the purposes mentioned, and weshall only refer incidentally to the discussions and their results early in 1890 a committee consisting of dr carlos f macdonald, dr a d rockwell, and prof l h landy made a report to the superintendentof prisons at albany in regard to the efficiency of the electricalappliances and dynamos placed in the state prisons of sing sing, auburn, and clinton this report gave details of various experimentsmade on animals to determine the amount of current and the timerequired to produce a fatal result on the 6th of august, 1890, occurred the first electrocution, that ofwilliam kemmler, alias john hart, at auburn prison dr macdonald inhis official report to the governor in relation to this says. “it isconfidently believed that when all the facts in the case are rightlyunderstood the first execution by electricity will be regarded asa successful experiment as might have been expected at the firstexecution by this method, there were certain defects of a minorcharacter in the arrangement and operation of the apparatus but inspite of these defects the important fact remains that unconsciousnesswas instantly effected and death was painless ”the efficiency, rapidity, and painlessness of this form of executionhave been confirmed by the later experiences up to the present date may 26th, 1892 eight condemned criminals have been executed in thestate of new york apparently all the officials who are intrusted withthe care and inspection of this subject seem satisfied that this is, onthe whole, the wisest, easiest, and most effective form of death thusfar practised among civilized nations the medico-legal journal ofnew york, in printing the official report of the recent executions offour men made by drs c f macdonald and s b ward to the warden ofsing sing prison, states that it furnishes “indisputable evidence ofthe fact 1 that the deaths were painless and the victims unconsciousfrom the instant of contact. 2 that they were certain and unattendedwith any of the revolting scenes so frequently witnessed at thescaffold. 3 that the method is humane so far as inflicting physicalpain or suffering, and from all sides considered infinitely preferableto the death by hanging. And that so long as capital punishment formurder exists in new york, we need not desire to change the method ofpunishment ” these claims would seem to be thus far substantiated the value of this method of execution is now beyond doubt whenproperly performed it is rapid, painless, and not repulsive thecriminal has probably no physical sensation of pain or discomfort dueto the mode of death from the moment the first shock occurs since therapidity of the transmission of the electric current through the bodyis in these paper much greater than the rapidity of the transmissionof sensation, it seems just to conclude that no sensation from theelectricity reaches the consciousness the only distress sufferedby the criminal is the unavoidable mental suffering natural to hisposition the mechanical means employed in electrocution are practically thesame at sing sing, clinton, and auburn prisons a special room isprovided for the purpose, which should be, if possible, in thebasement with a concrete floor. This room must be of sufficient sizeto admit readily the criminal with the attendant officers, the wardenand other officials in charge or on duty at the execution, and thewitnesses for whom seats are usually provided at a little distancefrom the criminal chair, and also to allow of plenty of room for themanagement of the electrical apparatus, and a good space around thechair in which the criminal is placed the electrical plant consists ofan alternating-current dynamo and its accessories, placed wherever maybe convenient, according to the arrangements of the buildings of theinstitution, but connected by means of wires with the switch-board inthe execution-room in the execution-room also should be the voltmeter, the ammeter, and such other instruments of measurement or precision asmay be required in charge of these and of the switch-board during theexecution is the electrical expert, an official paid by the state ofnew york means of communication by electric bells or otherwise are, ofcourse, arranged between the execution-room and the engineer in chargeof the dynamo, so that the current can be produced as desired the chair in which the criminal is placed is made of stout beams of oakand is securely fastened to the floor and insulated it is perfectlyplain, with broad arms and an upright back, which latter can be tiltedbackward a little by means of a special arrangement and firmly fixed inthe desired position this is accomplished by means of a bar of woodwhich is firmly attached at one end to the lower portion of the backand runs forward thence parallel to the seat of the chair and alongsideof it. To the anterior end of this is fastened a perpendicular barrunning downward, which can be raised or lowered at will, and securelyfastened at any height as this is raised or lowered, it raises orlowers the anterior end of the horizontal beam and correspondinglylowers or raises the opposite end to which the back of the chairis attached, thus moving the latter when the anterior end of thehorizontal bar is raised the posterior end is lowered and the back ofthe chair is straightened attached to the upper portion of the back ofthe chair is a head-rest, which can be raised or lowered as desired.

