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Hurricane Katrina Essay


But especially for all sorts of ulcersand sores happening in the privy writings of men and women it helps allfresh and green wounds, and speedily heals them hurricane katrina essay the juice dropped intothe ears, cleanses them being foul, and having running matter in them it is very prevalent for the premises. As also for broken joints andruptures ladies’ mantle descript it has thesis leaves rising from the root standing uponlong hairy foot-stalks, being almost round, and a little cut on theedges, into eight or ten writings, making it seem like a star, with sothesis corners and points, and dented round about, of a light greencolour, essaywhat hard in handling, and as it were folded or plaited atfirst, and then crumpled in divers places, and a little hairy, as thestalk is also, which rises up among them to the height of two or threefeet. And being weak, is not able to stand upright, but bended to theground, divided at the top into two or three small branches, with smallyellowish green heads, and flowers of a whitish colour breaking out ofthem.

March 27, 1915, p 1093 100 see reports council pharm and chem , 1912, p 36 to sum up. Of the five ingredients of hydras aside from alcohol andaromatics, one hydrastis, which apparently gives the preparation itsname, is present in unimportant amounts. Three cramp bark, heloniasand scutellaria are therapeutically unimportant. The fifth dogwoodhas never been shown to have any specific action on the uterus thepotent constituent, therefore, appears to be the alcohol but, even if every one of the several drugs said to be contained inhydras were possessed of distinct therapeutic properties, and if eachwere present in known and therapeutically active amounts, still thecombination in fixed proportion would be irrational no one couldforesee the joint effect of the five drugs in the several conditionsfor which the mixture is advertised hydras is evidently meant toappeal to the thoughtless and to be used at random. Witness thesuggestion made in the advertising that “owing to its palatability, it is acceptable to patients with impaired digestion, and will serve as a stomachic tonic, promoting appetite and digestion ”a useless alcoholic nostrum “administered freely” to women and girlsis as dangerous as the recommendation for such administration isreprehensible this preparation is semisecret the recommendations for its use inspecified diseases which appear on the label and in the advertisingaccompanying the bottle are sure to lead to its ill-advised use by thepublic the claims made for its curative properties are exaggeratedand unwarranted the name, in view of the small content of hydrastis, is misleading finally, the combination of five drugs, even ifindividually they were of therapeutic value, is irrational hydras, consequently, is inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies forconflict with rules 1, 4, 6, 8 and 10, and publication of this reportis authorized editorial comment -- products like “hydras” are the bane of scientificmedicine the physician who prescribes them could with just as muchreason prescribe any of the various alcoholic “patent medicines” ofthe “women tonic” type in fact, his patients would be running lessrisk of contracting the alcohol habit if he prescribed the “patentmedicines, ” as these nostrums usually have less alcohol than iscontained in their “ethical” prototypes-- and alcohol is the only reallyimportant drug in practically all of them whatever one may think ofreputable pharmaceutical houses who put out products of the “hydras”type, the fault really lies with the profession which tolerates suchtherapeutic monstrosities -- from the journal a m a , oct 7, 1916 bromin-iodin compound report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry“bromin-iodin compound, ” according to the bromin-iodin chemicalcompany, san diego, calif , has the following “formula”. Iodin gr 1 bromin gr 1/4 phosphorus gr 1/100 thymol gr 2/3 menthol gr 2/3 sterilized oil gr 1the only statement regarding its method of preparation is the line“solution in cod liver oil, norwegian ” according to the promoters, “bromin-iodin” is. “a powerful anti-tubercular agent for hypodermic use in pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis useful in other forms of tubercular diseases, and in non-tubercular pulmonary diseases of a sub-acute or chronic nature ”the “formula, ” in the form in which the manufacturers publish it, iseither impossible or meaningless, according to the interpretation thatmay be given it is impossible if it is intended to indicate the actualcomposition of the product because that would mean that the oil isalleged to contain free or uncombined iodin, bromin and phosphorus both on theoretical grounds and also in the light of the findings ofthe chemical laboratory of the american medical association, it isnot possible that