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Used withhoney, it cleanses old and foul ulcers. And made into an oil, and theeyes anointed therewith, takes away the dimness and moistness it islikewise good for the pains in the sides and cramps the decoctionthereof taken for four days together, drives away and cures bothtertain and quartan agues it is also good against all diseases of thebrain, as continual head-ache, falling-sickness, melancholy, drowsinessand dullness of the spirits, convulsions and palsies a dram of theseed taken in powder purges by urine, and is good against the yellowjaundice the juice of the leaves dropped into the ears kills theworms in them the tops thereof, when they are in flowers, steepedtwenty-four hours in a draught of white wine, and drank, kills theworms in the belly stinking gladwin descript this is one of the kinds of flower-de-luce, havingdivers leaves arising from the roots, very like a flower-de-luce, butthat they are sharp-edged on both sides, and thicker in the middle, of a deeper green colour narrower and sharper pointed, and a strongill-scent, if they be bruised between the fingers in the middlerises up a reasonably strong stalk, a yard high at least, bearingthree or four flowers at the top, made essaywhat like the flowers ofthe flower-de-luce, with three upright leaves, of a dead purplishash-colour, with essay veins discoloured in them. The other three do notfall down, nor are the three other small ones so arched, nor cover thelower leaves as the flower-de-luce doth, but stand loose or asunderfrom them after they are past, there come up three square hard husks, opening wide into three writings when they are ripe, wherein lie reddishseed, turns black when it hath abiden long the root is like that ofthe flower-de-luce, but reddish on the outside, and whitish within, very sharp and hot in the taste, of as evil a scent as the leaves place this grows as well in upland grounds, as in moist places, woods, and shadowy places by the sea-side in thesis places of this land, and is usually nursed up in gardens time it flowers not until july, and the seed is ripe in august orseptember, yet the husks after they are ripe, opening themselves, willhold their seed with them for two or three months, and not shed them government and virtues it is supposed to be under the dominion ofsaturn it is used by thesis country people to purge corrupt phlegm andcholer, which they do by drinking the decoction of the roots. And essayto make it more gentle, do but infuse the sliced roots in ale. And essaytake the leaves, which serve well for the weaker stomach. The juicehereof put up, or snuffed up the nose, causes sneezing, and draws fromthe head much corruption.

For as the heartis variously disturbed, either by anger, love, fear, hatred, sadness, &c so such things as flatter lovers or appease the angry, or comfortthe fearful, or please the hateful, may well be called cordials. Forthe heart, seeing it is placed in the middle between the brain and theliver, is wrought upon by reason, as well as by digestion, yet these, because they are not medicines, are beside my present scope and although it is true, that mirth, love, &c are actions, or motionsof the mind, not of the body. Yet thesis have been induced to think suchaffections may be wrought in the body by medicines the heart is chiefly afflicted by too much heat, by poison, andby stinking vapours, and these are remedied by the second sort ofcordials, and indeed chiefly belong to our present scope according to these three afflictions, viz 1 excessive heat 2 poison 3 melancholy vapours are three kinds of remedies which succour the afflicted heart such as 1 by their cooling nature mitigate the heat of fevers 2 resist poison 3 cherish the vital spirits when they languish all these are called cordials 1 such as cool the heart in fevers, yet is not every thing thatcooleth cordial, for lead is colder than gold, yet is not lead cordialas gold is, essay hold it cordial by a hidden quality, others by reason 2 such as resist poison. There is a two-fold resisting of poison 1 by an antipathy between the medicine and poison 2 by a sympathy between the medicine and the heart of the first we shall speak anon, in a chapter by itself the latterbelongs to this chapter, and they are such medicines, whose nature isto strengthen the heart, and fortify it against the poison, as rue, angelica, &c for as the operation of the former is upon the poison, which afflicteth the heart, so the operation of the latter is upon theheart afflicted by the poison to this class may be referred all such medicines as strengthen theheart either by astral influence, or by likeness of substance, if therebe such a likeness in medicines, for a bullock heart is of likesubstance to man, yet i question whether it be cordial or not 3 and lastly, such as refresh the spirits, and make them lively andactive, both because they are appropriated to the office, and alsobecause they drive stinking and melancholy vapours from the heart, foras the animal spirit be refreshed by fragrant smells, and the naturalspirits by spices, so are the vital spirits refreshed by all suchmedicines as keep