How To Write Argument Essay

Camphor, iodine element, oleaginous solvent ” from this it appears that thepreparations are claimed to contain elementary free iodine in an“oleaginous solvent ” since free iodin, as is well known, readilycombines with fats, it was decided to determine the form in which theiodin was present in these preparations the examination demonstratedthat both preparations contained but a trace of free iodin on steamdistillation there was obtained from both preparations a distillateamounting to about 35 per cent by volume which had an odor stronglysuggestive of turpentine, while the residue contained the iodin and hadthe characteristics of an iodized fatty oil quantitative determinations indicated that campetrodin containedapproximately 0 03 per cent of free iodin and 1 3 per cent of iodinin combination with the fatty oil campetrodin no 2, double strength, contained approximately 0 03 per cent free iodin and 2 per cent ofiodin in combination with the fatty oil thus, contrary to the published statements, campetrodin is not apreparation of free elementary iodin and campetrodin no 2, doublestrength, does not contain twice as much iodin as campetrodin the report of the chemical laboratory shows that the statements madein regard to the composition of campetrodin and campetrodin no 2are incomplete in essay respects and false in others in view of thelaboratory findings it appears superfluous to inquire into thetherapeutic claims made for the preparations. It is evident, however, that a solution containing practically no free iodin is not, as claimedby the robins company, “adapted for use wherever iodin is indicatedexternally ”it is recommended that campetrodin and campetrodin no 2 be declaredinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because of falsestatements as to chemical composition and therapeutic action, constituting conflicts with rules 1 and 6 the council adopted the recommendation of the referee and authorizedpublication of this report -- from the journal a m a , sept 21, 1918 carminzym report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following which explainswhy carminzym was not accepted for new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary carminzym is a tablet sold by fairchild bros and foster, new york each tablet contains, according to claims made, approximately 32 mg of an extract of pancreas, 50 mg sodium bicarbonate, 172 mg preparedchalk, 1 5 mg powdered ipecac and “aromatics q s ” withoutconsidering other possible conflicts with its rules, the council heldthe preparation inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies forconflict with rule 10 which holds that unscientific or useless articlesare not acceptable products the council holds that complex mixtures of remedial agents are, fromevery point of view, inimical to therapeutic progress and therefore tothe public welfare such mixtures are especially objectionable becauseit is impossible accurately to determine the effects which follow thesimultaneous administration of a number of drugs having dissimilaractions. Because the practice of prescribing such mixtures tends todiscourage careful consideration of the special needs of individualpatients without which there can be no rational drug therapy on thecontrary, with the use of such mixture therapeutic treatment becomeshaphazard and mere guesswork the council, appreciating that long established customs cannot bechanged at once, has applied rule 10 concerning the recognition ofmixtures with the greatest leniency compatible with consistency whenthere has been a reasonable doubt concerning the value of a mixtureit has frequently directed that rule 10 should not apply pendingfurther clinical trial of such mixture in no instance has subsequentexperience shown that a strict interpretation of the rule would haveworked hardship or injustice the council feels that there is no longerwarrant for the admission of complex mixtures to new and nonofficialremedies or for the retention of any that have been admitted unlessdefinite evidence of the therapeutic value of such combinations isavailable in accordance with this decision several mixtures nowdescribed in new and nonofficial remedies will be omitted at theexpiration of the three year period for which articles are accepted reverting to the carminzym tablet. When it is desired to obtain theeffects of pancreatic extract by oral administration it must beadministered with a view of preventing its destruction by the gastricfluid with this end in view an antacid should be administered todecrease the acidity of the gastric juice the amount of alkali maybe supplied in the form of any of the official preparations, but theamount must be adjusted to the individual patient for the reason thatno two successive patients are likely to have the same degree ofgastric acidity ipecac has a well defined though limited field of usefulness when itis used, it should be given with a due regard to the amount needed bythe patient and the frequency of the repetition of the dose there isno reason to suppose that any two successive patients will requireipecac and extract of pancreas in a fixed proportion and with equalfrequency as a matter of fact, the amount of ipecac in carminzym is sosmall that no definite therapeutic action can be assigned to it and itsuse in this combination is purely empirical in a word, the employment of mixtures of pancreatic extract, alkalis, ipecac and carminatives in fixed proportion leads to slipshod treatmentand irrational therapeutics carminzym is an irrational mixture the useof which is detrimental to therapy the preceding report was sent to fairchild bros and foster for commentin accordance with the council usual procedure the following replywas received. The long established custom of the use of mixtures of remedial agents rests upon considerations well known and generally accepted this is equally true of combinations of drugs of similar and dissimilar properties the drugs of these combinations, especially those of marked therapeutic action, are well known and used by themselves when indicated in fact, dissimilarity of action is a cause of combination, an essential of synergism drugs classed as similar are by no means alike in action. Laxatives, tonics, carminatives, diuretics are combined with distinct advantage, economy of dose, enhanced effect, potency not obtainable with the single drug your sweeping arbitrary conclusions that complex mixtures of remedial agents are from every point of view inimical to therapeutic progress is not, it seems to us, sustained by fact and experience there is therapeutic progress in the considerate use and observation of combinations as well as in the use of a single drug indeed, in the production of a synthetic chemical substance as a therapeutic agent, the combination of potent and dissimilar elements is worked out to mitigate and correct an objectionable side effect, and promote desirable action as for ourselves, at the very outset in our line of work we quite voluntarily declared our principles and our intentions as opposed to incompatible and therefore unstable or inert combinations of the enzymes. And against the “unnecessary multiplication of preparations”-- see fairchild hand-book of the digestive ferments is not this after all the crux of the whole matter-- does a combination contain the ingredients stated, does it possess the demonstrable properties which are to be attributed to it in consequence of this composition.

