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Takes away idle and foolish thoughts, makes mencheerful cardanus granite strengthens the heart, but hurts the brain, causes anger, takes away sleep diamond, is reported to make him that bears it unfortunate amethist, being worn, makes men sober and steady, keeps men fromdrunkenness and too much sleep, it quickens the wit, is profitable inhuntings and fightings, and repels vapours from the head bezoar, is a notable restorer of nature, a great cordial, no wayhurtful nor how to write essay dangerous, is admirably good in fevers, pestilences, andconsumptions, viz taken inwardly. For this stone is not used to beworn as a jewel. The powder of it put upon wounds made by venomousbeasts, draws out the poison topaz if epiphanius spake truth if you put it into boilingwater, it doth so cool it that you may presently put your hands intoit without harm.

Let the myrrh and bdellium be ground in a mortar with the wine, to the thickness of liquid honey, then add the turpentine, then thepulp of raisins, then the powders. At last with the honey, let them allbe made into troches culpeper it is excellently good against inward ulcers in what writingof the body soever they be it is chiefly used in compositions, astreacle and mithridate trochisci de eupatorio or troches of maudlin college take of the juice of maudlin made thick, manna, of eachan ounce, red roses half an ounce, spodium three drams and an half, spikenard three drams, rhubarb, asarabacca roots, annis seeds, of eachtwo drams let the nard, annis seeds, and roses, be beaten together, the spodium, asarabacca, and rhubarb by themselves, then mix the mannaand juice of maudlin in a mortar, add the powders, and with new juicemake it into troches culpeper obstructions, or stoppings, and swelling above nature, both of the liver and spleen, are cured by the inward taking of thesetroches, and diseases thereof coming, as yellow and black jaundice, thebeginning of dropsies, &c troches of gallia moschata college take of wood of aloes five drams, ambergris three drams, musk one dram, with mussilage of gum tragacanth made in rose water, make it into troches according to art culpeper they strengthen the brain and heart, and by consequenceboth vital and animal spirits, and cause a sweet breath they are of anextreme price, therefore i pass by the dose trochisci gordonii college take of the four greater cold seeds husked, the seedsof white poppies, mallows, cotton, purslain, quinces, mirtles, gumtragacanth, and arabic, fistic-nuts, pine-nuts, sugar-candy, penids, liquorice, french-barley, mussilage of fleawort seeds, sweet almondsblanched, of each two drams, bole-ammoniac, dragon-blood, spodium, red roses, myrrh, of each half an ounce, with a sufficient quantity ofhydromel, make it into troches according to art culpeper they are held to be very good in ulcers of the bladder, and all other inward ulcers whatsoever, and ease fevers coming thereby, being of a fine cooling, slippery heating nature trochisci hedichroi, galen for treacle college take of aspalthus, or yellow sanders, the leaves ofmastich, the roots of asarabacca, of each two drams, rhupontic, castus, calamus aromaticus, wood of aloes, cinnamon, squinanth, opobalsamumor oil of nutmegs by expression, of each three drams, cassia lignea, indian leaf or mace, indian spikenard, myrrh, saffron, of each sixdrams, amomus, or cardamoms the less, an ounce and an half, mastich adram, canary wine as much as is sufficient let the myrrh be dissolvedin the wine, then add the mastich and saffron well beaten, then theopobalsamum, then the rest in powder, and with the wine, make them upinto troches, and dry them gently culpeper they are very seldom or never used but in othercompositions, yet naturally they heat cold stomachs, help digestion, strengthen the heart and brain trochisci hysterici college take of asafœtida, galbanum, of each two drams and an half, myrrh two drams, castoreum a dram and an half, the roots of asarabaccaand long birthwort, the leaves of savin, featherfew, nep, of each onedram, dittany half a dram, with either the juice or decoction of rue, make it into troches according to art culpeper these are applied to the fœminine gender, help fits of themother, expel both birth and after-birth, cleanse women after labour, and expel the relics of a careless midwife trochisci de ligno aloes or troches of wood of aloes college take of wood of aloes, red roses, of each two drams, mastich, cinnamon, cloves, indian spikenard, nutmegs, parsnip seed, cardamoms the greater and lesser, cubebs, gallia moschata, citronpills, mace, of each one dram and an half, ambergris, musk, of eachhalf a scruple, with honey of raisins make it into troches culpeper it strengthens the heart, stomach, and liver, takes awayheart-qualms, faintings, and stinking breath, and resists the dropsy trochisci e mirrha or troches of myrrh college take of myrrh three drams, the meal of lupines five drams, madder roots, the leaves of rue, wild mints, dittany of crete, cumminseeds, asafœtida, sagapen, opopanax, of each two drams, dissolve thegums in wine wherein mugwort hath been boiled, or else juniper-berries, then add the rest, and with juice of mugwort, make