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Slices of wheat bread soaked in red rose water, andapplied to the eyes that are hot, red, and inflamed, or blood-shotten, helps them hot bread applied for an hour, at times, for three daystogether, perfectly heals the kernels in the throat, commonly calledthe king evil the flour of wheat mixed with the juice of henbane, stays the flux of humours to the joints, being laid thereon the saidmeal boiled in vinegar, helps the shrinking of the sinews, saith pliny;and mixed with vinegar, and boiled together, heals all freckles, spotsand pimples on the face wheat flour, mixed with the yolk of an egg, honey, and turpentine, doth draw, cleanse and heal any boil, plague, sore, or foul ulcer the bran of wheat meal steeped in sharp vinegar, and then bound in a linen cloth, and rubbed on those places that havethe scurf, morphew, scabs or leprosy, will take them away, the bodybeing first well purged and prepared the decoction of the bran ofwheat or i need help on writing an essay barley, is of good use to bathe those places that are burstenby a rupture. And the said bran boiled in good vinegar, and appliedto swollen breasts, helps them, and stays all inflamations it helpsalso the biting of vipers which i take to be no other than our englishadder and all other venomous creatures the leaves of wheat mealapplied with essay salt, take away hardness of the skin, warts, and hardknots in the flesh wafers put in water, and drank, stays the laskand bloody flux, and are profitably used both inwardly and outwardlyfor the ruptures in children boiled in water unto a thick jelly, andtaken, it stays spitting of blood. And boiled with mint and butter, ithelps the hoarseness of the throat the willow tree these are so well known that they need no description i shalltherefore only shew you the virtues therof government and virtues the moon owns it both the leaves, bark, and the seed, are used to stanch bleeding of wounds, and at mouth andnose, spitting of blood, and other fluxes of blood in man or woman, and to stay vomiting, and provocation thereunto, if the decoction ofthem in wine be drank it helps also to stay thin, hot, sharp, saltdistillations from the head upon the lungs, causing a consumption theleaves bruised with essay pepper, and drank in wine, helps much the windcholic the leaves bruised and boiled in wine, and drank, stays theheat of lust in man or woman, and quite extinguishes it, if it be longused. The seed also is of the same effect water that is gathered fromthe willow, when it flowers, the bark being slit, and a vessel fittingto receive it, is very good for redness and dimness of sight, or filmsthat grow over the eyes, and stay the rheums that fall into them. Toprovoke urine, being stopped, if it be drank. To clear the face andskin from spots and discolourings galen saith, the flowers have anadmirable faculty in drying up humours, being a medicine without anysharpness or corrosion. You may boil them in white wine, and drink asmuch as you will, so you drink not yourself drunk the bark works thesame effect, if used in the same manner, and the tree hath always abark upon it, though not always flowers.

And the i need help on writing an essay leaves chewed in the mouth eases thetooth-ache, and these virtues being put together, shew the herb to bedrying and binding achilles is supposed to be the first that left thevirtues of this herb to posterity, having learned them of this masterchiron, the centaur. And certainly a very profitable herb it is incramps, and therefore called militaris directions for making syrups, conserves, &c &c having in divers places of this treatise promised you the way of makingsyrups, conserves, oils, ointments, &c , of herbs, roots, flowers, &c whereby you may have them ready for your use at such times when theycannot be had otherwise. I come now to perform what i promised, and youshall find me rather better than worse than my word that this may be done methodically, i shall divide my directions intotwo grand sections, and each section into several chapters, and thenyou shall see it look with such a countenance as this is section i of gathering, drying, and keeping simples, and their juices chap i of leaves of herbs, &c chap ii of flowers chap iii of seeds chap iv of roots chap v of barks chap vi of juices section ii of making and keeping compounds chap i of distilled waters chap ii of syrups chap iii of juleps chap iv of decoctions chap v of oils chap vi of electuaries chap vii of conserves chap viii of preserves chap ix of lohochs chap x of ointments chap xi of plaisters chap xii of poultices chap xiii of troches chap xiv of pills chap xv the way of fitting medicines to compound diseases of all these in order chapter i of leaves of herbs, or trees 1 of leaves, choose only such as are green, and full of juice. Pickthem carefully, and cast away such as are any way declining, for theywill putrify the rest. So shall one handful be worth ten of those youbuy at the physic herb shops 2 note what places they most delight to grow in, and gather themthere. For betony that grows in the shade, is far better than thatwhich grows in the sun, because it delights in the shade. So also suchherbs as delight to grow near the water, shall be gathered near it, though happily you may find essay of them upon dry ground. The treatisewill inform you where every herb delights to grow 3 the leaves of such herbs as run up to seed, are not so good whenthey are in flower as before essay few excepted, the leaves of whichare seldom or never used in such paper, if through ignorance they werenot known, or through negligence forgotten, you had better take the topand the flowers, then the leaf 4 dry them well in the sun, and not in the shade, as the saying ofphysicians is.

