History

I Need Help Writing A Essay


Or the powder, or the seed mixedwith the ointments the butter-bur, or petasitis descript this rises up in february, with a thick stalk about afoot high, whereon are set a i need help writing a essay few small leaves, or rather pieces, andat the top a long spiked head. Flowers of a blue or deep red colour, according to the soil where it grows, and before the stalk with theflowers have abiden a month above ground, it will be withered and gone, and blow away with the wind, and the leaves will begin to spring, which being full grown, are very large and broad, being essaywhat thinand almost round, whose thick red foot stalks above a foot long, stand towards the middle of the leaves the lower writing being dividedinto two round writings, close almost one to another, and are of a palegreen colour. And hairy underneath the root is long, and spreadsunderground, being in essay places no bigger than one finger, inothers much bigger, blackish on the outside, and whitish within, of abitter and unpleasant taste place and time they grow in low and wet grounds by rivers and watersides their flower as is said rising and decaying in february andmarch, before their leaves, which appear in april government and virtues it is under the dominion of the sun, andtherefore is a great strengthener of the heart, and clearer of thevital spirit the roots thereof are by long experience found to bevery available against the plague and pestilential fevers by provokingsweat. If the powder thereof be taken in wine, it also resists theforce of any other poison the root hereof taken with zedoary andangelica, or without them, helps the rising of the mother thedecoction of the root in wine, is singularly good for those that wheesemuch, or are short-winded it provokes urine also, and women courses, and kills the flat and broad worms in the belly the powder of the rootdoth wonderfully help to dry up the moisture of the sores that are hardto be cured, and takes away all spots and blemishes of the skin itwere well if gentlewomen would keep this root preserved, to help theirpoor neighbours it is fit the rich should help the poor, for the poorcannot help themselves the burdock they are also called personata, and loppy-major, great burdock andclod-bur it is so well known, even by the little boys, who pull offthe burs to throw and stick upon each other, that i shall spare towrite any description of it place they grow plentifully by ditches and water-sides, and by thehighways almost everywhere through this land government and virtues venus challenges this herb for her own, andby its leaf or seed you may draw the womb which way you please, eitherupwards by applying it to the crown of the head, in case it falls out;or downwards in fits of the mother, by applying it to the soles of thefeet. Or if you would stay it in its place, apply it to the navel, and that is one good way to stay the child in it the burdock leavesare cooling, moderately drying, and discussing withal, whereby it isgood for old ulcers and sores a dram of the roots taken with pinekernels, helps them that spit foul, mattery, and bloody phlegm theleaves applied to the places troubled with the shrinking of the sinewsor arteries, gives much ease the juice of the leaves, or rather theroots themselves, given to drink with old wine, doth wonderfully helpthe biting of any serpents. And the root beaten with a little salt, andlaid on the place, suddenly eases the pain thereof, and helps thosethat are bit by a mad dog the juice of the leaves being drank withhoney, provokes urine, and remedies the pain of the bladder the seedbeing drank in wine forty days together, doth wonderfully help thesciatica the leaves bruised with the white of an egg, and applied toany place burnt with fire, takes out the fire, gives sudden ease, andheals it up afterwards the decoction of them fomented on any frettingsore, or canker, stays the corroding quality, which must be afterwardsanointed with an ointment made of the same liquor, hog-grease, nitre, and vinegar boiled together the roots may be preserved withsugar, and taken fasting, or at other times, for the same purposes, andfor consumptions, the stone, and the lask the seed is much commendedto break the stone, and cause it to be expelled by urine, and is oftenused with other seeds and things to that purpose cabbages and coleworts i shall spare labour in writing a description of these, since almostevery one that can but write at all, may describe them from his ownknowledge, they being generally so well known, that descriptions arealtogether needless place they are generally planted in gardens time their flower time is towards the middle, or end of july, andthe seed is ripe in august government and virtues the cabbages or coleworts boiled gentlyin broth, and eaten, do open the body, but the second decoction dothbind the body the juice thereof drank in wine, helps those that arebitten by an adder, and the decoction of the flowers brings downwomen courses. Being taken with honey, it recovers hoarseness, orloss of the voice the often eating of them well boiled, helps thosethat are entering into a consumption the pulp of the middle ribs ofcoleworts boiled in almond milk, and made up into an electuary withhoney, being taken often, is very profitable for those that are puffyand short winded being boiled twice, an old cock boiled in the brothand drank, it helps the pains and the obstructions of the liver andspleen, and the stone in the kidneys the juice boiled with honey, anddropped into the corner of the eyes, clears the sight, by consumingany film or clouds beginning to dim it.