it into trochesaccording to art culpeper they provoke the menses, and that with great ease tosuch as have them come down with pain take a dram of them beateninto powder, in a spoonful or two of syrup of mugwort, or any othercomposition tending to the same purpose sief de plumbo or sief of lead college take of lead burnt and washed, brass burnt, antimony, tuttywashed, gum arabic and tragacanth of each an ounce, opium half a dram, with rose-water, make them, being beaten and sifted, into troches trochisci polyidæ androm college take of pomegranate flowers twelve drams, roach album threedrams, frankincense, myrrh, of each half an ounce, chalcanthum twodrams, bull gall six drams, aloes an ounce, with austere wine, orjuice of nightshade or plantain, make them into troches according toart culpeper they are very good they say, being outwardly applied, bothin green wounds and ulcers i fancy them not trochisci de rhubarbaro or troches of rhubarb college take of rhubarb ten drams, juice of maudlin made thick, bitter almonds, of each half an ounce, red roses three drams, theroots of asarabacca, madder, indian spikenard, the leaves of wormwood, the seeds of annis and smallage, of each one dram, with wine in whichwormwood hath been boiled, make them into troches according to art culpeper they gently cleanse the liver, help the yellow jaundice, and other diseases coming of choler and stoppage of the liver trochisci de santalis or troches of sanders college take of the three sanders, of each one ounce, the seeds ofcucumbers, gourds, citruls, purslain, spodium, of each half an ounce, red roses seven drams, juice of barberries six drams, bole-ammoniachalf an ounce, camphire one dram, with purslain water make it intotroches culpeper the virtues are the same with troches of spodium, both ofthem harmless trochisci da scilla ad theriacam or troches of squils, for treacle college take a squil gathered about the beginning of july, of amiddle bigness, and the hard writing to which the small roots stick, wrapit up in paste, and bake it in an oven, till the paste be dry, and thesquil tender, which you may know by piercing it with a wooden skewer, or a bodkin, then take it out and bruise it in a mortar, adding toevery pound of the squil, eight ounces of white orobus, or red cicersin powder, then make it into troches, of the weight of two drams apiece, your hands being anointed with oil of roses dry them on thetop of the house, opening towards the south, in the shadow, oftenturning them till they be well dry, then keep them in a pewter or glassvessel troches of spodium college take of red roses twelve drams, spodium ten drams, sorrelseed six drams, the seeds of purslain and coriander, steeped in vinegarand dried, pulp of sumach, of each two drams and an half, white starchroasted, balaustines, barberries, of each two drams, gum arabic roastedone dram and an half, with juice of unripe grapes, make it into troches culpeper they are of a fine cooling binding nature, excellent infevers coming of choler, especially if they be accompanied with alooseness, they also quench thirst trochisci de terra lemnia or troches of earth of lemnos college take of earth of lemnos, bole-ammoniac, acacia, hypocystis, gum arabic toasted, dragon blood, white starch, red roses, roseseeds, lap hematitis, red coral, amber, balaustines, spodium, purslainseeds a little toasted, olibanum, hart-horn burnt, cypress nuts, saffron of each two drams, black poppy seeds, tragacanth, pearls, ofeach one dram and an half, opium prepared one dram, with juice ofplantain, make it into troches sief de thure or sief of frankincense college take of frankincense, lap calaminaris, pompholix, of eachten drams, cyrus forty drams, gum arabic, opium, of each six drams, with fair water make it into balls. Dry them and keep them for use trochisci e violis solutivi or troches of violets solutive college take of violet flowers meanly dry, six drams, turbith oneounce and an half, juice of liquorice, scammony, manna, of each twodrams, with syrup of violets, make it into troches culpeper they are not worth talking of, much less worth cost, thecost and labour of making trochisci de vipera ad theriacum or troches of vipers, for treacle college take of the flesh of vipers, the skin, entrails, head, fat, and tail being taken away, boiled in water with dill, and alittle salt, eight ounces, white bread twice baked, grated and sifted, two ounces, make it into troches, your hands being anointed withopobalsamum, or oil of nutmegs by expression, dry them upon a sieveturned the bottom upwards in an open place, often turning them tillthey are well dried, then put them in a glass or stone pot glazed, stopped close, they will keep a year, yet is it far better to maketreacle, not long after you have made them culpeper they expel poison, and are excellently good, by a certainsympathetical virtue, for such as are bitten by an adder trochisci de agno casto or troches of agnus castus college take of the seeds of agnus castus, lettuce, red roseflowers, balaustins, of each a dram, ivory, white amber, bole-ammoniacwashed in knotgrass water two drams, plantain seeds four scruples, sassafras two scruples, with mussilage of quince seeds, extracted inwater of