Also the wounded edges often pit on pressure with depressed fracture, on the other hand, i need help on writing an essay the edge is at or about thelevel of the rest of the skull. It is sharper, more irregular, and lessevenly circular contusions and the resulting hematoma may occasionallyend by suppurating, but this event is rare contusions and contusedwounds may occasionally show the marks of a weapon, indicating thatthey were inflicted by another also the position of the injury willindicate its origin, whether it is accidental or inflicted by another, for the former would not naturally occur on the vertex unless the fallwas from a considerable height another result of injuries to the head, especially of contusions andcontused wounds, is fracture of the skull this may be simple orcompound, depressed or not, etc fractures are serious inasmuch asthey imply a degree of violence which may do damage to the brain the fracture itself, especially if properly treated, affords a goodprognosis, irrespective of any brain lesion one variety of fracture ofthe skull offers an exception to this favorable prognosis, and that isfractures of the base of the skull these may be fatal directly frominjury of the vital centres at the base of the brain or soon fatal fromhemorrhage in these writings or the fatal result may be secondary to aninflammation or meningitis which good treatment is often unable toprevent it should not be considered that these fractures are uniformlyfatal, for quite a considerable proportion recover fracture of thebase usually occurs as the result of a fall the injured person mayland on the feet or buttocks, and yet receive a fracture of the base ofthe skull, the force of the fall being transmitted through the spine tothe base of the skull fracture of the base of the skull usually occursfrom an injury to the vault, not by contre coup, but by extensionof a fissure found higher up in the skull this extension takes placein the same meridian line of the skull with that of the force whichproduced the fracture, and in this way the base of the skull isfractured in different writings according to the point and direction ofthe application of the force thus in case the force compresses theskull antero-posteriorly the fracture will pass antero-posteriorlytoward the base from the front or the back, whichever received the blow see fig 13 fractures of the vault of the skull occasionally occuropposite to the point struck. This may occur by contre coup, but notalways so, as not infrequently in such rare paper a close examinationmay reveal an extension of a fissure from the point injured to theopposite pole of the skull the shape and rarely the size of a fractureof the skull, especially if punctured in character, may show the shapeand more rarely the size of the instrument or object which producedit awriting from fracture of the base, the prognosis in fracture of theskull is serious, mainly on account of the danger of inflammation, which is greater in compound fractures, and also on account of the moreremote danger of irritation from depressed fragments causing epilepsy, insanity, etc , at a later period illustration. Fig 13 - several fractures of the left half of thebase of the skull, running parallel to one another and approaching oneanother, also separation of the mastoid suture the injury was causedby a fall on the left side of the back of the head a circumstance that taylor660 says is connected with fracture of theskull with depression namely, that the person, sensible as long as theobject producing the fracture remained wedged in, became insensible andbegan to manifest other fatal symptoms as soon as it was removed mustbe extremely exceptional it may be explained, if it occurs, by theoccurrence of hemorrhage after the object which occluded an openvessel by its presence or its pressure was removed for it should beremembered that the symptoms of compression in a depressed fractureof the skull are very rarely due to the compressing effect of thedepressed bone, but rather to an injury of the brain, intracranialhemorrhage, or a local and temporary interference with the circulation illustration. Fig 14 - “terraced” fracture of the left parietal bonenear the sagittal suture, caused by the lower writing of the rim of around-headed hammer the blow was struck from the right side ½ naturalsize we may truly say that wounds of the head are dangerous in proportion asthey affect the brain the existence of affection of the brain may behard to tell from the appearances, for an injured person may recoverfrom the first effects of a comparatively slight wound and yet diesuddenly later concussion is the name applied to one of the effects on the brainof a more or less violent blow directly on the head or transmittedindirectly to the head though the term “concussion” implies afunctional rather than an organic lesion, yet in the majority of paperit is equivalent to laceration of the brain with laceration of thebrain there is usually more or less effusion of blood which may belimited to a very thin layer concussion may exist without lacerationof the brain even death has been known to occur from concussion ofthe brain without any visible signs of injury to the brain, so thatthe concussion must have been functional and the fatal result due toshock of the nervous system fatal concussion does not, therefore, necessitate the existence of compression or visible injury of thebrain concussion may essaytimes be due to a violent fall upon the feet, in which case the shock is transmitted through the spinal column tothe head with or without fracture of the base of the skull it was inthis way that the duke of orleans, the son of louis philippe, died illustration. Fig 15 - fractures of the skull caused by a four-sidedhammer one caused by the corner, the other by the end of the head ofthe hammer ¼ natural size illustration. Fig 