referto results that were obtained after treatment for from twelve totwenty-four hours and indicates that the change was slight at best andof no practical import -- from the journal a m a , oct 23, 1915, with additions iodum-miller and iod-izd-oil miller report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council adopted the following report and authorized its publication w a puckner, secretary a referee has submitted to the council the following report of thechemical laboratory of the american medical association on iodum-millerand iod-izd-oil miller iodum-miller co , kansas city, mo :the unsatisfactory statements made in regard to the composition ofiodum-miller and the far-reaching therapeutic recommendations forit induced the laboratory to make a chemical examination of thepreparation it claimed more or less directly that the preparation isentirely new and possesses novel characteristics it is asserted that “iodum-miller is made from soot iodine, which is our own product this soot iodine is soluble in water before being combined with its base c p glycerine ”no information regarding “soot iodine” is offered and an inquiry sentto the proprietors by a physician brought only the noncommittal replythat “soot iodine” “is made from resublime resublimed?. iodine by a chemical process which renders it soluble in water before being combined with its base ”iodum-miller is said to contain “active free iodine 2 2 grams per 100 c c , 10 grains per fluid ounce, 1 7% by weight ” “in addition to the active free iodine iodum-miller carries a still greater per cent of iodine in its basic combination ”according to the label, the preparation is “an iodine for external and internal use 45 drops equals 1 dr by weight each drop equals the per cent of iodine in 1 gr potas iodide ”iodum-miller is a heavy, dark liquid having an odor characteristicof ether ethyl oxid qualitative tests revealed the presence ofglycerin, free iodin, iodid and potassium the specific gravity at 25degrees was 1 284 direct titration with sodium thiosulphate solutionindicated the presence of 1 68 per cent of free iodin a determinationof the total iodin content by the hunter method indicated 3 06 percent subtraction of the amount of free iodin found from the totalamount of iodin present, gives 1 38 per cent combined iodin assumingthis to be present as potassium iodid, as appears probable from thequalitative examination and from the quantitative determination ofpotassium, 1 80 per cent potassium iodid is indicated from thisexamination it is concluded that iodum-miller is, essentially, a solution of iodin and potassium iodid in glycerin, containing1 68 per cent free iodin and 1 80 per cent potassium iodid theexamination contradicts the assumption that iodum-miller is eithernovel in principle or new moreover, accepting the firm statementthat 45 drops weigh 1 dram 60 grains the examination shows that onedrop equals not “the per cent of iodine in 1 gr potas iodide” butinstead, the per cent of iodin in only 1/20 grain potassium iodid asthe statement that “each drop equals the per cent of iodine in 1 gr potas iodide” appears on the label of the trade package, iodum-millerwould seem to be misbranded under the federal food and drugs act the recommended internal dosage of iodum-miller from 1/2 to 20 dropsis equivalent to from 1/40 to 1 grain of potassium iodid its externalefficacy in comparison with that of other iodin preparations may beestimated by comparing the respective free iodin contents, since thegermicidal power of combined iodid is negligible while iodum-millercontains 2 15 gm free iodin in 100 c c , tincture of iodin contains7 gm per 100 c c and compound solution of iodin lugol solutioncontains 5 gm free iodin in 100 gm among the advertising literature is a circular which purports to bea “certificate from kansas city testing laboratory, by roy cross, secretary ” the “certificate” attempts to prove that iodum-miller isvastly superior to the official tincture of iodin as a germicide, asserting that “in the process of dissolving tincture of iodin inwater, a very large amount of the iodin is lost by precipitation ”this is not true of the tincture of iodin which is now official, though it is true of the tincture official in former editions of thepharmacopeia the report ignores completely the widely used aqueoussolution of iodin iod-izd-oil miller is said to be an “iodine combination” made“from the same soluble soot iodine as is iodum-miller ” it is saidto “liberate free soluble iodine” when applied to the skin, mucoussurfaces, etc it is further defined as “soluble iodine combinedwith water-white hydrocarbon oil” and is said to liberate “solubleiodine 2 per cent ” while these statements suggest that iod-izd-oil miller contains the iodin-potassium iodid combination contained iniodum-miller, analysis indicated the oil to be a simple solution ofiodin in liquid petrolatum quantitative determinations indicated, not2 