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Two courses i need help with homework of medical lectures bothbegun or completed within the same calendar year do not satisfy therequirement. This condition is not applicable to students who shall bein their second year in a medical college, nor to physicians practisingat the time of the passage of the act such proof is made, if required, upon affidavit, upon making the application and proof and payment ofthe fee the president of the board, if satisfied, must direct thesecretary to issue an order for examination, and when the applicantshall have passed an examination as to proficiency satisfactory to theboard, the president must grant a license to practise medicine andsurgery 1, 43 all of the examinations are conducted so that the name, school ofgraduation, and preparatory training of the applicant shall not be madeknown to the board till his examination papers have been graded anapplicant receiving a majority of the votes of the board is consideredto have passed a satisfactory examination and is entitled to a license1, 44 the board must refuse a license to an applicant radically deficient inany essential branch in case of a failure, the candidate must havethe privilege, after the expiration of one year from his rejection, ofanother examination by the board to which his application was firstmade 1, 46 a license, or a certified copy, must be filed with the clerk of thecircuit court of the county or city in which the licensee may practise;the number of the book and page containing the recorded copy must benoted in the body of license evidence - the records have the same weight as evidence that is givento the record of conveyances of land 1, 48 exceptions - the act does not apply to commissioned surgeons of theunited states army, navy, or marine hospital service, to physiciansor surgeons in actual consultation from other states, nor to personstemporarily practising under the supervision of an actual medicalpreceptor, nor to a midwife or person who may render gratuitousservices in case of emergency 1, 49, 51 penalty - practising, or attempting to practise, without a license isa misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $50 to $200 for eachoffence, with confinement in jail, in default of payment, till fineand costs are paid. A person so practising is debarred from recoveringcompensation 1, 50 fees - to secretary of board, before examination, $10 1, 45 to clerk of court, for registration, $1 1, 48 massachusetts in massachusetts there is no statute upon this subject michigan qualification - it is unlawful to practise medicine or surgery or anybranch except dentistry, without the prescribed qualifications andregistration in the office of the county clerk laws 1883, c 167, s 1 a person who was practising when the law took effect, and had beenpractising continuously for at least five years prior thereto in thestate, is deemed qualified to practise medicine after registration2, as amended 1887, c 268 a graduate of a legally authorized medical college in the state, orany of the united states, or any other country, is deemed qualified topractise medicine and surgery in all dewritingments after registration a student or undergraduate is not prohibited from practising withand under the immediate supervision of a person legally qualified topractise medicine and surgery ib a person qualified registers by filing with the county clerk of thecounty where he practises, or intends to practise, a sworn statementsetting forth, if actually engaged in practice, the length of timehe has been engaged in such continuous practice. If a graduate of amedical college, the name and location of the same, when he graduatedand how long he attended the same, and the school of medicine to whichhe belongs. If a student or undergraduate, how long he has been engagedin the study of medicine and where, and if he has attended a medicalcollege, its name and location and the length of his attendance, and when, and the name and residence of the physician under whoseinstruction he is practising, or intends to practise the statement isto be recorded by the clerk ib penalty - no person practising medicine, surgery, or midwifery cancollect pay for professional services unless at the time of renderingsuch services he was duly qualified and registered 4 advertising, or holding out to the public, as authorized to practisemedicine or surgery, when not authorized, is a misdemeanor punishablewith a fine of from $5 to $50 for each offence 7 fees - to county clerk, for recording statement, 50 cents 2 minnesota board of examiners - the governor appoints a board of medicalexaminers of nine members, no one of whom can be a member of a collegeor university having a medical dewritingment, and two of whom must behomœopathic physicians act 1887, c 9, s 1 qualification - persons commencing the practice of medicine and surgeryin any of its branches must apply to the board for a license, and atthe time and place designated by the board, or at a regular meeting, submit to an examination in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, histology, materia medica, therapeutics, preventive medicines, practice ofmedicine, surgery, obstetrics, diseases of women and children, of thenervous system, of the eye and ear, medical jurisprudence, and suchother branches as the board deems advisable, and present evidence ofhaving attended three