all these constituents can be present in the freestate the formula is meaningless if it is intended to convey the idea, merely, that iodin, bromin, phosphorus, thymol, menthol and sterilizedoil are combined to form “bromin-iodin ” in the absence of any detailsof the method of manufacture, it is futile to attempt to pass judgmenton the actual composition of the preparation the use of an almost identical product said, however, to containonly 1/2 grain iodin to each fluidram was described in 1908 by dr ingraham of binghamton, n y , in “five years successful experiencewith a special mode of treating pulmonary tuberculosis ” in 1910 thejournal1 characterized the preparation as “one of the innumerable‘treatments’ for pulmonary tuberculosis that have arisen, had theirday and, more or less gracefully, retired ” if the preparation hadvalue for the purpose for which it is recommended, its use during thesetwelve years should have secured its general recognition there is nosatisfactory evidence of its therapeutic efficacy the council refusedrecognition to bromin-iodin comp and, after submitting this report tothe bromin-iodin chemical company, authorized its publication -- fromthe journal a m a , dec 23, 1916 ammonium hypophosphite omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryammonium hypophosphite was admitted to new and nonofficial remediesin 1908 as a preliminary step in the consideration of a preparationcontaining it-- “gardner syrup of ammonium hypophosphite”-- becausethe council standardizes unofficial products before consideringpreparations or mixtures of these the therapeutic use of hypophosphites being irrational see, “thehypophosphite fallacy, ” report of the council on pharmacy andchemistry, the journal, sept 2, 1916, p 760, the salt, ammoniumhypophosphite, deserves continued recognition only on condition thatthis salt of ammonium is superior to other salts from which may beobtained the effect of the ammonium radical it has been claimed thatammonium hypophosphite has a less objectionable taste than otherammonium salts used for similar purposes this claim would meritserious consideration if in addition to being less objectionable tothe taste, the effects of ammonium hypophosphite were equal to or moredesirable than the official ammonium salts there is no evidence thatthis condition is met by the hypophosphite salt ammonium hypophosphite has long been known, yet it is not officialin the austrian, belgian, british, french, german, hungarian, italian, swedish, swiss or united states pharmacopeias neither is itmentioned in the leading textbooks on materia medica, pharmacology ortherapeutics in short it appears to be an instance of an obscure andsuperfluous salt selected for proprietary exploitation since the continued recognition of ammonium hypophosphite would tend toperpetuate the hypophosphite fallacy, and because there is no evidencesupporting its advantage as a means of securing the effect of ammoniumsalts the council directed its omission from new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 51 alphozone omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following advertisement appeared in the new idea september, 1916, a house organ of frederick stearns & co , the proprietors ofalphozone:illustrationin the light of our present knowledge the claim that alphozone is apreventive of infantile paralysis is without warrant and the advicethat the public depend on it for this purpose is reprehensible anddangerous therefore, the council directed that alphozone be omittedfrom new and nonofficial remedies -- from reports of council onpharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 50 calcium glycerophosphate and sodium glycerophosphate omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycalcium glycerophosphate and sodium glycerophosphate were acceptedfor new and nonofficial remedies chiefly in order that these productsmight be standardized these mixtures now being defined in the newedition of the u s pharmacopeia, this reason for including themin n n r no longer exists the report of marshall the journal, feb 13, 1915, p 573 which has the endorsement of the council thejournal, sept 30, 1916, p 1033 shows that organic phosphoruscompounds are split up into inorganic phosphates before absorption, that the animal organism can synthesize its complex organic phosphorusconstituents from inorganic phosphates and consequently that theglycerophosphates, so far as their phosphorus value is concerned, arenot superior to other phosphates in fact, sodium and phosphate aremore effectively administered as neutral or acid phosphate it isevident that sodium glycerophosphate is a superfluous pharmaceuticalpreparation, writingicularly when the difficulty of obtaining a pureproduct and its high price is considered so far as its calcium valueis concerned, calcium glycerophosphate has no advantages over suchcalcium salts as the carbonate, phosphate, lactate, or