It is very pliable and strong at38 c , and adheres exceedingly well to the skin, although it detacheseasily this mixture, which is easy to prepare, is inexpensive, thecost of the materials being approximately 10 cents a pound 176 the “asphalt varnish” used was obtained from remien & kuhnertcompany, chicago 177 while needless, a color resembling “ambrine” may be obtained bythe addition of coloring agents both hull and sollmann noticed that tarlike substances and meltedparaffin do not mix well this is noticeable in “ambrine, ” which cannotbe called an “elegant” preparation the difficulty may be overcome byfirst mixing hot olive oil and asphalt. The asphalt will then go intosolution it is interesting to note that the suggested formula as wellas others which were also prepared is not as plastic as the paraffinitself 178 this is also true of “ambrine ” on the other hand, themelting point of the paraffin is higher the important point, however, in compounding all paraffin preparations, is to select a proper gradeof paraffin as elaborated below 178 in a personal communication dr sollmann expressed the opinionthat the synthetic preparation is inferior to the paraffin used in theformula, basing the view on the greater plasticity of the paraffin for practical purposes, the paraffin will most probably serve as wellas the mixture, especially when it is held in place by bandages, but ibelieve that the mixture is more adhesive examination of paraffins and paraffin preparationsillustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of a fullpage magazine advertisement of “thermozine, ” the name under which“ambrine” was sold to the public the name “paraffin” generally applies to a colorless and tastelesswaxlike substance that is solid at ordinary temperature it is composedof saturated hydrocarbons, that is, they are unable to take up any morehydrogen, and thereby are quite stable. The hydrocarbons in paraffinhave the general formula of c↓{n}h↓{2n2}, ranging as high as c₂₄h₅₀ toc₂₇h₅₆ paraffin may be found in crude form in coal, from which sourcethe first paraffin candles were made it may be produced from thedistillation of brown coal, as in gerthesis, or from bituminous shale in america, it is obtained chiefly from the distillation of crudepetroleum, being in the residue after the distillation of such productsas naphtha gasoline, kerosene and the lubricating oils the residueis treated by one of a number of processes causing the unpurifiedsolid paraffin to be made available the crude paraffin is eithersold as such, or is refined paraffin or “paraffin waxes”179 aredesignated in the trade by their melting points which in the “americanstandard” is expressed in fahrenheit degrees, and as to their stateof refinement as “crude, ” “semirefined” and “fully refined” paraffin there are certain chemical and physical differences so that two refinedwaxes having the same melting point would not have the same plasticity the higher melting point varieties of paraffin are hard and tough atroom temperature. When melted, paraffin expands and forms a thin mobileliquid 179 paraffin is essaytimes spoken of as “white wax ” this isunfortunate, as “white wax” is an official name for “white beeswax, u s p ” the term “white wax” is also often applied to “chinese wax, ”which is formed from an insect living on the tree ligustrum lucidum illustration. Photographic reproduction from a booklet on “thermozine”giving the conditions in which the stuff was alleged to be “veryuseful ”the significant requirements of paraffin for surgical dressings arethat it should be solid at body temperature, at the same time havingflexibility and adhesiveness, together with a certain amount ofstrength a number of brands of paraffin are sold in the united states, so that it seemed advisable to examine essay of them and compare themwith certain paraffin-film preparations they were tested as to theirmelting points, plasticity, ductility, strength of film, etc melting point determination -- the melting point was determined bythe method of the u s pharmacopeia ix, p 596 the melting pointas obtained by this method is lower than the melting point used bymanufacturers of paraffin after conversion to fahrenheit pliability and ductility, limit temperature 180-- a little of themelted wax was poured from a teaspoon on the surface of the water atabout 40 c , in a tin pan bread mold this formed a fairly thin film the temperature of the water was then lowered by the addition of coldwater at each temperature the pliability and ductility were testedthus:180 i am indebted to dr torald sollmann for these methods pliability test -- the film, immersed in water, was doubled on itself, note being taken whether or not it broke ductility test -- the film was pulled under water, note being takenwhether it stretched on being pulled and broke with a ragged fracture;or whether it broke sharp without stretching it is desirable thatthe pliability and ductility be preserved at as low a temperature aspossible cotton films, adhesives