16 - four-sided fracture caused by a hatchet-shapedinstrument, the edges formed by depression of the broken outer table ofthe skull the symptoms of concussion show all degrees of severity thus theinjured person may become confused and giddy with or without falling, he may become pallid and nauseated and may vomit, but after a shortperiod he recovers gradually illustration. Fig 17 - fracture of parietal bone with depression, caused by the blow of an axe with a more severe injury, with which there is generally essaylaceration of the brain, the injured person falls and lies quietand relaxed, apparently unconscious, though often he can be writinglyroused paralysis and anæsthesia are absent the heart is feeble andfluttering, the skin cold and clammy the pupils, as a rule, reactto light, but otherwise vary considerably urine and fæces may bepassed involuntarily as he begins to regain consciousness, vomitingusually occurs consciousness usually returns within twenty-four orforty-eight hours, when headache and indisposition to exertion arecomplained of, and this may last for a long time occasionally thesymptoms instead of abating increase, and coma supervenes, oftenindicating meningitis, encephalitis, or intracranial hemorrhage inother paper the person may die almost immediately on the spot where hefell, while in still others apparent recovery takes place and deathoccurs later either suddenly or after a reappearance of symptoms in such paper, abscess of the brain may occur and be the cause ofthe fatal result these abscesses are the result of the injury, whichmay be almost anything from a compound fracture to a slight contusionnot leaving any scar the abscess may occur within a week661 or notuntil after months or years this interval of apparent recovery maylead to the false supposition that death was not due to the injury, but to essay intervening cause it is well to bear in mind that abouthalf of the paper of abscess of the brain are not traumatic a largemajority of these are due to suppuration in the middle ear, a few toseptic diseases or tuberculosis the situation of the abscess oftendistinguishes between the traumatic and non-traumatic varieties thetraumatic variety is usually found beneath the injury or essaytimesdirectly opposite, where the brain is injured by a kind of focussingof the radiated effects of the blow the paper of abscess of the braindue to ear disease are usually found in the temporal lobe of the brainlying over the position of the ear or in the cerebellum behind it the uncertainty of the nature and the extent of the cerebral injuryin so-called contusion of the brain renders it necessary to be verycareful in giving a prognosis any injury should be consideredserious which has produced unconsciousness, for such an injury mayproduce enough laceration of the brain to render serious dangerpossible or even probable we have seen that as a rule the symptomsof concussion come on immediately, but it is possible that symptomsat first so slight as to escape notice may become serious in a fewhours or days a gradual hemorrhage may essaytimes account for this the knowledge of certain acts performed or a conversation held at thelast moment before the injury may be retained after recovery fromconcussion of the brain this is not necessarily the case, for insteadof remembering up to the moment of the injury, the injured person mayremember only up to a certain time shortly before, or a writing and noteverything may be remembered illustration. Fig 18 - wounds of the vault of the cranium caused byartillery side-arms, followed by death shortly after the diagnosis of concussion of the brain from alcoholism isessaytimes a matter of medico-legal interest or importance concussionmay be so slight as to simulate intoxication the history often clearsthe case up the history of a blow or a fall or the presence of marksof violence on the head indicates concussion, though the blow or fallmay not have caused the symptoms, which may be due to alcoholism theodor of the breath may indicate alcoholism, but here too we may haveboth present and the concussion may be responsible for the symptoms or again the alcohol may have been given as a heart stimulant afterthe accident this combination often occurs if there is no odor inthe breath, the presumption is in favor of concussion as mistakes arestill not infrequently made in diagnosis, those paper in which thereis any ground for doubt should be carefully watched for developments in general, the existence of concussion is more often overlooked thanthe coexisting alcoholism, so that if there is any doubt in a givencase it should be treated as one of cerebral injury the injury whichcauses the concussion in such paper is often due to the alcoholism wemay be able to verify this supposition if the injury is such as wouldbe likely to be caused by a fall there may be nothing found in thebrain after death to distinguish between concussion and alcoholism abruise on the head only indicates a probability of concussion, for thebruise and alcoholism may both be present, the former perhaps due tothe latter the presence of alcohol in the stomach would indicate theexistence of alcoholism another effect of an injury which has caused concussion of the brainis an extravasation or effusion of blood extravasation of bloodin or on the brain is one of the commonest causes of death from injuryto the head it may occur with or without marks of external injury aperson suffering from such an extravasation of blood may recover fromthe first effects of the injury, and at a varying time afterward thesymptoms may return and increase so as to result fatally in such acase the opening of the bleeding vessel may have become plugged untilessay exertion, emotion, or excitement on the writing of the injured personhas loosened the plug a hemorrhage may have ceased from writingialsyncope and return