per cent of iodin, as claimed, but only 0 42 per cent and all ofthis was present as free iodin referee reportthe following therapeutic claims appear on the label of a bottle ofiodum-miller:“external indications “tuberculosis, pneumonia, pleurisy, cough, sore throat, pyorrhea, tonsilitis, rheumatism, spinal irritation, boils, felons or any pain periostitis, carbuncles, fistula in ano, goiter, blood poison, diseases of uterus and appendages apply full strength on cotton wrapped applicator, gonorrhea, acute or chronic in both sexes, orchitis, bubo, prostatitis, swellings, enlarged glands, etc ”“internal indications “pneumonia, tuberculosis, pleurisy, typhoid fever, syphilis, catarrh of mucous surface of alimentary canal, autotoxemia, vomiting of pregnancy, rheumatism, chronic glandular and organic affections ”the “certificate” from the kansas city testing laboratory, mentionedabove, states that iodum-miller was found to have a germicidal valuenineteen times greater than carbolic acid-- a essaywhat remarkablefinding in view of the fact that iodin dissolved by means of potassiumiodid in alcohol or water, when tried on the typhoid bacillus hasrecently been found to possess only four times the germicidal valueof carbolic acid in a solution of the same strength maben and white:chem and drug , jan 30, 1915, p 144 the “certificate” furtherstates that the test “shows available iodine as found in iodum-millerto have the greatest bactericidal power of any substance that we haveever tested that can be used medicinally ” there is no reason tobelieve that the desire to please its patrons has led the “testinglaboratory” astray from the literal truth the laboratory experiencemay be limited and the statement therefore entirely correct as faras it goes no mention, however, is made of any tests comparing thegerm-destroying power of iodum-miller with that of tincture of iodin, which contains 7 per cent free iodin, unless the casual statement that“iodum-miller sterilized the skin more quickly” than tincture ofiodin, be taken to imply such tests it is not clear, however, by whatmeans the laboratory was able to determine that there were no bacterialeft alive in the skin after application of tincture of iodin andiodum-miller. No details are given of the methods used in arriving atthis conclusion a circular says that iodum-miller “ gives the greatest bactericidal and therapeutic action, whether used internally, externally, hypodermically or intravenously ”in the light of the preceding report of the chemical laboratory of theassociation, these claims require little comment the laboratory hasshown that the free iodin content and consequently the germicidalefficiency of iodum-miller is less than half that of lugol solution, and less than a third of that of the official tincture of iodin asfor the advice to use iodum-miller internally in diseases rangingfrom pneumonia to syphilis and from typhoid to tuberculosis, in orderto be convinced of its dangerous character, it is necessary only torecall that this treatment is equivalent to the administration ofsmall doses of iodid-- from 1/40 to 1 grain of potassium iodid themystery being removed from the composition of iodum-miller, the absurdextravagance of the claims made for it becomes manifest the criticismsof the council on the recommendations for burnham soluble iodine the journal a m a , may 15, 1915, p 1673 apply in almost everywritingicular to iodum-miller unwarranted therapeutic claims are made for iodum-miller. Incorrectstatements are made with regard to its composition and that ofiod-izd-oil miller. And the application of a trade name to bothof these products is unjustifiable, since neither is original it istherefore recommended that iodum-miller and iod-izd-oil miller beheld ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies-- abstracted in thejournal a m a , oct 2, 1915 elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp “without mercury” and “with mercury” report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe tilden company, new lebanon, n y , and st louis, mo , sells“elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp without mercury” and “elixiriodo-bromide of calcium comp with mercury ” the latter is said tocontain, in addition to the ingredients of the former, 1/100 grainmercuric chlorid in each fluidram according to the label the formulaof the elixir “without mercury” is. “formula-- salts of iodine, bromine, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium with stillingia, sarsaparilla, rumex, dulcamara, lappa, taraxacum, menispermum ”a recent circular declares that the elixir contains. “ a number of the most powerful alteratives of the pharmacopeia such as chemically pure iodin, magnesium, potassium with sarsaparilla, stillingia, prickly ash, burdock, taraxacum, etc each fluidounce contains seventy-two grains of the combined salts ”the same circular also alleges that each dram of the preparationcontains.