water-lily flowers, let them be made into troches culpeper very pretty troches and good for little trochisci alexiterii renodæus college take of the roots of gentian, tormentil, orris florentine, zedoary, of each two drams, cinnamon, cloves, mace, of each half adram, angelica roots three drams, coriander seeds prepared, roses, ofeach one dram, dried citron pills two drams, beat them all into powder, and with juice of liquorice softened in hippocras, six ounces, makethem into soft paste, which you may form into either troches or smallrolls, which you please culpeper it preserves and strengthens the heart exceedingly, helpsfaintings and failings of the vital spirits, resists poison and thepestilence, and is an excellent medicine for such to carry about themwhose occasions are to travel in pestilential places and corrupt air, only taking a very small quantity now and then troches of annis seed mesue college take of annis seeds, the juice of maudlin made thick, ofeach two drams, the seeds of dill, spikenard, mastich, indian leaf ormace, the leaves of wormwood, asarabacca, smallage, bitter almonds, of each half a dram, aloes two drams, juice of wormwood so much as issufficient to make it into troches according to art culpeper they open obstructions of the liver, and that very gently, and therefore diseases coming thereof, help quartan agues you canscarce do amiss in taking them if they please but your palate trochisci diarhodon mesue college take of the flowers of red roses six drams, spikenard, woodof aloes, of each two drams, liquorice three drams, spodium one dram, saffron half a dram, mastich two drams, make them up into troches withwhite wine according to art culpeper they wonderfully ease fevers coming of flegm, as quotidianfevers, agues, epiatos, &c pains in the belly trochisci de lacca mesue college take of gum lacca cleansed, the juice of liquorice, maudlin, wormwood, and barberries, all made thick, rhubarb, longbirthwort, costus, asarabacca, bitter almonds, madder, annis, smallage, schænanth, of each one dram, with the decoction of birthwort, schænanth, or the juice of maudlin, or wormwood, make them into trochesaccording to art culpeper it helps stoppings of the liver and spleen, and feversthence coming, it expels wind, purges by urine, and resists dropsies pastilli adronis galen college take of pomegranate flowers ten drams, copperas twelvedrams, unripe galls, birthwort, frankincense, of each an ounce, alum, myrrh, of each half an ounce, misy two drams, with eighteen ounces ofaustere wine, make it into troches according to art culpeper this also is appropriated to wounds, ulcers, and fistulas, it clears the ears, and represses all excressences of flesh, cleansesthe filth of the bones trochisci musæ galen college take of alum, aloes, copperas, myrrh, of each six drams, crocomagma, saffron, of each three drams, pomegranate flowers half anounce, wine and honey, of each so much as is sufficient to make it upinto troches according to art culpeper their use is the same with the former crocomagma of damocrates galen college take of saffron an hundred drams, red roses, myrrh, of eachfifty drams, white starch, gum, of each thirty drams, wine, so much asis sufficient to make it into troches culpeper it is very expulsive, heats and strengthens the heart andstomach trochisci ramich mesue college take of the juice of sorrel sixteen ounces, red roseleaves, an ounce, myrtle berries two ounces, boil them a littletogether, and strain them, add to the decoction, galls well beaten, three ounces, boil them again a little, then put in these followingthings, in fine powder. Take of red roses an ounce, yellow sanders, ten drams, gum arabic an ounce and an half, sumach, spodium, of eachan ounce, myrtle berries four ounces, wood of aloes, cloves, mace, nutmegs, of each half an ounce, sour grapes seven drams, mix them alltogether, and let them dry upon a stone, and grind them again intopowder, and make them into small troches with one dram of camphire, and so much rose water as is sufficient, and perfume them with fifteengrains of musk culpeper they strengthen the stomach, heart, and liver, as also thebowels, they help the cholic, and fluxes of blood, as also bleedingat the nose if you snuff up the powder of them, disburden the body ofsalt, fretting, choleric humours you may carry them about you, andtake them at your pleasure troches of roses mesue college take of red roses half an ounce, wood of aloes twodrams, mastich, a dram and an half, roman wormwood, cinnamon, indianspikenard, cassia lignea, schœnanth, of each one dram, old wine, anddecoction of the five opening roots, so much as is sufficient to makeit into troches according to art culpeper they help pains in the stomach, and indigestion, theilliac passion, hectic fevers, and dropsies, in the beginning, andcause a good colour trochisci diacorallion galen college take of bole-ammoniac, red coral, of each an ounce, balaustines, terra lemnia, white starch, of each half an ounce, hypocistis, the seeds of henbane, opium, of each two drams, juice ofplantain so much as is sufficient to make them into troches accordingto art culpeper these also stop blood, help the bloody flux, stop themenses, and are a great help