with a stronger heart action due perhaps to theadministration of alcohol this effusion may occur on the surface ofthe brain in connection with a superficial laceration of the brain orjust beneath or outside the dura mater and not involving the braindirectly the latter paper are almost always due to the effects ofviolence, though there is at least one case of apparently spontaneousrupture of the middle meningeal artery the violence which causesa rupture of the branches of this artery may be so slight as toleave no bruise or so severe as to cause fracture of the skull themost important symptom of such extradural hemorrhage is a period ofconsciousness after recovery from the first effects of the injury, then stupor may appear and deepen into coma a subdural hemorrhage maycause almost the same symptoms, though the injury is usually such ashas produced a depressed fracture this hemorrhage is most often dueto the rupture of a number of small vessels under the fracture, thoughif one larger vessel is ruptured it is most often the middle cerebral a thin layer of hemorrhage in connection with a superficial lacerationof the brain is of frequent occurrence with or without the other twoforms of intracranial hemorrhage if the brain is lacerated we may haveconvulsions in addition to other symptoms death occurring during orsoon after a prize-fight may occur from essay of the above classes ofintracranial extravasations it may be questioned whether the blows ora fall caused the hemorrhage it is generally due to a fall in suchpaper, but may be due to blows, but the guilt is the same unless thefall was accidental as the result of severe traumatism the vessels ofthe interior of the cerebrum may be ruptured or hemorrhage may occurinto the ventricles of the brain in such paper the symptoms willresemble those of ordinary apoplexy, only the cause is different fromthe latter and the injury is usually so severe as to leave no doubt asto the existence of a traumatism the following question may arise inpaper of intracranial hemorrhage and especially in the latter class ofsuch paper, i e , in cerebral hemorrhage:was the extravasation of blood due to disease or violence?. it maybe alleged in defence that the hemorrhage was the natural resultof disease where the hemorrhage is extradural or subdural or inconnection with a superficial laceration of the brain, the cause isalmost always traumatic we have referred to one case of extraduralhemorrhage from spontaneous rupture of the middle meningealartery 662 subdural hemorrhage may occur from pachymeningitishæmorrhagica interna, but this condition is readily diagnosed onpost-mortem examination and often with considerable certainty duringlife a history of alcoholism, headache, impaired intellect, unsteadygait, occasional losses of consciousness, stupor increasing to coma, etc , indicates such a condition it is in paper of cerebral hemorrhage that there is the most difficultyin discriminating between that due to disease and that due to injury it may be alleged that the hemorrhage was from diseased vessels, orthat the effects of a blow, which cannot be denied, were aggravated bydisease of the cerebral vessels or by excitement due to intoxication orpassion cerebral hemorrhage from disease is rare before 40 years ofage, except in alcoholics when the hemorrhage is due to disease theblood-vessels are diseased the most frequent site of such hemorrhagesis the course of the lenticulo-striate artery in the ganglia of thebase or the white substance of the centrum ovale when injury is the cause of the hemorrhage it is usually found beneaththe point injured or directly opposite to this external signs of theblow are generally visible if it be severe enough to cause a cerebralhemorrhage the vessels may be perfectly healthy and the victim quiteyoung if the hemorrhage is due to an injury, also the ruptured vesselsmay be plainly torn the most difficult paper are those where thereis the history of an injury and at the same time such a condition ofdisease of the cerebral vessels, etc , as would account for spontaneoushemorrhage where the injury was slight in the case of alcoholics oraged people the medical witness should be especially careful in statingthat a cerebral hemorrhage was due to the injury then, too, in the actof falling from the occurrence of a cerebral hemorrhage due to diseasethe head may be injured and show marks of violence it should be bornein mind that an injury to the head may be inflicted when disease of thebrain, vessels, or membranes already exists in such a case a slightblow might cause extensive hemorrhage, but as that which acceleratescauses, death, even though it might sooner or later have occurred inthe same manner without injury, is due to the injury inflicted from the above considerations we see that spontaneous cerebralhemorrhage and that due to disease are not always easily distinguishedfrom that due to violence in severe injuries the structure of thebrain is plainly bruised, etc , but the greatest difficulty exists inpaper of slight violence where arteritis of the cerebral blood-vesselscoexists the spontaneous extravasation of blood in or upon the brainfrom excitement does not usually occur except with diseased vessels, old age, or alcoholism it is rare, therefore, in the young andhealthy if there is any doubt as to the origin of the hemorrhage, themedical witness should state the cause most probable in his judgment taylor663 supposes the case of a man excited by passion, alcohol, or both, who becomes insensible and dies after being struck a blow soslight that it would not have affected a healthy person if examinationreveals a quantity of blood effused into the substance of the brain, there can be little doubt in the mind of the medical man that theexcitement was the principal cause of the effusion on the other hand, if a severe blow or a violent fall