courses of lectures of at least six months each;the examination must be scientific and practical, but of sufficientseverity to test the candidate fitness to practise medicine andsurgery when desired, the examination may be conducted in the presenceof the dean of any medical school or the president of any medicalsociety of this state after examination, the board must grant, withthe consent of at least seven members, a license to practise medicineand surgery, which may be refused or revoked for unprofessional, dishonorable, or immoral conduct. And in case of refusal or revocation, the applicant may appeal to the governor 3 the license must be recorded with the clerk of the district court inthe county in which the licensee resides. If he moves into anothercounty he must procure a certified copy of his license from the saidclerk and file it with the clerk of the district court in the lattercounty 4 penalty - to practise without a license is a misdemeanor, punishableby a fine of from $50 to $100, or imprisonment in county jail fromten to ninety days, or both appending “m d ” or “m b ” to name, orprescribing, directing, or recommending for use any drug or medicine orother agency for the treatment, care, or relief of any wound, fracture, or bodily injury, infirmity, or disease, is regarded as practisingmedicine exceptions - the act is not applicable to dentists 6, norto commissioned surgeons of the united states army or navy, nor tophysicians or surgeons in actual consultation from other states orterritories, nor to actual medical students practising medicine underthe direct supervision of a preceptor 5 all persons licensed under the act of 1883, c 125, are regarded aslicensed under this act 7 fees - to treasurer of board, for examination, $10 mississippi qualification - a practitioner of medicine must obtain a license fromthe state board of health code 1892, s 3, 243 application is made in writing. And an examination is made in anatomy, chemistry, obstetrics, materia medica, physiology, pathology, surgery, and hygiene, and if the applicant is found by the board to possesssufficient learning in those branches, and of good moral character, theboard issues a license to practise medicine, signed by each member whoapproves 3, 244 the application must state the applicant full name, place ofresidence, and post-office address, nativity and age, time spent inmedical studies, name and post-office address of the preceptor underwhom his medical studies were pursued, the courses of medical lecturesattended, the name of medical schools attended. If a graduate of amedical college, the name thereof. The time spent in a hospital, thetime spent in the practice of medicine, if any, the school or system ofpractice chosen, and references as to his personal character s 3, 245 examinations are to be conducted at the capital on the first tuesdayin april and october annually, and continue until all applicants areexamined and the examinations are approved or disapproved.

But whether with this herb or not, i know not also i have read and it seems to be essaywhat probable that the herb, being gathered as i shewed before, and the elements draw awriting from itby art of the alchymist, and after they are drawn awriting rectified, theearthly quality, still in rectifying them, added to the terra damnata as alchymists call it or terra sacratisima as essay philosopherscall it the elements so rectified are sufficient for the cure of alldiseases, the humours offending being known and the contrary elementgiven. It is an experiment worth the trying, and can do no harm the lesser celandine, usually known by the name of pilewort and fogwort i wonder what ailed the ancients to give this the name celandine, which resembles it neather in nature nor form. It acquired the name ofpilewort from its virtues, and it being no great matter where i set itdown, so i set it down at all, i humoured dr tradition so much, as toset him down here descript this celandine or pilewort which you please doth spreadthesis round pale green leaves, set on weak and trailing branches whichlie upon the ground, and are flat, smooth, and essaywhat shining, and inessay places though seldom marked with black spots, each standing on along foot-stalk, among which rise small yellow flowers, consisting ofnine or ten small narrow leaves, upon slender foot-stalks, very likeunto crowsfoot, whereunto the seed also is not unlike being thesis smallkernels like a grain of corn essaytimes twice as long as others, of awhitish colour, with fibres at the end of them place it grows for the most writing in moist corners of fields andplaces that are near water sides, yet will abide in drier ground ifthey be a little shady time it flowers betimes, about march or april, is quite gone bymay. So it cannot be found till it spring again government and virtues it is under the dominion of mars, and beholdhere another verification of the learning of the ancients, viz thatthe virtue of an herb may be known by its signature, as plainly appearsin this. For if you dig up the root of it, you shall perceive theperfect image of the disease which they commonly call the piles it iscertain by good experience, that the decoction of the leaves and rootswonderfully helps piles and hæmorrhoids, also kernels by the ears andthroat, called the king evil, or any other hard wens or tumours here another secret for my countrymen and women, a couple of themtogether.