and detachability 180-- the melted wax wasapplied as it would be for burns. Namely, a thin layer was painted onthe inner surface of the forearm with a camel hair brush, 181 atransverse strip about an inch wide being made this was covered witha very thin layer of absorbent cotton, and over this another layer ofmelted wax was painted as soon as this had cooled a little, it wascovered by a few layers of bandage and left on for at least an hour atthe end of that time, the bandage was removed the cotton film shouldbe found at the place at which it was applied, showing that it issufficiently adherent it should detach without “pulling” the skin 181 when painting a surface with a paraffin film, i found that thetemperature of the paraffin should not be too close to the meltingpoint, but several degrees above. Otherwise it does not “set” well illustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of thecarton in which “ambrine” is now sold the results of these tests are given in the accompanying table it canbe seen that nearly all the paraffins examined have properties whichwould make them useful, the notable exceptions being nos 8, 15 and16 the more satisfactory products would be those having a meltingpoint about 47 c , ductility of 30 or below, and plasticity of 28 orbelow the paraffin described in the u s pharmacopeia is not sosatisfactory, the required melting point being between 50 and 57 c the use of paraffin bandages has been suggested by fisher182 andsollmann 183 in such paper, it may very likely be that a paraffin ofhigher melting point would be more satisfactory, owing to its greaterresistance and tougher fiber 182 fisher, h e. Nonadhering surgical gauze, the journal a m a , march 25, 1916, p 939 183 sollmann, torald. Paraffin-covered bandages, the journala m a , april 21, 1917, p 1178 summary1 “ambrine” is essentially paraffin in which a small amount of fattyand asphalt-like body is incorporated. Like most secret mixtures, itscomposition varies 2 a simple formula for a paraffin film, similar in chemicalcomposition but superior in physical properties to “ambrine, ” is thatdescribed as formula 21 the superiority is due to using a grade ofparaffin that is better adapted to the purpose the cost of materialsis about 10 cents a pound 3 the properties of the paraffin used for a surgical dressing areimportant a number of different grades have been examined, in order todetermine the ones that appear most promising paraffins nos 3, 4, 10, 11 and 25 are the best in the table, and surpass “ambrine” itself 4 it is exceedingly probable that further experience will show thatfor most purposes simple paraffin will serve just as well as themixtures-- if, indeed, not better addenda reprinted from the annual report of the chemical laboratory of theamerican medical association, vol 10 1917, p 32since the foregoing was published, two other products-- “cerelene” and“stanolind surgical wax”-- were submitted to the council on pharmacy andchemistry for investigation as to their acceptability for inclusion innew and nonofficial remedies in this connection the laboratory wasrequested to examine them “cerelene” is manufactured by the holliday laboratories, pittsburgh according to the manufacturers, “cerelene” is a compound composed of84 per cent paraffin, 15 per cent myricyl palmitate and 1 per cent elemi gum as ordinarily marketed, “cerelene” contains the followingmaterials. To the beeswax is added oil of eucalyptus, u s p , 2 percent , and betanaphthol, u s p , 0 25 per cent the manufacturerfurther states that the myricyl palmitate is a purified form ofbeeswax, free from all impurities, acids, etc , which is solelymanufactured by this company and for which patents are pending theproperties described for “cerelene” were as follows. When cold, cerelene is a solid wax-like cake of a fine yellow brown color on exposure to air for long periods, the amber color darkens to essay extent it is entirely free from solids, odorless and tasteless. Does not separate or change when melted repeatedly, and cannot in the melted state be separated by fractional crystallization it is entirely neutral to indicators being perfectly free from both acids and bases tests. Melting point, u s p method, 126 f density, u s p method, 0 907 iodin value, 0 5 saponification number, 0 9 “stanolind surgical wax” is manufactured by the standard oil company ofindiana in the submission of the product to the council on pharmacyand chemistry, it was stated that the product was a specially preparedparaffin “free from dirt or other deleterious matter it hasbeen steamed and resteamed to drive out any free oil and repeatedlyfiltered ”the examination of the foregoing products yielded the figures describedin table “b ”-- from the journal a m a , may 19, 1917 the stability of iodine ointments l e warren, ph c , b s in general, the literature on the keeping qualities of iodine ointment, and on the stability of iodine if mixed with ointment bases, isconfusing the recorded evidence is often