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Days, forinstance, which promised to be exceptionally successful for venesectionin the young, offered very unfavorable prospects to the aged thus, for instance, the period from the first quadrature of the moon tothe opposition was said to be excellent for bleeding in adolescence, whereas this period was by no means inviting for phlebotomy in thosewho how to write college application essay had reached the senile period the chances for venesection becamerather intricate in their different aspects thus, for instance, stöffler taught. {the sun prohibits venesection two {days before and one day after conjunction of { the moon with { }prohibits venesection one {saturn }day before and one day {mars }after quadrature of {sun }prohibits venesection the moon with {saturn }twelve hours before and {mars }twelve hours after opposition of {sun }prohibits venesection one the moon with {saturn }day before and one day {mars }after we see, therefore, that the physician of that time was compelled tobe well-versed in astronomy unless he meant to commit grave mistakesagainst the doctrines of medicina astrologica such sins couldeventually become rather dangerous to the physician, for the code ofhammurabi about 2200, b c , ruler of babylon threatens the operator, for not quite unobjectionable surgical procedures, with the loss of hishands winckler, page 33, § 218 in order to satisfy the astrological requirement of the physician mostthoroughly, there arose in the middle ages a very peculiar literature under the name of an almanac or calendarium, thick folio volumesappeared, which enumerated, in long tables, the various positions ofthe planets and of the signs of the zodiac, so that the astrologer wasenabled to note the fate of mankind rapidly and easily the contentsof such calendaria are beyond description awriting from remarks whichreferred to all occurrences of civil life, was stated the exact periodwhen to have the hair cut, when venesection was to be performed, whento draw teeth, when to take a bath, etc even the proper time forprayer was indicated by such a calendarium according to the experienceof peter of abano, the conjunction of the moon with jupiter in thedragon was sure to effect an answer to prayer hieronymus cardanushad discovered, with the aid of astrology, that a request was sure tobe complied with if a prayer was offered to the virgin mary on thefirst day of april, at 8 a m möhsen, vol ii , page 423 physiciansexcelled in the compilation of such calendaria, especially during thefifteenth and sixteenth centuries professors, forensic physicians, surgeons in fact, all representatives of medical art were equallyintent upon instructing the public by calendaria in regard to the mostvarious branches of medicina astrologica. Thus, for instance, davidherliz, physician at prenzlau, supplied pomerania, mecklenburg, andthe margravate of brandenburg with calendars for fifty years, from theyear 1584 the marburg professor of medicine, victorinus schönfelder, played a similar rôle during the same period for western gerthesis thephysician, as almanac-maker, is probably one of the most wonderfulresults of medical superstition, and this aberration of medicine clungso firmly to the people that, even in the eighteenth and nineteenthcenturies, certain days of the year were considered as especiallyfavorable for venesection, and the calendars took writingicular pains tocall the attention of the public most emphatically to good days forblood-letting illustration. Fig 5 venesection in its astronomical connectionexplanation of fig 5 a the astronomic signs which are noted on the different writings of the body indicate the signs of the zodiac, under the special influence of which the respective members of the body are said to be b the numerals which are found at the most varied writings of the body refer to indications for venesection, as stated below in these localities, which are characterized by figures, blood was drawn for the most various affections, namely in. 1 pains of the eyes and head. Affections of the face, including eruptions 2 affections of the head. Mental disturbances 3 affections of the eye of various kinds 4 and 5 pains in the ears. Lachrymation 6 and 7 tinnitus aurium. Tremor of the head 8 disturbances of hearing 9 heaviness of the head. Flow from the eyes venesection here also renders memory more acute, as well as the activity of the brain in general 10 heaviness of the head 11 ulcers of the lips and of the gums 12 the veins of the palate are to be opened in eruptions in the face, in toothache, in affections of the palate and of the mouth, heaviness of the head 13 neuralgia and toothache 14 headaches, mental disturbances 15 to render the memory more acute 16 in all affections of the mouth or of the chest 17 fetid breath 18 pains in the jaws.