Third, in i need help writing a essay case the physician furnishes his own medicines andthe obligation to furnish them would probably be imposed, if it was thecustom of the school or class of physicians to which the writingicularphysician belonged to do so, that the medicines are proper andsuitable as a corollary of these duties it necessarily follows, also, that the physician contracts that the instruments or appliances whichhe uses are free from taint or contagion, and are suitable and properfor the uses to which they are put upon this theory an action could bemaintained against a physician for using impure vaccine duties of patient - the patient on his writing contracts, first, togive the physician information concerning the facts and circumstancesof the case, and full opportunity to treat him properly. Second, toobey his instructions and follow his directions, and, third, to payhim the reasonable worth and value of his services the differentbranches of this contract are reciprocal the failure of either writingyto fulfil the obligation of any one of them which is imposed uponhim, would bar him of his remedies against the other writingy to recoverdamages for any breach, or any proximate result of his breach, ofsuch obligations the necessary care and attention required of thephysician in such a case are measured by the requirements of the caseand the physician duties to his other patients, modified, however, by the rule that the physician is presumed to know, at the time hetakes up the case, the condition and situation of his other patientsat that time consequently, if those who have first employed him areso situated at the time that his services for them are likely to besoon and continuously required, he cannot without making himself liablein damages undertake another case and then neglect it, but he shouldeither decline to take it, or should with the full knowledge andconsent of the patient make provision for the temporary substitutionof essay other physician, during the time that his prior obligationsengross his attention nevertheless, if the situation and condition ofthose to whom he has first contracted his services is such that he had, although he exercised due professional knowledge and skill, no reasonto apprehend that these patients would need his exclusive service, and by a sudden development, arising from those occult causes whichobtain in all serious diseases and injuries, any of his prior patientssuffer a sudden and dangerous relapse, or from an accession of new anddangerous symptoms and conditions so that he must fly to their aid, he would not be liable to another patient, to whom he had afterwardcontracted his services, for neglecting his case. Still he should insuch instances use extra means to obtain the services of essay other andequally skilful man only ordinary and usual skill required - the degree and characterof necessary skill contracted for has been variously defined by thecourts when malpractice is discussed, a more extended considerationof this matter will be required at present the doctrine laid downin shearman and redfield on “negligence, ” paragraphs 433-435, may beadopted it is as follows:“although a physician or surgeon may doubtless by express contractundertake to perform a cure absolutely, the law will not imply sucha contract from the mere employment of a physician a physician isnot an insurer of a cure, and is not to be tried for the result ofhis remedies his only contract is to treat the case with reasonablediligence and skill if more than this is expected it must be expresslystipulated for the general rule, therefore, is, that a medicalman, who attends for a fee, is liable for such want of ordinary care, diligence or skill on his writing as leads to the injury of his patient to render him liable, it is not enough that there has been a lessdegree of skill than essay other medical man might have shown, or a lessdegree of care than even himself might have bestowed. Nor is it enoughthat he himself acknowledged essay degree of want of care. There musthave been a want of competent and ordinary care and skill, and to sucha degree as to have led to a bad result but a professed physicianor surgeon is bound to use not only such skill as he has, but to havea reasonable degree of skill the law will not countenance quackery;and although the law does not require the most thorough education orthe largest experience, it does require that an uneducated, ignorantman shall not, under the pretence of being a well-qualified physician, attempt recklessly and blindly to administer medicines or performsurgical operations if the practitioner, however, frankly informs hispatient of his want of skill, or the patient is in essay other way fullyaware of it, the latter cannot complain of the lack of that which heknew did not exist ”164average standard of skill of any professed school must beattained - it is also a rule that one who professes to adhere toa writingicular school must come up to its average standard, and mustbe judged by its tests, and in the light of the present day thus aphysician who would practise the reckless and indiscriminate bleedingwhich was in high repute not very thesis years ago, or should shut upa patient in fever and deny all cooling drinks, would doubtless findthe old practice a poor excuse for his imbecility so, if a professedhomœopathist should violate all the canons of homœopathy, he wouldbe bound to show essay very good reasons for his conduct, if it wasattended with injurious effects