to such whose stomachs loath theirvictuals i fancy them not trochisci diaspermaton galen college take of the seeds of smallage, and bishop weed, of eachan ounce, annis and fennel seeds, of each half an ounce, opium, cassialignea, of each two drams, with rain water, make it into trochesaccording to art culpeper these also bind, ease pain, help the pleurisy hæmoptoici pastilli galen college take of white starch, balaustines, earth of samos, juiceof hypocystis, gum, saffron, opium, of each two drams, with juice ofplantain, make them into troches according to art culpeper the operation of this is like the former troches of agarick college take of choice agarick three ounces, sal gem six drams, ginger two drams, with oxymel simplex, so much as is sufficient, makeit into troches according to art oils simple oils by expression oil of sweet almonds college take of sweet almonds not corrupted, as thesis as you will, cast the shells away, and blanch them, beat them in a stone mortar, beat them in a double vessel, and press out the oil without heat culpeper it helps roughness and soreness of the throat and stomach, helps pleurisies, encreases seed, eases coughs and hectic fevers, by injection it helps such whose water scalds them. Ulcers in thebladder, reins, and matrix you may either take half an ounce of it byitself, or mix it with half an ounce of syrup of violets, and so takea spoonful at a time, still shaking them together when you take them:only take notice of this, if you take it inwardly, let it be new drawn, for it will be sour in three or four days oil of bitter almonds college it is made like oil of sweet almonds, but that you need notblanch them, nor have such a care of heat in pressing out the oil culpeper it opens stoppings, helps such as are deaf, being droppedinto their ears, it helps the hardness of the nerves, and takes awayspots in the face it is seldom or never taken inwardly oil of hazel nuts college it is made of the kernels, cleansed, bruised, and beat, andpressed like oil of sweet almonds culpeper you must put them in a vessel viz a glass, or essay suchthing and stop them close that the water come not to them when you putthem into the bath the oil is good for cold afflictions of the nerves, the gout in the joints, &c college so is oil of been, oil of nutmegs, and oil of mace drawn oleum caryinum college is prepared of walnut kernels, in like manner, save onlythat in the making of this essaytimes is required dried, old, and ranknuts oleum chryessaylinum college is prepared in the same manner of apricots, so is alsooils of the kernels of cherry stones, peaches, pine-nuts, fisticnuts, prunes, the seeds of oranges, hemp, bastard saffron, citrons, cucumbers, gourds, citruls, dwarf elder, henbane, lettuce, flax, melons, poppy, parsley, radishes, rape, ricinum, sesani, mustard seed, and grape stones culpeper because most of these oils are out of use, i took not thepains to quote the virtues of them. If any wish to make them, let themlook to the simples, and there they have them. If the simples be not tobe found in this book, there are other plentiful medicines conducing tothe cure of all usual diseases. Which are oil of bays college take of bay-berries, fresh and ripe, so thesis as you please, bruise them sufficiently, then boil them in a sufficient quantity ofwater till the oil swim at top, which separate from the water, and keepfor your use culpeper it helps the cholic, and is a sovereign remedy for anydiseases in any writing of the body coming either of wind or cold college common oil of olives, is pressed out of ripe olives, notout of the stones oil of olives omphacine, is pressed out of unripeolives oil of yolks of eggs college boil the yolks till they be hard, and bruise them withyour hand or with a pestle and mortar. Beat them in an earthen vesselglazed until they begin to froth, stirring them diligently that theyburn not, being hot, put them in a linen bag, and sprinkle them witharomatic wine, and press out the oil according to art culpeper it is profitable in fistulas, and malignant ulcers, itcauses the hair to grow, it clears the skin, and takes away deformitiesthereof, viz tetters, ringworms, morphew, scabs simple oils by infusion and decoction oil of roses omphacine college take of red roses before they be ripe, bruised in a stonemortar, four ounces, oil omphacine one pound, set them in a hot sun, in a glass close stopped, a whole week, shaking them every day, thenboil them gently in a bath, press them out, and put in others, use themin like manner, do so a third time. Then keep the oil upon a pound ofjuice of roses oil of roses complete, is made in the same manner, with sweet and ripe oil, often washed, andred roses fully open, bruised, set in the sun, and boiled gently in adouble vessel, only let the third infusion stand in the sun forty days, then keep the roses and oil together in the same manner is made oil of wormwood, of the tops of commonwormwood thrice repeated, four ounces, and three pounds of ripe oil;only, the last time put in four ounces of the juice of wormwood, whichevaporate away by gentle boiling oil of dill. Of the flowers and leaves of dill four ounces, completeoil, one pound, thrice repeated oil of castoreum.