It helps also ruptures and burstenness if you please tomake the juice thereof into a syrup with honey or sugar, you may safelytake a spoonful or two at a time, let my author say how to write college application essay what he will fora quinsy, and you shall find the medicine pleasant, and the cure speedy parsley this is so well known, that it needs no description government and virtues it is under the dominion of mercury. Is verycomfortable to the stomach. Helps to provoke urine and women courses, to break wind both in the stomach and bowels, and doth a little openthe body, but the root much more it opens obstructions both of liverand spleen, and is therefore accounted one of the five opening roots galen commended it against the falling sickness, and to provoke urinemightily. Especially if the roots be boiled, and eaten like parsnips the seed is effectual to provoke urine and women courses, to expelwind, to break the stone, and ease the pains and torments thereof;it is also effectual against the venom of any poisonous creature, and the danger that comes to them that have the lethargy, and is asgood against the cough the distilled water of parsley is a familiarmedicine with nurses to give their children when they are troubledwith wind in the stomach or belly which they call the frets. And isalso much available to them that are of great years the leaves ofparsley laid to the eyes that are inflamed with heat, or swollen, dothmuch help them, if it be used with bread or meal. And being friedwith butter, and applied to women breasts that are hard through thecurdling of their milk, it abates the hardness quickly. And also takesaway black and blue marks coming of bruises or falls the juice thereofdropped into the ears with a little wine, eases the pains tragus setsdown an excellent medicine to help the jaundice and falling sickness, the dropsy, and stone in the kidneys, in this manner. Take of the seedof parsley, fennel, annise and carraways, of each an ounce.

Quassia 3/4 grain aloin 1/4 grain chionanthus 1 grain ipecac 1/16 grain how to write college application essay wahoo 3/4 grain podophyllin 1/4 grain nux vomica 1/2 grain gingerine q s cascara 1/3 grainin the advertising the “cascara” of the label is replaced by theindefinite term “cascarin” and the “gingerine q s ” by “carminativeantigripe q s ” flint, eaton and company informed the council that“carminative antigripe is c p sodium sulphite of which each tabletcontains 1/4 grain ” the tablets were treated with dilute hydrochloricacid and the odor of sulphur dioxid became apparent this shows thatthe company statement to the council, that the tablets contain asulphite, is correct and the formula on the label is incorrect in the advertising for this preparation we read. “a careful study of this formula which formula?. that on the label or that in the general advertising?. -- council will reveal the outstanding fact that, while there are several drugs employed, each ingredient is there for a purpose and all do splendid teamwork if your patient is constipated because the stomach is not sufficiently energetic, the quassia stimulates that organ to an increased secretion of digestive fluids and sets it to working normally if the liver be sluggish, the chionanthus and wahoo prompt it to increased activity chionanthus has no superior for producing a sustained healthy hepatic condition should the bowels be slow and uncertain, the small doses of aloin, cascarin and podophyllin stimulate to free peristaltic action, while the nux vomica sets the nervous system right we use an effective antigripe so that there is no griping ”it is absurd to suppose that a complex mixture of drugs in fixedproportions can have the actions claimed for quassia compound tablets as regards the claim that “chionanthus has no superior for producing asustained healthy hepatic condition, ” it was brought out in a reportof the council on “essay unimportant drugs” reports of council onpharmacy and chemistry, 1912, p 36 that the “claims for this remedychionanthus are not supported by experimental evidence and theclinical reports of its use fail to show indications of discriminatingcritical observation it is not noticed by most pharmacologicauthorities ”of wahoo euonymus n f the “epitome of the u s p and n f ”says. “actions and uses -- obsolete cathartic. Toxic digitaliseffects caption. The uncertain absorption of this drug makes its useinadvisable ”quassia compound tablets flint, eaton and company are inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies because 1 they contain drugs ofunproved value. 2 their composition is needlessly complex, and, therefore irrational. 