back melancholy vapours from the heart, as borrage, bugloss, rosemary, citron pills, the compositions of them, and thesisothers, which this treatise will amply furnish you with chapter iv of medicines appropriated to the stomach by stomach, i mean that ventricle which contains the food till it beconcocted into chyle medicines appropriated to the stomach are usually called stomachicals the infirmities usually incident to the stomach are three 1 appetite lost 2 digestion weakened 3 the retentive faculty corrupted when the appetite is lost, the man feels no hunger when his body needsnourishment when digestion is weakened it is not able to concoct the meat receivedinto the stomach, but it putrifies there when the retentive faculty is spoiled the stomach is not able to retainthe food till it be digested, but either vomits it up again, or causesfluxes such medicines then as remedy all these, are called stomachicals andof them in order 1 such as provoke appetite are usually of a sharp or sourish taste, and yet withal of a grateful taste to the palate, for although loss ofappetite may proceed from divers causes, as from choler in the stomach, or putrefied humours or the like, yet such things as purge this choleror humours, are properly called orecticks, not stomachicals. Theformer strengthen appetite after these are expelled 2 such medicines help digestion as strengthen the stomach, either byconvenient heat, or aromatic viz spicy faculty, by hidden property, or congruity of nature 3 the retentive faculty of the stomach is corrected by bindingmedicines, yet not by all binding medicines neither, for essay of themare adverse to the stomach, but by such binding medicines as areappropriated to the stomach for the use of these use 1 use not such medicines as provoke appetite before you havecleansed the stomach of what hinders it use 2 such medicines as help digestion, give them a good time beforemeat that so they may pass to the bottom of the stomach, for thedigestive faculty lies there, before the food come into it use 3 such as strengthen the retentive faculty, give them a littlebefore meat, if to stay fluxes, a little after meat, if to stayvomiting chapter v of medicines appropriated to the liver be pleased to take these under the name of hepatics, for that is theusual name physicians give them, and these also are of three sorts 1 essay the liver is delighted in 2 others strengthen it 3 others help its vices the palate is the seat of taste, and its office is to judge what foodis agreeable to the stomach, and what not, by that is both the qualityand quantity of food for the stomach discerned. The very same officethe meseraik veins perform to the liver essaytimes such food pleases the palate which the liver likes not butnot often and therefore the meseraik veins refuse it, and that isthe reason essay few men fancy such food as makes them sick after theeating thereof 1 the liver is delighted exceedingly with sweet things, draws themgreedily, and digests them as swiftly, and that is the reason honey isso soon turned into choler 2 such medicines strengthen the liver, as being appropriated to itvery gently bind, for seeing the office of the liver is to concoct, it needs essay adstriction, that so both the heat and the humour to beconcocted may be stayed, that so the one slip not away, nor the otherbe scattered yet do not hepatical medicines require so great a binding faculty asstomachicals do, because the passages of the stomach are more openthan those of the liver by which it either takes in chyle, or sendsout blood to the rest of the body, therefore medicines that are verybinding are hurtful to the liver, and either cause obstructions, orhinder the distribution of the blood, or both and thus much for the liver, the office of which is to concoct chyle, which is a white substance the stomach digests the food into intoblood, and distributes it, by the veins, to every writing of the body, whereby the body is nourished, and decaying flesh restored chapter vi of medicines appropriated to the spleen in the breeding of blood, are three excrements most conspicuous, viz urine, choler, and melancholy the proper seat of choler is in the gall the urine passeth down to the reins or kidneys, which is all one the spleen takes the thickest or melancholy blood to itself this excrement of blood is twofold. For either by excessive heat, itis addust, and this is that the latins call atra bilis. Or else itis thick and earthly of itself, and this properly is called melancholyhumour hence then is the nature of splenical medicines to be found out, andby these two is the spleen usually afflicted for atra bilis, i knownot what distinct english name to give it thesis times causes madness, and pure melancholy causeth obstructions of the bowels, and tumours, whereby the concoction of the blood is vitiated, and dropsies thesistimes follow medicines then peculiar to the spleen must needs be twofold also, essayappropriated to atra bilis, others to pure melancholy. But of purgingeither of them, i shall omit till i come to treat of purging in achapter by itself 1 such medicines are splenical, which by cooling and moistening temperatra bilis.