Guinea-pig 1 died the following day, and guinea-pig 2 one hour after the injection experiment 18 -- toxic and irritant action of dichloramin-t, 0 5 per cent in chlorcozane -- one guinea-pig was used for each experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c and guinea-pig 2 with 1 c c of dichloramin-t peritoneally result. Both animals became restless immediately after the injection, and died twelve hours after of acute hemorrhagic peritonitis experiment 19 -- effect of chlorlyptus on staphylococcus suspended in salt solution and one of that solution injected into the peritoneum of the guinea-pig -- three guinea-pigs were used for the experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c of staphylococcus suspension as control guinea-pig 2 was given the same, and immediately after received 1 c c of chlorlyptus guinea-pig 3 was injected with the same amount, and chlorlyptus was injected twenty-four hours after injection results. Guinea-pig 1 was sick and weak with loss of appetite for essay days, but gradually recovered guinea-pig 2 died over night autopsy. There was a large amount of exudate in the peritoneal cavity, irritation of the intestine, and other signs of acute inflammation a moderate degree of congestion. Spleen not enlarged. Liver showed cloudy swelling and fibrinous exudate. Lungs and heart about normal except for a moderate degree of congestion but no exudate guinea-pig 3 was sick for essay days, but recovered gradually one week after experiment 20 -- effect of chlorlyptus in vivo on staphylococcus -- the experiment was conducted in the same way as in experiment 17, but 2 c c were used instead of 1 c c result.

2 name of neither of these mixtures is indicativeof its composition rule 8. 3 of exaggerated and unwarrantedtherapeutic claims rule 6, and 4 the therapeutic advice whichaccompanies the trade packages constitutes an indirect advertisement tothe public rule 4 w a puckner, secretary micajah medicated wafers formerly called “micajah medicateduterine wafers” were analyzed in the a m a chemical laboratory in1910 they were found to consist essentially of dried “burnt” alum, boric acid and borax, in approximately the following proportions. Alum, dried 59 86 per cent borax, dried 15 62 per cent boric acid 5 67 per cent water of hydration 18 85 per cent there are a number of drugs that are more or less effective in thetreatment of local lesions of mucous membranes and the skin theyare classed as astringents among these are included alum, boraxand boric acid every physician has used them to say that a waferconsists of alum, borax and boric acid inspires but little awe butthere is essaything much more mysterious and impressive in declaringthat a wafer “consists of an astringent and antiseptic base, in whichare incorporated certain medicaments which both locally and afterabsorption, contribute to the astringent, antiphlogistic, depletive, soothing and healing action of the product ” this gives the impressionthat essay powerful and almost incomprehensible factors are at work yet, after all is said and done, the substances contained in micajahmedicated wafers are just the homely old alum, boric acid and borax in addition to “micajah medicated wafers, ” micajah & co also put out“micajah suppositories for hemorrhoids ” these have been examined inthe a m a chemical laboratory and, like the “medicated wafers” havebeen found to contain alum, boric acid and borax-- and these substancespractically alone-- incorporated in cocoa butter the company claimsthat “to these have been added ammonii ichthyosulphonate, balsam ofperu, ext belladonae ” the a m a chemists report, however, that ifextract of belladonna is present at all it is in amounts too small tobe detected by the method commonly employed in the chemical examinationof alkaloidal drugs the chemists report further that while ammoniumichthyosulphonate and balsam of peru both have a decided odor and aredark in color, the suppositories have but little color and the odor ofthe cocoa butter that forms their base is not covered by these drugs;obviously, therefore, if ammonium ichthyosulphonate and balsam of peruare present at all it is in amounts utterly insufficient to exert anytherapeutic effect it would be hard to find better examples of mischievous proprietarymedicines than these two products of the micajah company “twinsof efficiency, ” they are called in an advertising pamphlet thecomposition is not stated a physician using the “twins” does soabsolutely in the dark to him they are secret preparations he isencouraged to use them in a great variety of conditions in which otherdrugs are much more useful inevitably, physicians using them will belikely to overlook, or pass over, new growths, specific infections anddiseases that require radical remedial measures in addition to misleading and exaggerated claims, there is a referenceto a report from the usual “well-known and reliable bacteriologicallaboratory ” the excerpts published from this report of an unnamedlaboratory are sufficiently vague to incriminate no one from time to time it is worth while to emphasize facts regardingproprietary medicines that while obvious are essaytimes forgotten forthis reason attention is directed to micajah uterine wafers andmicajah