Says|very slight | | | | | | these have | induration | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | hurt very much| | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | less than | | | | | | | others | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 10 | 37| ♂ | 6/12/16 | 1 | 1/5 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/13/16 | 1 | 1/4 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/14/16 | 1 | 1/5 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/15/16 | 3 | 1/5 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/16/16 |arseno-| | | | | | |benzol | | | | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 |“much less pain|none | | | | | | than biniodid | | | | | | | or grey oil” | | | | 6/18/16 | 3 | 1/5 |no complaint |none | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/5 |says he is over|essay indura- | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | it in one hour| tion at site | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | | of injection -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 11 | 30| ♀ | 6/11/16 | 1 | 20 |considerable. |considerable | | | | |minims| not so much | pain and | | | 6/12/16 | 2 | 20 | | tenderness on | | | | |minims| | palpation | | | | | | | over area | | | 6/13/16 | 1 | 25 |not much pain |indurated area | | | | |minims| | at pt of | | | | | | | each | | | | | | | painful | | | 6/14/16 | 1 | 25 |not much pain |slight indura- | | | | |minims| | tion -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- * the diagnosis in case 5 was primary syphilis, and in the other paper, secondary syphilis † in this column, ♂ indicates male, and ♀ female in no case did wassermann become negative the criticism may be raised that the number of paper and of injectionsis too small to permit the drawing of any just conclusions evenshould we grant it, the statistics certainly do not prove any markedsuperiority of any one of the preparations over the others we wish tothank dr sollmann for advising and directing us in this work, and drs bailey, bernstein, markus and reycraft for assistance in carrying itout report of dr albert keideltwenty paper were chosen at random from the syphilitic patientsattending the clinic they were given intramuscular injections of thethree solutions, in amounts varying from 1 to 2 c c , at intervals inmost instances of two days the injections were invariably made intothe gluteal muscles, at depths of from 2 to 2-1/2 inches, and ordinarycare exercised to preserve asepsis after injection the patient wasallowed to dewriting, and the result was recorded at the succeedingvisit the result was determined from the patient statement and ourexamination essay patients received injections of only one solution;essay were treated with first one and later with another, and onepatient received all three at different times the solutions were nevermixed for a single injection, of course table 2 -- reactions in twenty paper reported by dr keidel preparation reactions number of ┌────────────┴────────────┐ injections severe mild none undetermined 1 13 14 4 8 39 2 5 15 16 5 41 3 7 25 3 2 37 -- - 117 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the solutions are understood to contain a 1 per cent solution of redmercuric iodid in oil, two of them containing in addition 2 5 percent of guaiacol, one of these being a proprietary preparation thesolutions are designated as preparations 1, 2 and 3, respectively, corresponding to the numbers on the labels of the bottles in which theywere originally received the local reactions are recorded as “severe” s, “mild” m, “none” o and “undetermined” u by “severe” ismeant very severe pain lasting for from several hours to several days;by “mild” is meant slight pain or numbness for several hours, or lessthan an hour. “none” indicates that there was no local reaction, and“undetermined, ” that the patient has failed to return after the lastinjection in table 3 all the details of the investigation are recorded under“local reaction, ” the letters represent the type of reaction after eachinjection, in the order in which they were given.