on the head had been received in apersonal conflict with another and it is found that death was due to aneffusion of blood upon the surface, there can be little doubt in themind of the medical examiner that death was due to the blow, whichwould satisfactorily account for the conditions found without referenceto coexisting excitement, etc in fact, in all paper where a questionis raised as to the cause of the hemorrhage, it is most important toconsider whether the violence was not sufficient to account for thehemorrhage without the coexistence of disease or excitement it isalso most important to bear in mind that after severe injuries, asafter a fall, causing extensive fracture of the skull, followed or notwith extravasation of blood, the injured person may walk about and dieessay distance from the place of the accident and where no chance fora similar accident exists in this way the suspicion of murder may beoccasioned, as illustrated in the following case cited by taylor:664a man was accused of the murder of his companion, who was found dead ina stable with fracture of the temporal bone which had caused rupture ofthe middle meningeal artery the accused stated that the deceased hadbeen injured by falling from his horse the day before after the fall, however, the deceased had gone into a public-house, where he remainedessay time drinking before returning to the stable the extravasationhad here taken place gradually, as is characteristic of hemorrhage fromthe middle meningeal artery, and perhaps the excitement due to thedrinking had influenced it the date of an effusion of blood may essaytimes be a matter ofimportance in determining whether a given extravasation of blood in oron the brain was caused by a recent blow or had existed previously thecolor and consistence of these effusions indicate whether they are oldor recent. The precise date we cannot state, but the information wecan give is often all that is required the color of recent effusionsis red, which changes after essay days to a chocolate or brown, whichgenerally turns to an ochre color see plate i this latter colormay be met with from twelve to twenty-five days after the injury theconsistence of the coagula also becomes firmer with age, and as thecoagula become firmer they are more or less laminated and the expressedlymph may lie between the laminæ or around the coagula illustration. Medical jurisprudence plate i extravasations in several portions of the arachnoid, with hemorrhagesin neighboring portions of the brain death in four days cerebral abscess epilepsy, paresis death 3¼ years after the injury recent and old cerebral effusions on account of the thesis layers of the brain coverings, a rough diagramof the coverings as given by taylor1 may be of much use to themedical expert in illustrating his evidence so as to make it clear tothe court see fig 19 wounds of the brain vary very widely in their immediate resultsaccording to the writing of the brain injured thus essaytimes a slightwound of the brain may be instantly fatal and often a severe wound inanother writing is not so extensive wounds may occur especially in thefrontal lobes with remarkably slight disturbance if a person with awound of the brain survives the first effects of the injury the dangerof inflammation remains this danger may not be removed for a longtime, for the inflammation may develop very slowly, not showing itselffor from three to ten weeks or even later thus taylor665 citesthe case of a child who was accidentally shot through the brain thesymptoms of inflammation did not appear until the twenty-sixth day anddeath occurred on the twenty-ninth day illustration. Fig 19 - diagramatic representation of the skull andmembranes of the brain for exhibition in court a, skull with outerand inner tables and diploë. B, dura mater. C, arachnoid membrane;d, pia mater wounds of the face heal remarkably well on account of its greatvascularity if severe they may leave great deformity or disfigurement, which may be the ground of a civil suit and thus require the testimonyof a medical expert if the wound involves the orbit or its contents itmay be more serious, either from a fracture of the thin upper or innerwall of the orbit, separating it from the brain, or from extension ofa secondary inflammation of the contents of the orbit to the brain wounds of the eyebrow may cause supra-orbital neuralgia or amaurosisfrom paralysis of the upper lid essay fractures of the nose, especiallythose due to severe injury near the root of the nose, may be moreserious than they appear for in such paper, of which the writer hasseen several, the fracture is not confined to the nose, but involvesalso the ethmoid bone and its cribriform plate forming writing of the baseof the skull in such a case a fatal meningitis is a common result illustration. Fig 20 - double fracture of the thyroid and cricoidcartilages of the larynx, from the blow of a flat-iron wounds of the neck are very rarely accidental, more often homicidal, but most often suicidal in nature they are most often incised wounds as we have already seen, the kind and condition of the weapon used isoften indicated by the character of the wound we have also seen thatin thesis paper a suicidal wound of the neck can be distinguished from ahomicidal one with more or less probability or even certainty woundsof the neck are often dangerous, and they may be rapidly fatal if theydivide the main vessels, especially the carotid arteries wounds of thelarynx, trachea, and œsophagus are grave and often fatal from entranceof blood into the air-passages or from subsequent œdema or inflammationoccluding the air-passages wounds of the sympathetic and pneumogastricnerves may be fatal, and those of the recurrent laryngeal nerves causeaphonia the situation of the average suicidal or homicidal cut-throatwound is in front, generally across the