suppositories -- from the journal a m a , nov 29, 1919 alkalithia report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryalkalithia was introduced at a time when it was believed that theadministration of lithium salts served to remove uric acid from thesystem the product was considered by the council in 1906, and foundineligible for new and nonofficial remedies no report, however, waspublished at that time because of inquiries received, the council examined the current claimsfor alkalithia, and authorized publication of the report which appearsbelow w a puckner, secretary keasbey and mattison company effervescent alkalithia is sold with thefollowing statement of composition. “each dose or heaping teaspoonful contains 1 grain of caffeine, 10 grains each of bi-carbonates of soda and potash, and 5 grains of carbonate of lithia ”the a m a chemical laboratory reports that alkalithia is aneffervescent mixture which contains alkaline carbonates andbicarbonates together with caffein, free tartaric acid and free citricacid the major portion of the alkali carbonates and bicarbonatesis converted into citrates and tartrates when the preparation isdissolved in water-- as is done before it is taken an excess of alkaliis present, however, as the solution has an alkaline reaction each“heaping teaspoonful” which was found to be about 4 85 gm containsabout 0 044 gm of caffein the manufacturers claim 0 0648 gm perheaping teaspoonful as taken, alkalithia, therefore, representscaffein in a solution of alkali tartrate, citrate and bicarbonatecontaining free carbonic acid if it is assumed that all of thetartrate and citrate in alkalithia is converted into carbonate inthe organism, a “heaping teaspoonful” of alkalithia would representabout 2 9 gm of sodium bicarbonate this assumption is, however, notcorrect, for it is known that tartrates are not completely convertedinto carbonates in the organism according to the label on the bottle, this mixture of caffein andalkali salts is “a common sense remedy for the relief and treatmentof conditions dependent upon perverted metabolism as manifested byneuralgic, rheumatic, cardiac and renal symptoms ” wrapped with a tradepackage is a circular in which is discussed the “uric acid diathesis”as “a cause of rheumatism in its various forms, calculus, gravel andinflammation of the bladder and kidneys, asthma, hay fever, catarrh, quinsy and bronchitis, eczema, hives, itching and burning of the skin, palpitation of the heart and cold hands and feet, dizziness, mentaldepression, melancholia, neuralgia, chorea, hysteria, numbness and agreat variety of purely nervous symptoms ” the arguments for the useof alkalithia as “a safe and scientific treatment for the uric aciddiathesis” found in the circular constitute an indirect appeal to thelaity conflict with rule 4 in the circular matter sent direct to the physicians, keasbey andmattison claim that in rheumatism, alkalithia is prescribed by themedical profession more often than any other remedy the claim is madethat, “in five minutes the urine will be discolorized and analysis willshow it to be loaded with urates ” the manufacturers further assert.

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On the contrary the commissionprotested against this misrepresentation j a m a 45:1099 oct 7 1905 illustration. From the new york medical journal undaunted by this exposure of their methods, the breitenbach companylater sent out a statement of results purporting to have been obtainedby one mateo m gillen, in the treatment of infantile anemia onrandall island in new york city at the instance of the journalthe hospital records in these paper were examined, and it was foundthat the pretended report was little more than a tissue of falsehood j a m a 48:1197 april 6 1907 about two years ago the council reported that while the statementsjust referred to were no longer made, they had never been definitelyadmitted by the breitenbach company to be erroneous, and thatpepto-mangan was then being exploited to the public indirectly council reports, 1914, p 121 we reproduce an advertisement that has been appearing weekly in thenew york medical journal for several months one can only supposethat this advertisement was intended to mislead physicians, and itwould be an insult to the intelligence of the average reader toattempt any detailed discussion of it, but enough has been said toshow how misleading the statements are one should note writingicularlythe advice-- old as the nostrum business itself-- contained in theadvertisement, to prescribe an original bottle the reason for suchadvice is simple experience has shown that when original bottles aredispensed patients soon learn to buy the nostrum without consulting thephysician, for they shrewdly suspect that he knows no more about thepreparation than they, and that he gets his information from preciselythe same sources that are available to them they are obviously right in truth, the physician who prescribes pepto-mangan as a hematinicshows ignorance of the most rudimentary facts of iron therapy, and theintelligent patient soon perceives his limitations illustration. A newspaper advertisement of pepto-mangan the problem of iron therapythe investigation of the problems of iron