3 unwarranted therapeutic claims are madefor them. 4 the name is misleading and not descriptive of theircomposition, and 5 the statement of their composition is indefiniteand incorrect -- from the journal a m a , july 9, 1921 toxicide report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized the publication of the following report. W a puckner, secretary toxicide toxicide laboratories, chicago is alleged to be a remedywhich “increases systemic resistance, ” is “used for immunizing againstseptic infections” and “is indicated in any case of septic infection, capable of inducing inflammation and pus formation, regardless oflocation or kind of tissue involved ” the following statementsbearing on the composition of the preparation are furnished by themanufacturers. “toxicide contains lachesis 12x, tarantula 6x, psorinum special 15x, silicia 6x and excipient q s the excipient is sweet milk “these remedies are combined in the sweet milk and put through a process of development, which produces the curative agent which we call ‘toxicide’ “put up in tablet form, sugar coated and colored red ”no information is given as to the proportions, either relative oractual, of the ingredients neither is any information given regardingthe “process of development” to which the mixture is subjected, nor theamount of the finished mixture which is contained in toxicide tablets the toxicide laboratories present the following “theory”. “in combining these remedies and processing with milk, we develop a latent immunizing active principle, which usually controls the most virulently, active, septic infections promptly ”illustration. Photographic reproduction reduced of an advertisementof the “originator” of toxicide. It ran for thesis months in the programof a burlesque theater located in ruckel neighborhood there is no evidence, however, that any effort has been made todemonstrate the presence of a “latent immunizing active principle” byscientific methods of modern immunology the following claims for theuse of toxicide appear on the label. “acne, boils, carbuncles, furuncles and abscesses of the most virulent types usually begin to show improvement within 4 to 12 hours after beginning administration “in badly infected wounds, toxicide will check the further destruction of live tissue and should always be given for a few days before and after operations on pus paper “for gunshot wounds and other conditions difficult to sterilize or drain, toxicide is the ideal remedy “for abscesses existing or threatened in any obscure location, the middle ear, the mastoid, the frontal or any accessory sinuses, toxicide is of inestimable value “if administered early, in fractures, compound or simple, or for laceration and other injuries, inflammation, swelling, soreness and destruction of tissue will be greatly mitigated ”in support of these claims there are offered letters from physicianswho have used toxicide with good results none of these testimonialspresent evidence that the reported effects were due to toxicide the asserted-- and highly improbable-- action of toxicide could bedetermined only by an extensive series of carefully controlled clinicaltrials-- and such evidence is entirely lacking in fact, the claimsappear to have no better basis than the coincidence which is stated tohave led to the discovery of the “remedy”.

To teachus, that we should not fix our affections upon what is transitory, butwhat endures for ever the result of this is, if the liver be weak, andcannot make blood enough, i would have said, sanguify, if i had writtenonly to scholars, the seriphian, which is the weakest of wormwoods, isbetter than the best i have been critical enough, if not too much place it grows familiarly in england, by the sea-side descript it starts up out of the earth, with thesis round, woody, hairy stalks from one root its height is four feet, or three at least the leaves in longitude are long, in latitude narrow, in colour white, in form hoary, in similitude how to write college application essay like southernwood, only broader andlonger. In taste rather salt than bitter, because it grows so near thesalt-water. At the joints, with the leaves toward the tops it bearslittle yellow flowers. The root lies deep, and is woody common wormwood i shall not describe, for every boy that can eat anegg knows it roman wormwood. And why roman, seeing it grows familiarly in england?. It may be so called, because it is good for a stinking breath, whichthe romans cannot be very free from, maintaining so thesis bad houses byauthority of his holiness descript the stalks are slender, and shorter than the commonwormwood by one foot at least. The leaves are more finely cut anddivided than they are, but essaything smaller. Both leaves and stalksare hoary, the flowers of a pale yellow colour.