contradictory the attentionof the writer was brought to this condition by studies of severalproprietary preparations, iodex, 184 iod-izd-oil, 185 iocamfen, andiocamfen ointment 186184 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 89 185 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 106 186 rep chem lab , a m a , 1916, 9, 118 iodex was sold under the claim that it is “ an embodiment of vaporized iodine, in an organic base, reduced and standardized at 5 per cent by incorporation with a refined petroleum product ”the exact composition of iodex is a trade secret analysis showed thatit contains petrolatum-like substances and combined iodine, the latterprobably in combination with oleic acid tests for free iodine weremade in five specimens of iodex in one of these no free iodine waspresent. In the others the merest traces were found two years ago a preparation called “iod-izd-oil” was examined this wasclaimed to contain 2 per cent of free iodine in liquid petrolatum at the time of the examination the age of the preparation was notknown, but it had been obtained just prior to the analysis, and wasthought not to be very old the analysis showed that it contained butabout 0 43 per cent of iodine, all of which was in a free state thefact that all of the iodine present was in the free state appearedto indicate that iodine is relatively stable in liquid petrolatumsolutions iocamfen is a liquid composed of iodine, camphor and phenol it wasclaimed to contain 10 per cent of free iodine analysis showed thatit contained 9 3 per cent of total iodine of which 7 5 per cent was present in an uncombined state, 66 1 per cent of camphor and19 7 per cent of phenol after storing for several months a secondassay of iocamfen showed no appreciable loss in iodine content this would indicate that iodine is relatively stable in presenceof phenol and camphor, although immediately after mixing there isessay loss of free iodine the iocamfen ointment was supposed tocontain 50 per cent of iocamfen equivalent to 5 per cent of freeiodine in a lard-wax-cacaobutter base the analysis showed that theointment contained but 0 4 per cent of free iodine, the balancebeing in combination from the results of the examination, and fromcorrespondence with the manufacturers schering and glatz, it becameevident that the only plausible explanation for the loss of free iodinein the preparation of iocamfen ointment from iocamfen lay in thecombination of the free iodine with the ingredients of the ointmentbase it seems likely that the free iodine originally present iniocamfen for the most writing had gradually gone into combination with thefatty substances after the ointment had been prepared the literature was then examined to determine the consensus of opinionconcerning the stability of iodine in iodine ointment in the olderliterature the belief that iodine ointment is unstable appears to bequite general such statements as the following are typical. The ointment should be prepared only when wanted for use, for it undergoes change if kept, losing its deep, orange-brown color, and becoming pale upon its surface 187 187 u s disp , ed 19, p 1315 it is better to prepare it only as it is required for use 188 188 am disp , ed 2, p 2022 this ointment must not be dispensed unless it has recently been prepared 189 189 u s pharmacopeia, ix, p 481 in 1909 lythgoe, 190 of the massachusetts board of health laboratory, reported an examination of four samples of iodine ointment three werefound to be pure, the fourth was low in iodine experiments showedthat iodine ointment deteriorates rapidly.

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Behavior in the mouth. Homoexperiment -- chlorlyptus and to less extent chlorlyptus oil, are acidto litmus they are applied. A drop to litmus paper and this to gums b several drops directly to tongue c same to gums the reaction to litmus paper is tried from time to time results -- a applied to gums on litmus paper:chlorlyptus. Red color becomes gradually feebler and does not spread onthe paper chlorlyptus oil. Turns blue in a few minutes b dropped on tongue:chlorlyptus. Acid taste at once does not increase, but on contrary, becomes less litmus applied after ten minutes. Not acid litmus applied after five minutes. Distinctly acid c dropped on inside of cheek:chlorlyptus, 1/3 c c. After six minutes, litmus very red after ten minutes, faintly red after fifteen minutes, blue chlorlyptus oil, 1 c c after three minutes, faintly red after eight minutes, neutral conclusions -- on contact with living tissues, the acid of chlorlyptusis rapidly neutralized and absorbed the surface is neutral within ten or fifteen minutes it is therefore very improbable that the acidity is effectivelyantiseptic a comparison of chlorlyptus with dilute acetic acid shows that thechlorlyptus does not maintain the acidity even as well as 1 per cent acetic acid acetic acid chlorlyptus tongue, a drop of 5 per cent. Still neutral between five slightly acid to litmus after ten minutes.