“as a stimulant capsicum has the power of neutralizing depressant remedies like lobelia and tobacco ” “our association of its desirable constituents with those of lobelia, in connection with the modifying influence of capsicum, melaleuca, and laurus camphora, permits a more free use in libradol than would be possible were it to be employed alone ” “capsicum, melaleuca, and laurus camphora in libradol tend to counteract the excessive relaxative and depressant effects of lobelia ” “the great value of melaleuca in libradol is its quality of modifying and controlling the action of the associated energetic constituents of the drugs tobacco and lobelia, which reduce congestion and inflammation, but which would, unsupported, be too depressant ”libradol is inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because itscomposition is complex, irrational and semi-secret, and because itsname and the unwarranted therapeutic recommendations made for it willlead to its ill-advised use -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1920, p 65 helmitol omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryhelmitol is hexamethylenamin methylencitrate it was introduced withthe claim that it was superior to hexamethylenamin-- which acts in acidfluids only-- in that it is equally efficient whether the urine isalkaline or acid in 1918 the bayer company, which then marketed the product in theunited states, was notified that the council questioned the claims madefor helmitol and desired evidence to substantiate them in 1919 thesame notification was sent the winthrop chemical company, which in themeantime had secured control of the product pending the submissionof the evidence, the council continued the acceptance of helmitolfor new and nonofficial remedies with the statement that the actionsand uses of hexamethylenamin anhydromethylencitrate were those ofhexamethylenamin w a puckner, secretary the following report on helmitol was made by the referee in charge ofhexamethylenamin compounds and preparations, adopted by the council andsent the winthrop chemical company:“helmitol is a compound of anhydromethylencitric acid andhexamethylenamin it was introduced with the claim that it would how to write essay beantiseptic even in alkaline urine the council did not entirely trustthe evidence, but continued to list helmitol in n n r , merely asa salt of hexamethylenamin, until satisfactory data should becomeavailable these have now been furnished by hanzlik journal ofurology 4:145 who has shown that:“1 the alkalinity required to split off formaldehyd fromanhydromethylencitric acid is greater than exists in the urine, even inadvanced ammoniacal fermentation “2 even if any formaldehyd were liberated in ammoniacal fermentation, it would at once become inactive by combining with ammonia “3 urine after the administration of anhydromethylencitric acidactually putrefies readily “4 less than 5 per cent of the anhydromethylencitric radical reachesthe urine, the remainder being destroyed in the body “the only reason for the existence of helmitol was this claim ofantiseptic action in alkaline and putrefying urines since this hasbeen disproved, there remains no reason for retaining helmitol inn n r. On the contrary, its retention would only tend to continuethe fallacy on which it is based “it is, therefore, recommended that helmitol be no longer listed withnew and nonofficial remedies, and that this report be published, afterthe usual submission to the manufacturers ”in accordance with the recommendation of the report, the council hasdirected the omission of helmitol from new and nonofficial remediesand has authorized the publication of this report -- from the journala m a , jan 22, 1921 spirocide not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary “spirocide” the spirocide corporation of new york is advertised as anew and successful treatment of syphilis by fumigation and inhalation according to the information presented to the council, spirocide is amechanical mixture of metallic mercury 25 per cent , copper sulphate 25per cent , cypress cones 20 per cent , henna 20 per cent , nut gall 5per cent , and dried pomegranate 5 per cent it is supplied in the formof greenish-gray tablets weighing about 10 gm each, and containing, therefore, about 2 5 gm about 38 grains of mercury it is sold inpackages of six tablets the following directions for its use are contained in a pamphletrecently distributed. “spirocide is administered by means of fumigation and inhalation the patient is disrobed to the waist and placed in a light chair, preferably with arms a pastil or tablet of spirocide is placed on a small plate, or open receptacle, after being ignited by holding in a gas or alcohol flame for a minute or so until it begins to smoulder the plate with the burning spirocide is then placed on the floor between the patient feet or just under the chair a small shelf or platform between the lower rounds of the chair is an excellent location for the plate containing the burning mass when all is in position a sheet should be thrown over the patient and arranged to enclose the whole the patient should breathe naturally and inhale the vapor, which will rise and fill the canopy surrounding him the treatment will require 15 to 30 minutes, or until the spirocide is burned up the patient may complain at first of a slight choking