upon thesis points of medical andsurgical practice all of the schools are agreed, and indeed commonsense and universal experience prescribe essay invariable rules, toviolate which may generally be called gross negligence yet the patientcannot justly complain if he gets only that quality and kind of servicefor which he bargains if he employs a cheap man, he must expect cheapservice puffendorf, in his “law of nature and nations, ” observes:“we read a pleasant story of a man who had sore eyes and came to ahorse-doctor for relief the doctor anointed his eyes with the sameointment he used among his horses, upon which the man falls blind, and the cause is brought before the judge, who acquits the physician for if the fellow, says he, had not been an ass he had never appliedhimself to a horse-doctor ” see also jones on bailments, 100. 1 field“lawyers’ briefs, ” sub bailments, sec 573. Musser v chase, 29 ohiost , 577. Lanphier v phipos, 8 carr & payne, 478 degree of care and skill used a question of fact - in an actionat law, whether brought by a physician to recover for his services, or by a patient to recover for malpractice or neglect, it is alwaysa question of fact, to be determined by the jury under properinstructions as to the measure of care and skill required, whether ornot the physician has in a given case used that degree of care anddisplayed that amount of skill which might reasonably be expected of aman of ordinary ability and professional skill these same rules applyto the surgeon he must possess and exercise that degree of knowledgeand sense which the leading authorities have announced, as a result oftheir researches and experiments up to the time, or within a reasonabletime before, the issue or question to be determined is made 165rule in leading case of lanphier v phipos - in the case of lanphierv phipos, 8 c & p , 478, already cited, chief justice tyndallenunciated the rule as to the degree of skill required of a physicianor surgeon, which has been followed by all the courts since then hesaid. “every person who enters into a learned profession undertakes tobring to the exercise of it a reasonable degree of care and skill hedoes not, if he is an attorney, undertake at all events to gain thecause, nor does a surgeon undertake that he will perform a cure. Nordoes the latter undertake to use the highest possible degree of skill, as there may be persons of higher education and greater advantagesthan himself. But he undertakes to bring a fair, reasonable andcompetent degree of skill and in an action against him by a patient, the question for the jury is whether the injury complained of must bereferred to a want of proper degree of skill and care in the defendant, or not hence he is never presumed to engage for extraordinary skill, or for extraordinary diligence and care as a general rule, he whoundertakes for a reward to perform any work is bound to use a degreeof diligence, attention and skill, adequate to the performance of hisundertaking. That is, to do it according to the rules of the art;spondet peritiam artis and the degree of skill arises in proportionto the value and delicacy of the operation but he is in no caserequired to have more than ordinary skill, for he does not engage formore ”physician must instruct patient how to care for himself, etc - acorollary of these rules is, that the physician must give properinstruction to his patient how to take care of himself, how to manage adiseased or injured member, when and how to take any medicines that maybe prescribed, what diet to adopt, and that in case the physician failsto give these instructions he is liable for any injuries that resultfrom this failure carpenter v blake, supra patient must inform physician fully concerning his case hiscommunications privileged - on the other hand, as we have alreadystated, the patient owes the duty to his physician of informing himfully of all the varied symptoms of his disease, or the circumstancesattending his injury, and to freely and with due confidence answerall questions concerning his past history which would tend to throwany light upon his present condition to battle with the occultforces which play so important a writing in determining the course orconsequences of disease, it is absolutely essential that the physicianshould know all that is possible to be known of the patient history, and of the history of the patient family as we shall see later on, all such communications are, in most of the states of the union andelsewhere, by statutory enactment made privileged, and without theconsent of the patient the physician or surgeon is absolutely forbiddento divulge any communication or information which he receives in orderto enable him to prescribe this rule applies equally whether thephysician or surgeon is acting for hire or is treating the person as acharity patient, and it has been extended by construction by the courtsin essay states, so as to include examinations made by jail physiciansor other physicians sent by the prosecuting officials of the state toexamine a prisoner, for purpose of giving evidence, but who allowedthe prisoner to suppose that they were there simply to treat him intheir professional capacity people v murphy, 101 n y , 126 atthe same time the courts have been careful to make an exception in thecase of advice given for the purpose of enabling the person receivingthe advice to commit a crime, and of any information received by thephysicians while the persons asking for it were engaged in a