chlorid in viewof the foregoing, the council directed that sodium glycerophosphateand calcium glycerophosphate be omitted from new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 52 gardner syrup of ammonium hypophosphite omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryin recognition of the considerable revision of the therapeutic claimsmade by the manufacturer, gardner syrup of ammonium hypophosphitewas retained in new and nonofficial remedies, 1916, and the proprietoradvised of this provisional retention in the most recent advertising for this ammonium hypophosphite syrupthe claim is made. “besides being an active expectorant syrup of ammonium hypophosphite gardner is useful as an alterative and resolvent and by virtue of its phosphorus element, which is in the form of a hypophosphite, ph₂o₂, has a tonic value ”as detailed in the report of the council “the hypophosphite fallacy” the journal, a m a , sept 2, 1916, p 760 careful studies showthat the hypophosphites are devoid of the “alterative” and “tonic”actions claimed by the manufacturer of gardner syrup of ammoniumhypophosphite accordingly the council voted to omit gardner syrup ofammonium hypophosphite from new and nonofficial remedies and authorizedpublication of this report -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 55 gluten products made by the kellogg food company report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfor over two years the council has had under consideration certainproducts offered for the use of diabetics by the kellogg food companyof battle creek, mich these are. Pure gluten biscuit pure gluten meal 40 per cent gluten biscuit 40 per cent gluten flour 40 per cent gluten meal 20 per cent gluten meal the council found these products ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies because the statements of composition writingicularly of starchcontent were insufficient and because the exploitation of the productsto the laity was objectionable june 21, 1915, the company promised toplace a statement of the starch content on the package of each glutenproduct, to place on the gluten flour sacks a caution that diabeticsuse the flour only on the advice of their physicians, and to revise itsadvertising in accordance with the suggestions of the council nothingfurther having been heard from the company, in april, 1916, specimensof the product were obtained, through a layman, direct from thekellogg food company these specimens, together with the advertisingmatter received at the same time, and also a letter of advice from thecompany to another layman, were sent to the council referee, whosereport follows as will be seen, the referee finds that the amountsof carbohydrates contained in pure gluten flour, 40 per cent glutenflour and pure gluten meal are greater than the amounts claimed inthe company published analyses. That in the two first mentioned theamounts of protein are less than the amounts claimed. That exaggeratedclaims are made on all the labels and in the advertising literature, and that the company prescribes directly to the patient the following report was sent to the kellogg food company forconsideration in reply the firm stated that a revision of itsadvertising was under consideration but would make no statementas to how soon this revision would be carried into effect as theconsideration had already consumed two years, the council decided togive the profession the facts and authorized publication of the report at the same time the kellogg food company was advised that its productswould be considered further whenever any submitted evidence warrantedthis w a puckner, secretary referee reporti submit herewith my report on certain foods offered by the kelloggfood company for the use of diabetics i shall discuss these productsfrom the standpoint of the claims made on the label, from thestandpoint of the company toward nonmedical treatment as revealed in aletter to a layman, and lastly, on the basis of the claims made for thefoods in the company literature claims made on the label pure gluten biscuit referee company water 8 30 5-10 ash 2 04 1-2 protein n × 5 7 73 87 75-80 fiber 0 12 2 4-3 carbohydrates 14 84 0-5 fat 0 81 0 25-0 70 starch 4 02 0-5the sample analyzed does not contain the amount of protein claimedfor it it also contains more starch than one might suspect from thecompany analysis a more conservative claim would be “starch lessthan 5 per cent ” the company makes the error of using the terms“starch” and “carbohydrates” as synonymous if the maximum figures ofthe company analysis are used, the carbohydrates would amount to5 per cent , whereas i find 14 84 per cent the claim on the label“guaranteed to contain less than 5 per cent of carbohydrates” isincorrect the next claim, “each ounce of this gluten contains 23 gramsof protein and represents 95 calories” is approximately correct, as myanalysis shows 20 9 grams of protein and 103 calories