thyro-hyoid membrane, essaytimesdividing the cricoid-thyroid membrane, and not at the side of the neckwhere the great vessels lie and would be more easily divided theforce is expended, as a rule, before the great vessels are reached the epiglottis may be cut or detached and the incision may even reachthe posterior wall of the pharynx, but the majority of the suicidalpaper recover with proper treatment the homicidal paper are more oftenfatal from division of the great vessels, though, as already stated, ineither class of paper a fatal result may occur if the air-passages areopened from the entrance of blood into them and the consequent asphyxia contusions of the neck may be so severe as to cause unconsciousnessor even death the latter may be due to a reflex inhibitory action, as in paper of death from a blow upon the pit of the stomach as aresult of such contusions we may have a fracture of the larynx usuallyconfined to the thyroid and cricoid cartilages see fig 20 thismay be followed by hemorrhage from the larynx, essay of which maypass down into the trachea and threaten death from asphyxia lateremphysema often develops throughout the tissues of the neck, and thereis great danger of œdema of the larynx the prognosis is serious unlesstracheotomy is performed early or the case is closely watched it ismost serious where the cricoid cartilage had been fractured, as thisrequires a greater degree of violence whereas incised wounds of thethroat are most often suicidal, contusions are most often accidentalor inflicted by another among the latter class of injuries may beincluded the so-called garroting, by which a person is seizedviolently around the throat, usually from behind, and generally with aview to strangle and rob in such paper the larynx or trachea may beinjured in the same way as by a contusing blow wounds and injuries of the spine and spinal cord injuries of the spine resemble more or less closely those of thehead fractures of the spine generally occur in combination withdislocation, as fracture-dislocation thus displacement is generallypresent and causes a fatal compression or crushing of the cord whenthe cord has once been crushed at the site of the displacement of thefracture-dislocation there is no hope of its ever healing thereforethe lower end of the cord is never again in functional connection withthe brain these injuries are more rapidly fatal the higher up theyare if the injury is above the fourth cervical vertebra death isnearly immediate, for then even diaphragmatic breathing is impossible, and the injured person dies of asphyxia fracture of the odontoidprocess of the axis, which regularly occurs in hanging, may occurfrom falls on the head, etc , and is not always immediately fatal thus in one case666 the person lived fifteen months and in anothercase sixteen months in the latter case the fracture was due to thepatient turning in bed while his head was pressed on the pillow inessay paper it may be questioned how far this injury may result fromdisease of the bones or ligaments therefore a careful examination ofthese writings should be made after death, which will usually enableus to answer this question, which may be brought up by the defence it is hardly necessary for our purpose to enumerate the symptoms offracture-dislocation of the spine of course the patients are almostalways unable to walk and so are bed-ridden a marked feature offracture-dislocation of the spine is the length of time interveningbetween the injury and the fatal termination, and yet the injury iswholly responsible for the death of the injured person this delay maylast for months or even for years with careful treatment but sooner orlater the case generally ends fatally, though not necessarily so wherethe cord has been entirely crushed the result is almost always fatal;where the cord is not so injured recovery may and often does occur according to lutaud, fractures of the spine are essaytimes followedby secondary paralysis coming on after healing of the fracture at theoutset we can seldom give a definite prognosis, which can only begiven after watching the developments of the case the prognosis ismore favorable in fracture of the arches alone or when the injury is inthe lower writing of the spine and not very severe the commonest causeof fracture-dislocation of the spine is forced flexion of the spinalcolumn injuries to the spine are generally the result of falls orblows on the spine, especially in its lower writing lutaud667 statesthat after forced flexion of the spine without fracture paraplegia mayessaytimes occur, which is attributed to forced elongation of the cord this paraplegia, which may seem to be grave, is completely recoveredfrom as a rule incised or punctured wounds of the spinal cord are rare, as it is sowell protected except in the very highest writing behind here betweenthe occiput and the atlas and between the latter and the axis, and toa less extent between the axis and the third cervical vertebra, thecord is more exposed, owing to the narrowness of the laminæ it is herethat pithing is done, which is almost instantly fatal, as the medullaoblongata and upper writing of the spinal cord are the writings injured, and they contain the respiratory and other vital centres pithing maybe done with such a small needle-like instrument as to leave scarcelyany trace only a slightly bloody streak may persist, which may appearsuperficial if the instrument is introduced obliquely such a markin this location with no other apparent cause of death should alwayslead to an examination of the upper writing of the cord, which willalways reveal the cause of death in such paper pithing is practisedespecially in infanticide as with the brain, so with the spinal cord, we may have concussion dueto the shock of a contusing blow concussion of the spinal cord, as ofthe brain, may be fatal without showing scarcely