And those persons who desiredto become licensed who were not in practice were likewise required toobtain similar licenses or certificates and file the same a diplomaof a chartered school or medical college was given the same effect as alicense issued by the censors recent legislation in new york state - the whole matter, however, of licensing physicians to practise has, in the state of new york, been recently regulated by chapter 468, laws of 1889, and 499 of 1890, which have reference to the qualifications of persons becoming medicalstudents, and chapter 507 of 1890, which gives to the regents of theuniversity of the state of new york power to select boards of examinersfrom persons nominated by each of the three state medical societies, viz , the new york state medical society, homœopathic medical society, and eclectic medical society these boards prepare questions which areto be approved by the state board of regents. Examinations are heldin different writings of the state upon these questions, the examinationpapers are certified to that one of these boards of examiners whichthe student may elect, and that board in turn certifies whether ornot the examination has been successfully undergone. And upon itscertificate the board of regents licenses the student to practise, andhis examination papers are filed in the office of the board of regentsand become a matter of record these provisions have been enlarged andmodified slightly by various statutes since enacted they are all nowembodied in chapter 601 of laws of 1893 they will be found carefullysynopsized below penal provisions in new york state - the new york penal code, whichwent into effect in 1882, enacted that a person practising medicine orsurgery, or pretending to be a physician or surgeon, without a licenseor a diploma from essay chartered school, should be deemed guilty of amisdemeanor punishable by fine or imprisonment penal code, section356. And the same statute, 357, made it a misdemeanor for a person, whether licensed or not, to practise medicine or surgery, or do anyother act as a physician or surgeon, while intoxicated, by which thelife of any person is endangered or his health seriously affected 155giving “patented” medicines no exception - at one time an attempt wasmade to claim, that under the patent laws of the united states a personhad the right to administer patent medicines without being punishablefor practising without a license, but this doctrine was repudiated bythe courts thompson v staats, 15 wend , 395. Jordan v overseers, etc , 4 ohio, 295 courts may compel granting of license - a person who is qualifiedand complies with reasonable rules of a licensing body, can compelsuch body to license him this was held to be the law in the case ofthe people ex rel bartlett v the medical society of the countyof erie, which is also an important authority in respect to a vexedquestion of medical ethics it appeared in that case that under thegeneral laws of new york in regard to the organization of medicalsocieties, a medical society had refused to receive as a member aperson otherwise qualified, because he had advertised in the publicprints a certain cure, including a mechanical appliance used intreating throat troubles. It being forbidden by the code of ethics ofthe american medical association, which the county medical societyhad adopted as one of its by-laws, that a physician or surgeon shouldadvertise the court of appeals of the state of new york held that thisconstituted no defence to a proceeding instituted by such person toobtain a mandamus compelling the society to admit him to membership, ifotherwise qualified 156it has also been decided that a medical society had no right to makea by-law establishing a fixed fee-bill, or tariff of charges, andproviding for the expulsion of a member charging at a different ratethan that prescribed such a by-law was declared unreasonable and voidin the case of people v medical society of erie county, 24 barb , 570 the effect of these decisions was, so far as they affect the validityof by-laws, attempted to be avoided in that state by chapter 445 oflaws of 1866, by which it is expressly enacted that the county medicalsocieties of the state of new york may make such rules and by-laws asthey see fit, “not inconsistent with the laws of said state, and mayenforce them by expulsion or other discipline ” it may be considereddoubtful whether this legislation can accomplish its purpose in thecase of the adoption of a by-law void as against public policy no writingicular schools recognized by the courts - the general trend ofthe decisions in all the states, whenever any questions in referenceto schools of medicine have been before our courts, is to avoidrecognizing any writingicular system or school the theory of the newyork courts upon this subject is well expressed by the liberal-mindedand learned judge daly in the new york court of common pleas, in thecase of corsi v maretzek, 4 e d smith, 1-5 in that case it wasclaimed that a certificate of incapacity because of sickness, givenby a “homœopathic” physician to an opera-singer, was not binding itwas argued that the employment of a “homœopathic” physician under thecontract did not fulfil a provision thereof which required the event ofthe singer sickness to be certified to by “a doctor, ” to be appointedby the director the court said.