the following remarks under “vegetable proteins” are in my judgmentexaggerated. “leading authorities are now agreed that meat, fish, eggs and other animal proteins are greatly inferior to vegetable proteins in diabetes, often increasing the sugar output and the dangerous acidosis which leads to diabetic coma after thesis years of experimentation, we have succeeded in perfecting a process whereby the carbohydrates are excluded ”in this connection, von noorden, whom the company constantly quotes, says. “in the slighter forms of diabetes, the influence of meat albumins is not great and it is difficult to demonstrate the reaction of the patient to different forms of albumin it may be necessary to add more albumin than the patient can actually take before glycosuria indication is reacted once a medium amount of albumin is exceeded, say 70 to 80 grams, the glycosuria increases, no matter what the type of albumin is ”my analysis also shows that the carbohydrates are not excluded fromthis food as claimed above 40 per cent gluten biscuit referee water 8 50 ash 1 48 protein n × 5 7 41 15 fiber 0 08 carbohydrates 47 81 fat 0 98 starch 36 98no analysis is supplied by the company, but this may be called properlya “40 per cent gluten biscuit ” the company claims, however, that thisis “best for diabetics, ” which is not true here, as in the case of “40 per cent gluten flour, ” the companylabel attributes to “dr wm osler in ‘practice of medicine, ’” thefollowing quotation.

And in case of refusal or revocation, the applicant may appeal to the governor 3 the license must be recorded with the clerk of the district court inthe county in which the licensee resides. If he moves into anothercounty he must procure a certified copy of his license from the saidclerk and file it with the clerk of the district court in the lattercounty 4 penalty - to practise without a license is a misdemeanor, punishableby a fine of from $50 to $100, or imprisonment in county jail fromten to ninety days, or both appending “m d ” or “m b ” to name, orprescribing, directing, or recommending for use any drug or medicine orother agency for the treatment, care, or relief of any wound, fracture, or bodily injury, infirmity, or disease, is regarded as practisingmedicine exceptions - the act is not applicable to dentists 6, norto commissioned surgeons of the united states army or navy, nor tophysicians or surgeons in actual consultation from other states orterritories, nor to actual medical students practising medicine underthe direct supervision of a preceptor 5 all persons licensed under the act of 1883, c 125, are regarded aslicensed under this act 7 fees - to treasurer of board, for examination, $10 mississippi qualification - a practitioner of medicine must obtain a license fromthe state board of health code 1892, s 3, 243 application is made in writing. And an examination is made in anatomy, chemistry, obstetrics, materia medica, physiology, pathology, surgery, and hygiene, and if the applicant is found by the board to possesssufficient learning in those branches, and of good moral character, theboard issues a license to practise medicine, signed by each member whoapproves 3, 244 the application must state the applicant full name, place ofresidence, and post-office address, nativity and age, time spent inmedical studies, name and post-office address of the preceptor underwhom his medical studies were pursued, the courses of medical lecturesattended, the name of medical schools attended. If a graduate of amedical college, the name thereof. The time spent in a hospital, thetime spent in the practice of medicine, if any, the school or system ofpractice chosen, and references as to his personal character s 3, 245 examinations are to be conducted at the capital on the first tuesdayin april and october annually, and continue until all applicants areexamined and the examinations are approved or disapproved. They areupon written questions and answers, and no distinction can be madebetween applicants because of different systems or schools of practice the license must be filed in the office of the clerk of the circuitcourt of the county in which the licensee resides, within sixty daysfrom the date of its issue. Otherwise it becomes void the clerk mustrecord the same with his certificate of filing and deliver the originalto the licensee when the licensee changes the county of his residenceand usual practice, he must file the original or a certified copy oflicense, or record, in the office of said clerk in the county intowhich he shall move and practise within sixty days of the time of hisremoval, to be there recorded 3, 249 the board may issue a duplicate in place of a lost license s 3, 250 the secretary of the board may issue a temporary license which shallbe valid until the next succeeding meeting of board, such license toshow its date of issue, otherwise to be void. It must be recorded as apermanent license is