a mark of violenceexternally or internally as the cord is so well protected from injury, it must be extremely rare to have concussion of the cord without essayactual lesion of its substance as concussion of the cord is not oftenthe result of the injuries of which we are treating, but rather ofrailroad injuries and the like, it will not be considered at lengthin this connection as a result of a blow or fall on the spine orcommunicated to it, hemorrhage may occur in the substance of the cordor around it between or outside its membranes in very rare paper sucha hemorrhage may occur spontaneously as the result of disease, of whichthe writer has seen one case it may be associated with concussionor laceration of the cord it may destroy life directly by extensionor indirectly by leading to a spreading inflammation hemorrhage inor about the cord causes a gradual compression of the cord, and inpaper of fracture of the spine often adds to the compression due tothe displacement of the bones in hemorrhage into the substance of thecord paralysis comes on early or immediately and may be complete whilesymptoms of irritation fail the latter symptoms are most marked inmeningeal hemorrhage in which paralysis is delayed in appearance andgenerally incomplete the products of an inflammation due to an injurymay compress the spinal cord in the same way that hemorrhage does wounds and injuries of the varieties we are considering, affecting thespine and spinal cord, are generally accidental, less often homicidal, and almost never suicidal wounds of the thorax and thoracic organs wounds of the thorax caused by incising, puncturing, or bluntinstruments these wounds are most often punctured wounds.

"you're not a german " the man answered saying. "no, sir. I am a dane " "well, what are you doing here?. " was the next question the dane, jensen, told him he was from the wolf and was working here on the igotz mendi, and that there were american and british prisoners on board, including essay women and children after completing his rounds, the danish officer went on deck and told lieutenant lagoni that he was ready, and calling him aside, told him what he had found out lieutenant lagoni then gave orders to disable the wireless plant and told rose that the tug could not assist him off the beach, and that at the end of twenty-four hours the vessel would be interned providing she was still under german flag, and advised him to land any prisoners he had mendi"igotz mendi" ashore on the danish coast taken the morning we landed, february 26th, 1918 lifeboatlife boat leaving the beach for the stranded "igotz mendi" of course during all this talk we prisoners knew nothing at all of what was going on, and when we saw the danish officers leaving we came to the conclusion that our case was lost, and as there was an armed sentry pacing back and forth in front of the two doors leading from the cabin to the deck, it looked black indeed, and i for one felt very, very disappointed the strain was beginning to tell on my wife again. So we both lay down on the bunk with our clothes on and listened to rose on the bridge, ringing the telegraph and working his engines in a vain attempt to get his vessel off the beach as i lay there thinking, i could not but pity rose, realising how he must have felt just imagine what his feelings must have been on realising that after spending fifteen months on a raiding and mine laying cruise, and always evading his enemies, he had run his vessel aground almost at the gates of gerthesis, and in place of receiving the iron cross first class, there was the possibility of his facing court martial on his arrival home, provided of course he was lucky enough to escape internment thinking this i fell asleep and at 6:30 a m of february 25th shall i ever forget the date?. i was awakened by one of the german seamen named "hans" knocking at my door and saying. "kapitaine, kapitaine, wake up and get ready to go ashore in the boats " i'll bet we broke all speed records getting on deck rose asked me to get into the life-saving boat first, as the danish crew could not speak english, and then i could help the balance as they came down the ladder i got juanita firmly on my back and climbed down into the boat there was a large sea running and as the igotz mendi was stationary on the bottom and the life-boat was riding on the seas, one moment it would be even with my feet and in another would be fifteen feet below the idea was to jump at that instant the boat was even with me this was easy enough with myself and wife, who understood such things and had had previous experience, but to the balance of the passengers it was hard to make them let go at the right time. They all having a tendency to hang on until the boat had started to go down again then, if they should let go, the drop was so great that the men in the life-boat could not hold them when they tried to catch them in essay paper it was necessary absolutely to tear the passengers off the ladder by main force however, we finally got all the women, children and men into the boat and we started for the beach when we got into the breakers and the seas washed clean over us, thesis thought it would be a case of swim or drown, not reckoning on the kind of life-boat we were in or on the class of men that manned it i have seen various life-crews at drill and i spent a season on the beach at cape nome, where everything is surf work, but these old danes, averaging fifty years of age and the living caricatures of that great soap advertisement, "life buoy soap, " familiar to all the reading public, were in a class by themselves on entering the breakers, they dropped a kedge anchor with a long line on it, and literally slacked the boat through a gigantic comber, one of those curling ones, just commencing to break, would rush upon us. Up would go the stern of the boat