sensation, and there may be essay tendency to cough this can be removed by raising the sheet long enough to let in a little clear air the eyes should be closed or lightly bandaged to avoid smarting ”experiments conducted in the a m a chemical laboratory show thatspirocide, when ignited, burns slowly with consequent volatilizationof mercury the several organic constituents serve as fuel and thecopper sulphate possibly acts as a regulator of the combustion duringthe burning process the cypress cones, henna, etc , are consumed butmost, if not all, the copper remains behind, the mercury only beingvaporized it is asserted in the advertising pamphlet that spirocide isindicated in all stages of syphilis, primary, secondary and tertiary, and in all its complications or sequelae in these varying conditionsone tablet daily or every other day is recommended until six treatmentshave been taken, though it is stated that “occasionally, depending onthe severity or the duration of the disease, it may be wise to givenine treatments, the last three at intervals of two, three or moredays ”essay of the results which it is claimed are obtained with spirocide are. “at the completion of this course of treatment with spirocide, all signs or evidences of syphilis are removed, and in ten days to three months all wassermann tests prove negative any further treatments than the original course of fumigations are rarely needed wassermann will be found uniformly negative after a period which, according to the patient, may vary from ten days to three months these results have been obtained in paper in which salvarsan and kindred preparations have been employed without the slightest benefit ”in a letter to the council the “scientific observer” of the spirocidecorporation declared. “we do not claim that the vaporization method is new we do claim, however, that this combination of mercury produces more rapid volatilization, certain absorption and undoubted effect than any form of mercury administered by any method known to science without the usual danger that this is so we are willing to prove by comparison with other methods both by ourselves and thesis observers scattered over the united states ”to determine the validity of the claims made for spirocide, thecorporation was asked to present the evidence which it offered inreply, the corporation “scientific observer, ” dr j lewengood, submitted 83 case reports from a number of different observers, including those from military hospitals and a state institution, andalso a reprint of an article published by him in the new york medicaljournal, feb 21, 1920, wherein were reported eight paper whichreceived “spirocide treatment ” in no case were controls with othermethods of mercury administration carried out this material the council sent to two recognized syphilographers foran opinion one of the consultants reported that of the 83 paper, 20 dealt with patients who had also received arsphenamin medicationand, therefore, these 20 paper could not be considered as evidenceconcerning the value of spirocide as to the remaining paper, hefound on the whole that the history and data furnished were far fromsufficient to warrant the claims made in thesis of the paper emphasiswas laid on the wassermann test, as though this test were the onlything to be considered in a case of syphilis he pointed out that inone case the reaction changed from negative to strongly positive aftersix treatments and that in several paper the phenomena reported cannotbe explained by anything else than a desire to get a negative bloodtest for example, one case had spirocide treatment and a wassermann, 1 plus, 55 days after. The author then reports that 19 days later thereaction had become negative and, therefore, the change must be due tospirocide in several of the paper reported it is even questionableif the patients were syphilitic the consultant concluded that theevidence submitted by the spirocide corporation failed to prove theclaims made for spirocide he pointed out on the other hand thatpatients readily become salivated from the use of spirocide, oftenafter 8 or 10 treatments the second consultant replied that in his opinion the claim thatspirocide produces more “undoubted effect than any form of mercuryadministered by any method known to science without the usual danger, ”was not substantiated he believed that it was not as effective as essayother methods, that the dosage is not as exact, and, therefore, it isnot as free from danger when the drug is pushed the council two consultants were also asked whether or not, in theiropinion, the administration of mercury by inhalation is a method whichthe council should endorse to the extent of recognizing a preparationbased on this principle this inquiry was also sent to the members ofthe editorial board of the archives of dermatology and syphilology five replies were received one advised a thorough study of thedifferent methods of administering mercury by inhalation the otherfour were opposed to such recognition on the ground that as the dosageis not exact the effects, therefore, are not certain in consideration of the opinions expressed by its consultants, thecouncil declared spirocide inadmissible to new and nonofficial remediesbecause 1 the claims made for it are unproved and unwarranted, 2the routine use of an inexact method for the administration of