required to be. Only one temporary license shallever be issued to the same person, and it shall always be made to anindividual and not to a writingnership 3, 251 physicians practising by virtue of a license under prior laws arenot required to obtain a license under this law and may continuein practice under their licenses, but they must comply with therequirements of this law with reference to recording 3, 252 penalty - to practise without an examination and a license ispunishable with a fine of from $20 to $200, or to imprisonment in thecounty jail not to exceed thirty days 1, 258 exceptions - females engaged in the practice of midwifery need nolicense for that employment 3, 253 non-residents - licensed physicians residing without the state, and whose practice extends into it, may obtain a license withoutexamination by presenting an application in the form prescribed;whereupon the secretary of the board must issue a license in thename of the board and the license must be recorded as hereinbeforeprovided, in each county in which the licensee shall practise s 3, 254 fees - to board, before examination, $10 to secretary, before examination, 25 cents 3, 247 to secretary, for temporary license, 25 cents 3, 251 to secretary, for license to non-resident, 25 cents 3, 245 to the clerk of the court, for recording, his legal fees s 3, 249 missouri qualification - every person practising medicine and surgery, in anyof their dewritingments, must possess the qualifications required if agraduate of medicine, he must present his diploma to the state board ofhealth for verification as to its genuineness if the diploma is foundto be genuine, and the person named therein to be the person claimingand presenting the same, the board must issue a certificate which isconclusive of the right to practise if not a graduate, he must submitto such examination as the board shall require, and if the examinationis satisfactory to the examiners the board must issue its certificatein accordance with the facts, and the holder shall be entitled to allthe rights and privileges herein mentioned rev stats , 1889, s 6, 871 the board must issue certificates to all who furnish satisfactoryproof of having received a diploma or license from a legally charteredmedical institution in good standing, of whatever school or system ofmedicine, and shall not make any discrimination against the holders ofgenuine licenses or diplomas under any school or system of medicine6, 872 the verification of a diploma consists in the affidavit of the holderand applicant that he is the lawful possessor of the same, and theperson therein named. The affidavit may be taken before any personauthorized to administer oaths, and shall be attested under the handand official seal of such officer, if he have a seal graduates maypresent their diplomas and affidavits by letter or proxy s 6, 873 all examinations are made directly by the board, and the certificatesauthorize the possessor to practise medicine and surgery in the state6, 874 the certificate must be recorded in the office of the county clerk ofthe county in which the holder resides and the record must be indorsedthereon. A person moving to another county to practise must procure anindorsement to that effect on the certificate from the said clerk, andhave the certificate recorded in the office of the clerk of the countyto which he removes 6, 875 examinations may be made wholly or writingly in writing and must be of anelementary and practical character, but sufficiently strict to test thequalifications of the candidate as a practitioner 6, 877 the board may refuse a certificate to an individual guilty ofunprofessional or dishonorable conduct, and may revoke a certificatefor like causes after giving the accused an opportunity to be heard6, 878 definition, exception - a person is regarded as practising medicine whoprofesses publicly to be a physician and to prescribe for the sick, or who appends to his name “m d , ” but students are not prohibitedfrom prescribing under the supervision of a preceptor, and gratuitousservices may be rendered in case of emergency, and the act does notapply to commissioned surgeons of the united states army or navy ormarine hospital service 6, 879 itinerant venders - every itinerant vender of any drug, nostrum, ointment, or appliance intended for the treatment of disease orinjury, or who publicly professes to cure or treat disease, injury, ordeformity by any drug, nostrum, manipulation, or other expedient, mustpay a license fee of $100 per month. The violation of this section is amisdemeanor, punishable with a fine not exceeding $500 or imprisonmentin the county jail not to exceed six months, or both 6, 880 penalty - the violation of the provisions of this act is a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of from $50 to $500, or imprisonment in thecounty jail for from thirty to three hundred and sixty-five days, orboth, for each offence.