criminalattempt all of these interesting questions will be examined andtreated of at length hereafter 166conditions of contract between physician and patient furtherconsidered - it has been observed that the contract between thephysician and patient may be conditional or unconditional by this itis meant that limitations upon the reciprocal obligations between themmay be imposed, or extensions of such obligations made, by specialagreement the physician may contract to cure, and may make the curea condition precedent to receiving any reward for his services ormedicaments, and a breach of such a contract will be enforced bythe courts as a bar to an action for services rendered or medicinesfurnished the patient may agree to come to the physician home or toa hospital or other place agreed upon between them, for the purpose ofbeing treated, or of being operated upon by a surgeon, and a failureto perform such an agreement on the writing of the patient absolves themedical man from carrying out his agreement to treat the patient in the case already suggested of a request by the medical man forinformation as to the patient past history, or that of the patientfamily, or the circumstances concerning the injury or symptoms ofthe disease, if the patient should give false information, or shouldwilfully neglect to give true information, the physician would have aright, upon giving reasonable and due notice, and opportunity to employessay one else, as already intimated, to decline to proceed further withhis care of the case, and might sue and recover pay for the servicesrendered physicians cannot contract that they shall not be responsible forwant of ordinary care and skill - an important and salutary exceptionto the general rule that all writingies may contract freely as betweenthemselves stipulations measuring their reciprocal obligations, doubtless applies to the relations between physician and patient it is an exception which has been applied to the contract relationsexisting between a common carrier and a shipper or a passenger this isthat persons contracting to perform services which are to a certainextent public in their nature, and which, as in the case of the commoncarrier or in the case of the physician or surgeon, are foundedupon conventional relations, and affect the public welfare, are notpermitted, from reasons of public policy, to contract for a release orescape from liability arising out of their own negligence or wrong inshort, a physician or surgeon cannot contract with a patient that thepatient shall waive any claim for damages growing out of his want ofordinary care and skill nevertheless, the physician or surgeon mayfrankly inform his patient of his want of knowledge and experience asto the writingicular kind of treatment required by any special and unusualdisease or injury if after full information on this point, and fullopportunity to employ essay one else, the patient insists that thephysician or surgeon go on with such treatment as he is able to giveto the case, and injuries result which a more skilful and experiencedpractitioner might have avoided, it is probable that the courts wouldhold that the practitioner was not liable under such circumstances, or that such circumstances could be pleaded in mitigation of damages but it would be the duty of the practitioner in such a case to beexceedingly careful in performing any surgical operations, and notadminister any powerful drugs with the strength and medicinal qualitiesof which he was not acquainted if he should assume to perform suchoperations or administer such drugs instead of confining himself tomodifying the ravages of disease by the use of well-known simpleremedies, or protecting against the consequences of severe injury bythe use of ordinary antiseptic dressings and treatment, he would nodoubt be liable for any resulting damage, and could not recover pay forhis service experiments not to be tried on patients this rule applies to charitypatients - for like reasons of public policy it has been held that aphysician has no right to try experiments on his patient 167 in thisrespect a charity patient will be protected by law and compensated fordamages received from experiments on his health and person, just asmuch as a person from whom a large fee could be expected humanity andpublic policy both forbid that experiments should be tried upon oneclass of patients any more than another however this may be, in acase of extreme danger, where other resorts have failed and everythingelse done that could reasonably be required, and if the patient andhis family consent after full information of the dangerous characterof the operation, or the unknown qualities and powers of the drug tobe administered, the practitioner would be justified and protected ifessay new methods of treatment not entirely developed or known to theprofession, but supposed to be efficacious, should be adopted, althoughthe result might prove unfavorable in such a case, however, it wouldbe extremely perilous for the physician to stand upon his own judgmentalone he should consult the best talent in his profession available, and abide by the judgment of his colleagues or a fair majority of them;and even then should apply to his course of action the maxim when indoubt run no risks. Better let a patient perish from disease or injury, than while attempting uncertain experiments with the surgeon knifeor the use of dangerous drugs the safe rule is to take no chances, unless there is a consensus of judgment of several