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For tonsillitis, how to write college application essay both as a remedy and as a prophylactic againstrheumatic and other sequelae. For “throat infections”. For rhinitiswith the claims that acute coryza can be aborted within twenty-fourhours. For pneumonia in which it is advised for all stages. Forlaryngitis, for bronchitis, and for asthma no acceptable evidence was submitted as to the value of the product inthe treatment of any of the foregoing conditions in view of what isknown about non-specific reactions, it seems likely that any influencewhich this vaccine may have on the diverse conditions enumerated bythe manufacturer, is due to this, rather than to the combination oforganisms used in its preparation on the recommendation of the committee on serums and vaccines, thecouncil declared “sherman mixed vaccine no 40” ineligible to newand nonofficial remedies because the therapeutic claims made for itare unwarranted rule 6 and because the combination, in view ofits complexity, is irrational and detrimental to sound therapy rule10 -- from the journal a m a , june 23, 1918 ophthalmol-lindemann report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryophthalmol-lindemann was taken up for consideration by the councilbecause of inquiries received the following report, declaringophthalmol inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies, was adopted bythe council and its publication authorized w a puckner, secretary ophthalmol-lindemann innis, speiden and co , new york is advertisedas a treatment for eye diseases by “hyperemia ” the circularadvertising the product is written essaywhat in the style of “patentmedicine” advertisements it contains testimonials of dubious value the principle underlying the use of ophthalmol is that employedto a considerable extent by ophthalmologists, through the use ofethylmorphine “dionin”, etc , viz , the production of conjunctivalirritation in inflammatory eye diseases ophthalmol is, therefore, merely a special agent for the production of such ophthalmic irritation the advertising circular contains no evidence that ophthalmol is in anyrespect superior to the established agents for producing conjunctivalhyperemia on the other hand, there are obvious objections to theuse in the eye of a substance of unknown and apparently indefinitecomposition and uncertain activity ophthalmol is said to be an oilysolution of “glandular extract of the fish cobitis fossilis ” cobitisfossilis is a small fish said to be common in gerthesis according tokochs, who analyzed ophthalmol arb a d pharm inst d univ berl , 4:140, 1907, this fish is popularly believed to predictweather, but medical virtues are not ascribed to it this “fishy”extract is indefinite, to say the least the activity of the preparation is described by the manufacturer thus:“it seems probable that the typical action of ophthalmol is due tocertain organic acids which may have formed during manufacture throughthe decomposition of protein bodies contained in the crude material ”the profession is not told whether this important decomposition is, or, in fact, can be controlled so as to produce a material of uniformactivity kochs concluded from his analysis that ophthalmol had the propertiesof rancid olive oil containing about 6 to 7 per cent mineral oil theoil contained no nitrogen, left no ash on ignition and though traces ofiodin were claimed to be present, no iodin could be found it is recommended that ophthalmol be rejected first, because the usein the eye of an irritant of secret composition and uncertain activityis unscientific and against the interest of public health. Second, because ophthalmol is of secret composition the composition claimedbeing practically meaningless, and, third, because no evidence hasbeen submitted to substantiate its claimed superiority over establishedmethods of treatment the council declared ophthalmol inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies -- from the journal a m a , july 6, 1918 silvol ineligible for n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on silvol parke, davis & company was adopted bythe council and its publication authorized w a puckner, secretary the council took up the consideration of silvol parke, davis &company because of inquiries received the following report wassubmitted by the referee in charge of silver preparations:silvol parke, davis & company is a silver-protein preparation of theargyrol type like argyrol, it is said to contain about 20 per cent of silver the referee finds that, like argyrol, it is nonirritant tothe nasal mucosa in a 10 per cent solution. Does not precipitate withchlorid. Dissolves in water readily. A 25 per cent solution has a highspecific gravity silvol, 1 137 at 20 c.