The root is white, with thesis stringsat it, not growing downward but lying under the upper crust of theearth, and abides hurricane katrina essay thesis years increasing. This has not so strong a scentas the former yellow archangel is like the white in the stalks and leaves. But thatthe stalks are more straight and upright, and the joints with leavesare farther asunder, having longer leaves than the former, and theflowers a little larger and more gaping, of a fair yellow colour inmost, in essay paler the roots are like the white, only they creep notso much under the ground place they grow almost every where unless it be in the middle ofthe street, the yellow most usually in the wet grounds of woods, andessaytimes in the dryer, in divers counties of this nation time they flower from the beginning of the spring all the summerlong government and virtues the archangels are essaywhat hot and drierthan the stinging nettles, and used with better success for thestopping and hardness of the spleen, than they, by using the decoctionof the herb in wine, and afterwards applying the herb hot into theregion of the spleen as a plaister, or the decoction with spunges flowers of the white archangel are preserved or conserved to be usedto stay the whites, and the flowers of the red to stay the reds inwomen it makes the heart merry, drives away melancholy, quickens thespirits, is good against quartan agues, stancheth bleeding at mouthand nose, if it be stamped and applied to the nape of the neck. Theherb also bruised, and with essay salt and vinegar and hog-grease, laid upon a hard tumour or swelling, or that vulgarly called theking evil, do help to dissolve or discuss them. And being in likemanner applied, doth much allay the pains, and give ease to the gout, sciatica, and other pains of the joints and sinews it is also veryeffectual to heal green wounds, and old ulcers. Also to stay theirfretting, gnawing, and spreading it draws forth splinters, and suchlike things gotten into the flesh, and is very good against bruises andburnings but the yellow archangel is most commended for old, filthy, corrupt sores and ulcers, yea although they grow to be hollow, and todissolve tumours the chief use of them is for women, it being a herbof venus arssmart the hot arssmart is called also water-pepper, or culrage the mildarssmart is called dead arssmart persicaria, or peach-wort, becausethe leaves are so like the leaves of a peach-tree. It is also calledplumbago description of the mild this has broad leaves set at the great redjoint of the stalks. With semicircular blackish marks on them, usuallyeither blueish or whitish, with such like seed following the root islong, with thesis strings thereat, perishing yearly. This has no sharptaste as another sort has, which is quick and biting but rather sourlike sorrel, or else a little drying, or without taste place it grows in watery places, ditches, and the like, which forthe most writing are dry in summer time it flowers in june, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues as the virtue of both these is various, sois also their government.

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And my reason is, that the rootsof all crocus, both white and yellow, purge phlegm as hermodactyls do;and if you please to dry the roots of any crocus, neither your eyesnor your taste shall distinguish them from hermodactyls sage our ordinary garden sage needs no description time hurricane katrina essay it flowers in or about july government and virtues jupiter claims this, and bids me tell you, it is good for the liver, and to breed blood a decoction of the leavesand branches of sage made and drank, saith dioscorides, provokes urine, brings down women courses, helps to expel the dead child, and causesthe hair to become black it stays the bleeding of wounds, and cleansesfoul ulcers three spoonfuls of the juice of sage taken fasting, witha little honey, doth presently stay the spitting or casting of bloodof them that are in a consumption these pills are much commended;take of spikenard, ginger, of each two drams. Of the seed of sagetoasted at the fire, eight drams. Of long pepper, twelve drams. Allthese being brought into powder, put thereto so much juice of sageas may make them into a mass of pills, taking a dram of them everymorning fasting, and so likewise at night, drinking a little pure waterafter them matthiolus saith, it is very profitable for all manner ofpains in the head coming of cold and rheumatic humours.