physicians itmay be objected that if no experiments are tried no new medicines orsurgical devices could be discovered, or their effects observed theanswer to this objection is that vivisection, and other experimentsupon live animals, permit of experimentation to a considerable degree, and often effectually point out the proper course of treatment of thehuman subjects in the case of drugs and medicines the practice is wellknown of physicians trying the effects thereof upon their own persons, in their zeal and anxiety to give to the world new discoveries but, as heretofore observed, the law does not recognize the right of themedical or surgical practitioner to tamper with his patients’ health bythe use of untried experiments, without imposing upon the practitionerliability for all injuries proximately resulting from their use allof such matters will, however, fall more properly under considerationwhen the liability of the physician and surgeon for malpractice isconsidered chapter iv of the legal right of physicians and surgeons to recover compensationfor services liability to pay for services - an important matter for physiciansand surgeons is the question as to who is responsible, or liable to payfor their services if there is an express contract this question doesnot arise. But in most instances the person performing the servicesrenders them upon call, and it is necessary for him to understand hislegal right to recover pay for services in the absence of an expresscontract person treated, and not person calling in physician, employs himand is liable - in the first place, it must be stated as a generalproposition that the person for whom the services are actuallyrendered, or upon whom the operation is performed, is bound to pay forthem, if otherwise capable in law of making contracts and incurringobligations and secondly, that one who calls a physician or surgeonto attend a patient is not presumed to have contracted to pay for theservices rendered, unless his relations with the patient are such thathe would be obligated in law to pay, even if he had not himself calledin the medical man in the first case it is presumed that the patient is liable, because hereceives the benefit of the services, and nothing less than a distinctunderstanding that he was not to pay will relieve him from thisobligation married women and infants generally not liable - where such a personis a married woman, unless the case arises in states or countrieswhere married women have been declared by statutes to be liablethe same as if single, this rule does not obtain nor is an infantpersonally liable when he is living with his parent or guardian hullv connelly, 3 mccord s c , 6. Klein v la amoreaux, 2 paigech , 419. Atchinson v bruff, 50 barb , 384. Wilcox v smith, 26barb , 341 but the contract of an infant for medicine and medicalattendance is deemed a contract for necessaries, and will be heldvalid and enforced against his estate if there is no person standingin loco parentis who can be held liable 3 barn & cress , 484.

Salicylates are useful in essay of these conditions, colchicin occasionally in a i need help writing a essay few, hexamethylenamin in none the combination is conducive to uncritical prescribing forinstance, salicylates are effective in acute articular rheumatism;hexamethylenamin and colchicin are useless. Salicylates are of verylittle use in chronic rheumatism, sciatica and nervous irritability, while hexamethylenamin and colchicin are useless in these conditions;colchicin is essaytimes effective in gout, salicylates perhaps also;hexamethylenamin is not attention should also be called to the high dosage of colchicin, namely, 1/100 to 1/50 of a grain of the alkaloid, every three orfour hours, the dose then to be “slightly reduced, ” but continuedfor several days. Or in chronic paper, 1/100 to 1/30 grain per day, continued indefinitely this dosage appears high, if a really activepreparation is used finally, the name “rheumalgine” encourages thoughtless and unscientificprescribing if a mixture is used at all, the prescriber should beconstantly reminded of its composition it is therefore recommended that rheumalgine be held in conflict withrules 6 unwarranted therapeutic claims, 8 nondescriptive name and10 unscientific composition -- from the journal a m a , june 26, 1915 gray glycerine tonic report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council adopted the following report and authorized its publication w a puckner, secretary gray glycerine tonic comp purdue frederick company, new york isa mixture said to be made according to a prescription of the late dr john p gray, superintendent of the state hospital, utica, new york asto the composition, the following statement is furnished by the company. “this preparation is a combination of glycerine, sherry wine, gentian, taraxacum and phosphoric acid with carminatives ”the label declares the presence of 11 per cent alcohol, and the doseis given at from two teaspoonfuls to a tablespoonful a study ofthe ingredients will show that, aside from the alcohol, the mixturecontains but one really active drug, gentian essentially, then, “gray glycerine tonic” is a mixture which, in addition to thenarcotic effect of the alcohol, depends on a bitter, gentian, forwhatever therapeutic action it may possess the bitters, of which gentian is a type, were once credited withthesis therapeutic virtues which time has shown they do not possess pharmacologic research has demonstrated that their utility consists