mercuryis detrimental to sound therapy and 3 the name is not descriptive ofits composition, thus failing to remind the physician who uses thesepastils that he is administering metallic mercury -- from the journala m a , jan 22, 1921 digifolin-ciba not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized the publication of the following report, declaring digifolin-ciba inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary digifolin-ciba is a product of the society of chemical industryof basle, switzerland it is marketed in the united states by theciba company, 91 barclay street, new york city it is claimed thatdigifolin-ciba is “a preparation of digitalis leaves that has beenfreed from the useless and harmful principles such as digitonin saponin, coloring and inert matter, etc , but does contain all thereally valuable, therapeutically active constituents of the leaves, namely. Digitoxin and digitalein in their natural proportions ” thereis no evidence that digifolin contains all of the glucosides ofdigitalis as they exist in the leaf, and it is extremely improbablethat this is the case because one cannot remove saponin withoutaltering the other active principles of digitalis the ciba company sends out the following pamphlets relating todigifolin. “‘concerning digifolin-ciba, a new preparation of digitalis, ’ by c hartung, m d , ph d extracts from the work ‘ueber digifolin, ein neues digitalis-praeparat’ in the munich medical weekly, no 36, page 1944, 1912 ” “‘digitoxin contents of digifolin-ciba, ’ by c hartung, m d , ph d , basle, switzerland reprints from the pharmaceutical post, 1913 no 34, page 357 no 40, page 431 ” “‘pharmacological tests of digitalis, ’ by m j chevalier, chef des travaux pratiques de pharmacologie et matiere medicale, faculte de medecine de paris report presented to the societe de therapeutique at their meeting, may 28, 1913 ”in the reprint “concerning digifolin, ‘ciba ’” hartung lays stresson the presence of harmful and inert substances present in the leafand galenical preparations with the direct or implied statement thatdigifolin has an advantage in that these are absent from it this ismisleading it is true that boehm whom hartung cites, found saponin tobe irritating, but boehm states that it required 100 mg per kilogramof body weight to induce vomiting after its oral administration furthermore, saponin is present in traces only in infusion ofdigitalis, so that the therapeutic dose contains a wholly negligibleamount of it the following occurs in “pharmacological tests of digitalis, ” by m j chevalier. “hartung digifolin merits our attention, especially because it seems to possess all the pharmacodynamic properties of galenic preparations of digitalis without showing any of their disadvantages ”this claim scarcely needs comment, since it is well established thatthe chief “disadvantages” of digitalis are inherent in the principleswhich produce the desired effects of digitalis and may be avoidedto a large extent by a carefully regulated dosage of any digitalispreparation in short, the advertising for digifolin asserts that thisdigitalis preparation has all the advantages of digitalis itself, butnone of its disadvantages this claim has been refuted so frequentlythat manufacturers must be aware that it is untenable further theclaims now made for digifolin are essentially those made nearly fouryears ago at which time the attention of the american agent was calledto their unwarranted character the council declared digifolin-ciba inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies because the therapeutic claims advanced for it are misleadingand unwarranted -- from the journal a m a , april 2, 1921 essay of loeser intravenous solutions report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized the publication of the following reporton “loeser intravenous solution of hexamethylenamin, ” “loeserintravenous solution of hexamethylenamin and sodium iodid, ” “loeserintravenous solution of sodium salicylate, ” “loeser intravenoussolution of salicylate and iodid, ” “loeser intravenous solution ofsodium iodid” and “loeser intravenous solution of mercury bichlorid, ”put out by the new york intravenous laboratory, inc w a puckner, secretary the intravenous solutions of “hexamethylenamin, ” “hexamethylenaminand sodium iodid, ” “sodium salicylate, ” “sodium salicylate and sodiumiodid, ” “sodium iodid” and “mercuric chlorid” marketed by the new yorkintravenous laboratory, inc , are solutions of official substances soldunder their official names they would, therefore, be outside the scopeof the council, were it not that special and general therapeutic claimsare made for them such special claims, for instance, are contained inan advertisement in the illinois medical journal for oct 20, 1920, which gives, under the various drugs, a list of diseases in which thedrugs are said to be “indicated ” the council is unable to agree withessay of these recommendations the fundamental objection, however, isthe general claim of superiority and safety of the intravenous method the intravenous solutions named above would naturally have little saleif such special claims were not made for them while the claims may notbe made directly, they are carried by such display phrases as “for theprogressive physician seeking improved clinical results” and “a safepractical office technique ”the council continues to hold that intravenous medication, generally, is not as safe as oral medication even with relatively harmlesssubstances a fact again illustrated by the results of hanzlik andkarsner, 1920, journal pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 14, 379, and that it does not give “improved clinical results” exceptunder rather narrowly confined circumstances-- namely, if the drugundergoes decomposition in the alimentary tract, if it is not absorbed, if it causes serious direct local reaction or if time is an urgentelement each intravenous preparation for which advantage over oraladministration is claimed, directly or by implication, must be examinedfrom these points of view the council has recognized intravenous preparations which satisfiedthese requirements it is evident, however, that hexamethylenamin, sodium iodid and sodium salicylate do not when given orally they donot undergo material decomposition in the digestive tract, they arerapidly absorbed, they cause no direct local reaction, and in theconditions in which they are used the hour or so which is required forabsorption is immaterial, especially as they are used continuously foressay time mercuric chlorid does indeed produce essay local irritation, but there is as yet no convincing evidence that its intravenousinjection causes less injury than oral administration more experienceunder controlled conditions is needed before the intravenous use ofmercuric chlorid can be approved especially objectionable are thefixed proportion mixtures of sodium iodid with sodium salicylate andwith hexamethylenamin the dosage of all three drugs has to be adaptedto individual conditions this is impossible when giving them in fixedproportions the council voted not to accept “loeser intravenous solution ofhexamethylenamin, ” “loeser intravenous solution of hexamethylenaminand sodium iodid, ” “loeser intravenous solution of sodiumsalicylate, ” “loeser intravenous solution of salicylate and iodid, ”“loeser intravenous solution sodium iodid” and “loeser intravenoussolution of mercury bichlorid” for new and nonofficial remedies becausethey are sold under misleading claims regarding their alleged safetyand efficiency in view of this fundamental objection the individualclaims for each preparation were not passed on -- from the journala m a , april 16, 1921 “national iodine solution” not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary “national iodine solution” is a proprietary sold by the national drugco , philadelphia, pa from inquiries received by the council onpharmacy and chemistry it is evident that the product is extensivelybrought to the attention of physicians by means of circulars the nameimplies that it is a solution of iodin and the inference is given thatit has the advantages of iodin without the disadvantages compositionin view of the foregoing, the council took up the investigation of“national iodine solution, ” and in turn asked the a m a chemicallaboratory to analyze it the chemist report follows:according to the label of national iodine solution, “each fluidouncerepresents three grains proteo-albuminoid compound of iodin national”. Also an alcohol declaration of 7 per cent is made otherwise no information is given as to the composition either of the“solution” or of “proteo-albuminoid compound of iodine ”each bottle contained about 115 c c nearly 4 ounces of a yellowishsolution, acid in reaction, having an odor resembling witch hazel.

Descript the great wild burnet has winged leaves arising fromthe roots like the garden burnet, but not how to write essay so thesis. Yet each of theseleaves are at the least twice as large as the other, and nicked in thesame manner about the edges, of a greyish colour on the under side;the stalks are greater, and rise higher, with thesis such leaves setthereon, and greater heads at the top, of a brownish colour, and out ofthem come small dark purple flowers, like the former, but greater theroot is black and long like the other, but greater also. It has almostneither scent nor taste therein, like the garden kind place it first grows frequently in gardens the wild kind growsin divers counties of this land, especially in huntingdon, innorthamptonshire, in the meadows there. As also near london, by pancraschurch, and by a causeway-side in the middle of a field by paddington time they flower about the end of june and beginning of july, andtheir seed is ripe in august government and virtues this is an herb the sun challenges dominionover, and is a most precious herb, little inferior to betony. Thecontinual use of it preserves the body in health, and the spirits invigour.

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The race may be determined both by the color of the skinand by the shape of the head. The age may be approximated, though caremust be had in expressing an opinion, for the manner of living is wellknown to affect the appearance of age evidence of violence priorto death should be noted, and the presence or absence of fracturesascertained. Also observe the color of the hair and whether it be thinor abundant. The presence or absence of beard or mustache, and ifpresent the color. And the color of the eyes the arm - the following points should be determined. The color of theskin as indication of race. The probable sex from its shape and generalconformation.