and just at the instant that i would expect her to go end for end, the old "sinbad" tending the anchor line would check her and in another instant we would rush for the beach, just as the kanakas ride the surf on a board at honolulu when we finally grounded the men from the beach ran out and seized the women, the balance then ran the boat higher up the beach the natives must have thought that we were a bunch of raving maniacs, the way we carried on, getting our feet on good "terra firma" again we danced, we shouted, and cheered, and made damn fools of ourselves generally. But to my mind the situation warranted it what a fitting climax to an adventure of this kind eight months a prisoner on a teuton raider, and set free at the very gates of gerthesis, at the eleventh hour and fifty-ninth minute it is hard to realise just what this meant to us all possibly the very lives of my wife and kiddie, as i feel sure that they could not have stood much more, and at the best, there was from one to a possible five years' being buried alive in a german internment camp, and living under the conditions that i know to exist in that country we were taken to the nearby lighthouse, where the keepers and their families did everything possible for us, drying our clothes and giving us hot coffee to warm ourselves about midday we went into skagen, two miles distant, and separated, going to various hotels my family and i put up at the sailors' home and were excellently taken care of by our host, mr borg hansen i wish to go on record here as saying that at no place that i have ever been in have i met a more whole-souled, more hospitable or more likable class of people in my life than these danish people of the little town of skagen i met people there who were the quintessence of courtesy and hospitality.

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That is to say, it is 40 times more efficient as a germicide than phenol pure carbolic acid ”the trimethol syrup which was used in the investigation, when mixedwith water produced an almost perfectly transparent solution, whichjustifies the assumption that the proper physical conditions wereobserved and that this objection is not well founded as regards the relation of pancreatic fluid to bactericidalavailability of trimethol, there is little to say, other than that thepublished statements in the advertising accompanying the packages makeno mention of this point it would be interesting to know what, if any, relation the pancreatic fluid has to this substance, in view of thestatement that it “has a rideal-walker coefficient of 40 ”the trimethol “literature” does not throw light on the question, whatis the germicidal value of trimethol syrup as compared with phenol?. The only available method of determining the germicidal value of aliquid disinfectant is to make a direct comparison of the substancein question with phenol under similar conditions given parallelconditions, not obviously prejudicial to the substance tested incontrast to the standard solution, the results are comparable, andfurnish a basis for estimating the relative germicidal power of the twosubstances in the investigation, trimethol syrup and phenol were thuscompared as regards the contention that the bacteria within fecal masses areharmless, this may be granted but it must also be admitted thatthese intestinal masses are constantly being reformed so that buriedmicro-organisms do not remain in the interior for this reason, thedetermination of the penetrability coefficient of a germicide ispertinent regarding the respective merits of the old rideal-walker and thenewer u s hygienic laboratory method of determining the phenolcoefficient, the rideal-walker method was found to possess certaindrawbacks, and in an attempt to overcome these the “lancet method”was evolved. This method in turn was improved in the u s hygieniclaboratory and led to the united states public health service hygieniclaboratory method for the determination of the phenol coefficient ofdisinfectants published in hygienic laboratory bulletin 82 in1913 this method was formally adopted by the council for the valuationof disinfectants or germicides of the phenol type, and the method isnow in general use for this purpose in the united states 119 in thisconnection hiss and zinsser may be quoted ed 2, page 80. “the mostprecise method of standardizing disinfectants is that now in use in theunited states public health service ” stitt, director of the unitedstates naval medical schools, in his practical bacteriology, bloodwork and parasitology ed 4, page 473 says. “in the united statesdisinfectants are rated according to the hygienic laboratory phenolcoefficient ”119 those who are interested in the relative merits of therideal-walker, the lancet and the hygienic laboratory methods forthe valuation of disinfectants, should read the following. Methodof standardizing disinfectants with and without organic matter, j a m a , aug 24, 1912, p 667. Standardization of disinfectants, report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry, j a m a , april26, 1913, p 1316. Standardizing disinfectants, j a m a , sept 30, 1916, p 883 the council adopted the recommendation of the committee on pharmacologyto the effect that the claims made for trimethol are unsupported byacceptable evidence accordingly, trimethol and the pharmaceuticalpreparations said to contain it-- trimethol syrup, trimethol capsules, and trimethol tablets-- were held ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , aug 11, 1917 ferrivine, intramine and collosol iodine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrye fougera & co , inc , new york, acting as agent for the british drughouses, ltd , london, advertise “ferrivine, ” “intramine” and “collosoliodine” to the medical profession a circular entitled “ferrivine, thenew anti-syphilitic remedy” begins.