instimulating the appetite through their action on the taste buds onthis account they were believed also to increase the secretion of thegastric juice by a psychic impression more recently, however, eventhis has been questioned-- by carlson, for instance these facts are fully understood, presumably, by all physicians yet, according to the advertising circular, this “tonic, ” which, for allpractical purposes, is merely a simple bitter, is good for thirty-twodiseases ranging from amenorrhea to whooping cough!. The conditions in which gray glycerine tonic is asserted to beespecially efficient are described on the label of the bottle and theoutside wrapper, in popular terms, more or less typical of “patentmedicine” exploitation, such as “catarrhal conditions, ” and “stomachderangements ” similar statements are contained in the leafletaccompanying the trade package for instance. “it is, therefore, an effective, reliable tonic in nervous exhaustion, general debility, impoverished conditions of the blood and nervous system, bright disease, diseases of the liver, disorders of the urinary organs, etc ” “it is an unexcelled restorative in that very common class of paper in which there is no positive organic disease, but the patient complains that he ‘does not feel well’ or ‘is out of sorts ’”here are essay of the claims made in other advertising matter. “all stages of bronchitis are rapidly improved by the use of gray glycerine tonic comp this remedy has a direct tonic influence upon the circulation of the respiratory mucous membrane. It relieves congestion and restores tone to weakened blood vessels ” “ improves the appetite, gives valuable aid to the digestive and absorptive processes, and reinforces cellular nutrition in ways that insure a notable gain in vitality and strength ” -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - | in gastro-intestinal catarrh | | | | -- and other afflictions of the stomach and bowels characterized | | by muscular weakness and glandular insufficiency-- there is no | | remedy more prompt and effective in its action than | | | | gray's glycerine tonic comp | | | | under its systematic administration the appetite is restored, | | the alimentary processes greatly improved, the nutrition | | promoted and every vital function throughout the body given a | | new and substantial impetus as the digestive and assimilative | | functions are restored to their normal efficiency, a notable | | increase in the restorative and recuperative powers of the body | | naturally follow | | | | the purdue frederick co | | 135 christopher street, new york city | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - mention illinois medical journal when writing to advertisers illustration. This appeared in a journal owned and controlled by thesecond largest state medical association of the country even granting that gentian may improve the appetite, how absurd itis to claim that this mixture “relieves congestion, ” “restores toneto weakened blood vessels, ” “gives aid to the absorptive processes, ”“reinforces cellular nutrition, ” or increases vitality!. Neither the composition of gray glycerine tonic nor the clinicalevidence warrants the belief that it has any therapeutic value otherthan that due to the psychic effect of the bitter drug gentian physicians who have prescribed it have done so because of theadvertising this nostrum has been kept so constantly before the eyesof medical men that they think of gray glycerine tonic when theycannot remember the official drugs that may be indicated in the case the moral is that liberal advertising will sell anything it is recommended that gray glycerine tonic comp be declared noteligible for inclusion in new and nonofficial remedies on account ofconflict with rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 editorial note -- an old practice in hospitals-- happily now practicallyobsolete-- was to have certain stock mixtures prepared in bulk amongthese there was usually a so-called tonic mixture, used in a more orless haphazard manner when nothing in writingicular seemed indicated sucha stock mixture was used in the state hospital for the insane at utica, n y , during the thesis years that dr john p gray was superintendent from the early fifties to the early eighties, although it is verydoubtful whether he originated the mixture after the death of dr gray-- so the story runs-- one of his sons, with a writingner, formed thefirm of purdue frederick company, and began the exploitation of theelder dr gray name, in connection, presumably, with this stockpreparation as indicated in the council report, gray glycerinetonic comp -- and what an absurd name!.

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It strengthens i need help writing a essay the stomach exceedingly, helpsdigestion, comforts the heart, and preserves it against faintings andswoonings. The powder of the dry roots helps the biting of mad dogsand venomous beasts, opens obstructions of the liver, and restoresan appetite for their meat to such as have lost it the herb steepedin wine, and the wine drank, refreshes such as be over-weary withtraveling, and grow lame in their joints, either by cold or evillodgings. It helps stitches, and griping pains in the sides. Is anexcellent remedy for such as are bruised by falls. It provokes urineand the terms exceedingly, therefore let it not be given to women withchild. The same is very profitable for such as are troubled with crampsand convulsions, to drink the decoction.