therapy and its utilizationin the formation of hemoglobin forms one of the most brilliant chaptersin pharmacologic research, and there is no better established fact intherapeutics than that any organic or inorganic preparation of ironthat does not irritate the stomach may be employed effectively when theadministration of iron is indicated “useful drugs” contains a listof iron preparations that are suitable for all conditions which callfor iron, and the clinician may rest assured that he will never haveoccasion to go outside that list to prescribe any substitute as a matter of fact, it seems probable that the very number ofavailable iron preparations has served to cause confusion, thusaffording an opportunity for the nostrum maker to introduce hissuperfluous compounds it may be difficult at times to select thepreparation of iron best suited to the individual patient. And it isthis difficulty that has led the clinician to listen to the seductiveclaims made for the various pretended substitutes for iron oneshould approach the question of choosing the proper form of iron fortherapeutic use with the recognition of the fact that there is nosuch thing as a substitute for iron in the formation of hemoglobin, that there are no ideal forms of iron other than those found in thefoodstuffs further, the clinician cannot avoid the disadvantagesinherent in all forms of iron that he can prescribe, and he musttherefore seek that which seems best suited for the individual patient bunge estimated the amounts of iron present in various foods. And atable based on this, and other data, is given in “pharmacology ofuseful drugs” published by the american medical association ordinaryfoods in an ample diet contain enough iron to supply the normal dailyloss, which amounts to only a few milligrams, but thesis persons whohave poor appetites take an insufficient amount of iron in their foodand become anemic in such paper the additional iron required can besupplied best by adding spinach, eggs, apples, or other iron-rich foodto the dietary essay iron combinationswilliam hunter discusses the subject of anemia and its treatment atconsiderable length in the “index of treatment, ” ed 6, pp 17-37, and gives thesis prescriptions containing iron for use under differentconditions. And while it is unnecessary to reproduce all of these here, a few may be given in order to suggest suitable methods of prescribingiron when it cannot be given in sufficient amounts in the food in chlorosis hunter advises that that form of iron which experience hasshown to be least disturbing to the patient stomach should be used, and he suggests separate stomachic mixtures to be used simultaneously, not mixed with the iron itself when constipation exists-- and this is avery common accompaniment of chlorosis-- he gives the following aperientiron combination. gm or c c ℞  ferrous sulphate |25 gr iv magnesium sulphate 4| ʒ i aromatic sulphuric acid |5 ♏ vii tincture of ginger |7 ♏ x compound infusion of gentian b p q s , ad 30| ℥ ithis, constituting a single dose, is to be taken twice daily-- at11 a m and 6 p m a little compound tincture of gentian andwater may be used in place of the compound infusion of the britishpharmacopeia he modifies this essaywhat as occasion demands by usingsodium sulphate and adding sodium bicarbonate which converts thesulphate of iron into ferrous carbonate and adds 10 minims of spiritof chloroform to act as a stomachic hunter also suggests the use of pills of aloes and iron in place ofthe mixture described above, and when constipation has been corrected, the aloes may be omitted and the pill of ferrous carbonate alone maybe used for the iron hunter comment regarding this pill is, “verysatisfactory ”the same form of iron is available in the compound iron mixture, formerly official, which hunter says is exceedingly good in thiscountry the compound solution of iron and ammonium acetate, bashammixture, so called, has long enjoyed a wide reputation as causing verylittle disturbance of the stomach, and the homely tincture of ferricchlorid is probably useful in a large majority of paper in which thestomach is not especially irritable we may say with assurance that one of the forms suggested herewill suffice for practically every case in which it is necessaryto reinforce the amount of iron available in the food by essaypharmaceutical preparation if these do not satisfy your requirements, consult a really competent pharmacist and enlist his aid in devisinga mixture especially suited to your individual patient -- from thejournal a m a , dec 29, 1917 article iv cactina pilletsthis preparation may be considered briefly in view of the recentdiscussion in this series of articles of the pharmacology of thedigitalis group and the principles of treatment in cardiovasculardisease the manufacturers maintain that cactina is wholly unlikedigitalis, and that is the truth, as we shall show. But since theyclaim that it is useful in certain conditions of the heart in whichdigitalis is commonly employed by well informed clinicians, it isnecessary to consider its cardiac actions-- or its lack of them!. it isdifficult to determine just what action cactina is supposed to exert onthe heart for example, one advertisement contains the following.