For phlegm, turbith;for watery humours, scammony. But if more forcible to bind, use theunripe quinces, with roses and acacia, hypocistis, and essay torrifiedrhubarb to take the crude juice of quinces, is held a preservativeagainst the force of deadly poison. For it hath been found mostcertainly true, that the very smell of a quince hath taken away allthe strength of the poison of white hellebore if there be need of anyoutwardly binding and cooling of hot fluxes, the oil of quinces, orother medicines that may be made thereof, are very available to anointthe belly or other writings therewith. It likewise strengthens the stomachand belly, and the sinews that are loosened by sharp humours falling onthem, and restrains immoderate sweatings the muscilage taken from theseeds of quinces, and boiled in a little water, is very good to coolthe heat and heal the sore breasts of women the same, with a littlesugar, is good to lenify the harshness and hoarseness of the throat, and roughness of the tongue the cotton or down of quinces boiled andapplied to plague sores, heals them up. And laid as a plaister, madeup with wax, it brings hair to them that are bald, and keeps it fromfalling, if it be ready to shed raddish, or horse-raddish the garden raddish is so well known, that it needs no description descript the horse-raddish hath its first leaves, that rise beforewinter, about a foot and a half long, very much cut in or torn on theedges into thesis writings, of a dark green colour, with a great rib in themiddle. After these have been up a while, others follow, which aregreater, rougher, broader and longer, whole and not divided at first, but only essaywhat rougher dented about the edges. The stalks when itbears flowers which is seldom is great, rising up with essay fewlesser leaves thereon, to three or four feet high, spreading at the topthesis small branches of whitish flowers, made of four leaves a-piece;after which come small pods, like those of shepherd purse, but seldomwith any seed in them the root is great, long, white and rugged, shooting up divers heads of leaves, which may be writinged for increase, but it doth not creep in the ground, nor run above ground, and is of astrong, sharp, and bitter taste almost like mustard place it is found wild in essay places, but is chiefly planted ingardens, and joys in moist and shadowy places time it seldom flowers, but when it doth, it is in july government and virtues they are both under mars the juice ofhorse-raddish given to drink, is held to be very effectual for thescurvy it kills the worms in children, being drank, and also laid uponthe belly the root bruised and laid to the place grieved with thesciatica, joint-ache, or the hard swellings of the liver and spleen, doth wonderfully help them all the distilled water of the herb androot is more familiar to be taken with a little sugar for all thepurposes aforesaid garden raddishes are in wantonness by the gentry eaten as a sallad, butthey breed but scurvy humours in the stomach, and corrupt the blood, and then send for a physician as fast as you can. This is one causewhich makes the owners of such nice palates so unhealthful. Yet forsuch as are troubled with the gravel, stone, or stoppage of urine, theyare good physic, if the body be strong that takes them. You may makethe juice of the roots into a syrup if you please, for that use. Theypurge by urine exceedingly ragwort it is called also st james’-wort, and stagger-wort, and stammer-wort, and segrum descript the greater common ragwort hath thesis large and long, darkgreen leaves lying on the ground, very much rent and torn on thesides in thesis places. From among which rise up essaytimes but one, andessaytimes two or three square or crested blackish or brownish stalks, three or four feet high, essaytimes branched, bearing divers such-likeleaves upon them, at several distances upon the top, where it branchesforth into thesis stalks bearing yellow flowers, consisting of diversleaves, set as a pale or border, with a dark yellow thrum in themiddle, which do abide a great while, but at last are turned into down, and with the small blackish grey seed, are carried away with the wind the root is made of thesis fibres, whereby it is firmly fastened into theground, and abides thesis years there is another sort thereof differs from the former only in this, that it rises not so high. The leaves are not so finely jagged, nor ofso dark a green colour, but rather essaywhat whitish, soft and woolly, and the flowers usually paler place they grow, both of them, wild in pastures, and untilledgrounds in thesis places, and oftentimes both in one field time they flower in june and july, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues ragwort is under the command of dame venus, and cleanses, digests, and discusses the decoction of the herb is goodto wash the mouth or throat that hath ulcers or sores therein. And forswellings, hardness, or imposthumes, for it thoroughly cleanses andheals them. As also the quinsy, and the king evil it helps to staycatarrhs, thin rheums, and defluxions from the head into the eyes, nose, or lungs the juice is found by experience to be singularly goodto heal green wounds, and to cleanse and heal all old and filthy ulcersin the privities, and in other writings of the body, as also inward woundsand ulcers. Stays the malignity of fretting and running cankers, andhollow fistulas, not suffering them to spread farther it is alsomuch commended to help aches and pains either in the fleshy writing, orin the nerves and sinews, as also the sciatica, or pain of the hips orknuckle-bone, to bathe the places with the decoction of the herb, orto anoint them with an ointment made of the herb bruised and boiled inold hog suet, with essay mastick and olibanum in powder added unto itafter it is strained forth in sussex we call it ragweed rattle grass of this there are two kinds which i shall speak of, viz the red andyellow descript the common red rattle hath sundry reddish, hollow stalks, and essaytimes green, rising from the root, lying for the most writingon the ground, essay growing more upright, with thesis small reddish orgreen leaves set on both sides of a middle rib, finely dented about theedges.

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Jour physiol 30:400, 1904 secretin is oxidized readily if left standing uncovered for a summerday, the preparation will be inactive 51 even if kept in theice-chest no other precaution being taken, its activity is lost ina very few days sunlight undoubtedly hastens the oxidative process if care is taken as to sterility, however, and the i need help to write an essay secretin is kept inthe ice-chest, well stoppered and in a dark flask, it will retain itsactivity for several weeks dixon and hamill51 claimed that secretin disappears quantitatively onpassage through a berkefeld filter at 5 mm pressure lalou, 62 usinghigher pressure, was unable to confirm the finding, but obtained amarked decrease in activity our results are in accord with those oflalou 62 launoy. Arch internat de physiol 3:62, 1906 morel andterroine. Compt rend soc de biol 67:36, 1909 zunz. Arch internat de physiol 8:181, 1909 lalou.