Notice sur l’emploi etles proprietés du lacto-phosphate de chaux, how to write argument essay clichy, 1868, unbound, 8pages dusart and blache. Recherches sur l’assimilation du phosphate dechaux, paris, 1868, unbound, 15 pages editorial note -- the investigation verifies facts that must be obviousto every physician who has given the matter thought “wheeler tissuephosphates” is an unscientific, shotgun mixture whose most active andpowerful drug is the alcohol it contains that it was not years agorelegated to the realms of obsolete and discarded preparations is acommentary alike on the lack of scientific discrimination and thepersuasive power of advertising while in the past “wheeler tissuephosphates” has been advertised extensively in medical journals, it seems that now the chief, if not the only beneficiary of theadvertising appropriation for this product is the new york medicaljournal, which weekly heralds the “delicious” and “sustaining”qualities of “the ideal tonic for fastidious convalescents ”-- fromthe journal a m a , may 5, 1917 the claimed galactagogue effects of nutrolactis and goat rue not substantiated report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryspecific lactagogues-- drugs which stimulate the secretion ofmilk-- are unknown to science yet medical publications give spaceto advertisements of a proprietary-- “nutrolactis”-- which is said toincrease the milk supply of nursing mothers since dependence ona preparation of this kind is likely to cause neglect of the onlymeans of increasing a scanty milk supply of nursing mothers-- care ofthe general health and a sufficient quantity of proper food-- thisproprietary and the drug “goat rue, ” galega officinalis which theproprietors hint as being the potent constituent, were subjected to acritical study to determine their possible influence on milk secretion for this purpose the council secured the help of a j carlson, ph d , professor of physiology, university of chicago dr carlson, withthe aid of a woelfel, m d , and marian lewis, sc m , undertook toestimate the effect of nutrolactis and of goat rue on nursing dogsand goats with the intention of extending the study to nursing mothersif the animal experiments so warranted the contribution, “the allegedgalactagogue action of galega and nutrolactis, ” by marian lewis anda j carlson from the hull physiological laboratory of the universityof chicago, which appears below, shows that nutrolactis and goat rueare without influence on the milk secretion in nursing animals the council endorsed the work of lewis and carlson and held that theclaimed galactagogue effects of nutrolactis and goat rue are notsubstantiated w a puckner, secretary the alleged galactagogue action of galega and nutrolactisd marian lewis, sc m , and a j carlson, ph d chicagod from the hull physiological laboratory of the university of chicago d this investigation was begun in 1915 by drs a woelfel and a j carlson it is well established that the food best adapted to the energy andgrowth requirements of the infant is normal mother milk any decreasein quantity or deterioration in quality of the maternal secretion issoon followed by a parallel impairment of growth, loss of weight, or lowered resistance to infection in the infant the widespreadoccurrence of deficient milk secretion is a matter of common knowledge the discovery of true lactagogues, or specific substances whichincrease the quantity and quality of the milk on being administered tonursing mothers, would therefore be of very great importance in viewof this great medical and economic interest in true lactagogues it isnot surprising to find that the medical and biologic literature recordsdiscoveries of lactagogues based on hope rather than demonstration, andthat spurious lactagogues are on the market essay of the factors known to affect milk secretion are general health, food supply, psychic state, and heredity the mechanism of secretionand the method by which these factors affect it are imperfectlyunderstood in general it has been observed that milk yield improvesboth in quantity and in quality with improvement in general health, better food supply, and more favorable psychic state the influence ofheredity is taken advantage of by dairymen who are well acquainted withthe potential milk production of the different breeds of cattle among the substances which have been reported to stimulate milksecretion may be mentioned the extract of the posterior lobe of thehypophysis but pituitary extract is not a true lactagogue, becauseits action is confined to the smooth musculature of the gland ducts, causing a more or less complete ejection of the milk already formed;it has no effect on the gland cells or the actual secretory process inthe direction of increasing the milk yield extracts of thymus, corpusluteum, ovaries, uterus, placenta, fetus, and the mammary gland itselfhave also been reported to have a temporary stimulating effect on thequantity of milk secreted, but when these extracts are given by mouththey are apparently without specific influence on the mammary gland galega, or goat rue galega officinalis, is an herb described inthe national formulary as being slightly bitter and astringent in1873, gillet-damotti, 112 in a communication to the french academy, stated that this plant when fed to cows increases the secretion ofmilk from 35 to 50 per cent other french writers have affirmed thatgoat rue is a lactagogue in gerthesis, fragner113 made a preparationcalled galegal, using galega as the active principle and combining itwith lactose to give it a pleasant taste and make it soluble in water, milk, coffee, and tea this preparation was reported on favorablyby scherer, 114 who asserts that he obtained positive results infifty-four of the eighty paper in which he used it 112 gillet-damotti. Comp rend acad d sc , july 7, 1873 113 fragner. Wien med wchnschr 60:1033-1036, 1910 114 scherer. Wien med wchnschr 60:1033-1036, 1910 more recently huët115 tested the effects of theinhardt hygiamalactogene on four lactating women this preparation is said to becomposed of hygiama, 116 galega and anise analysis showed that itcontains albumins, fat, soluble and insoluble carbohydrates, saltsand water huët could not observe any influence from the use of thispreparation, either on the quantity or on the composition of the milksecreted 115 huët. Nederlandsch tijdschr v geneesk 1:1353-1370, 1914 116 hygiama is said to be a food consisting of condensed milk, with fatless cocoa and cereals added to it encyclopedia and dictionary ofmedicine and surgery, 1907 nutrolactis117 is a commercial preparation sold by the nutrolactiscompany of new york at $1 a bottle the label states that it contains5 per cent of alcohol. That it contains fluid extracts of the familyof “galactagogic plants, ” and that it is intended to “increase thesupply of mother milk ” it is recommended to maintain “quality andquantity until the end of normal lactation ” nutrolactis is alsorecommended for a mother debilitated by lactation it is claimed that“nutrolactis does not force the secretion of milk but merely assistssuch secretion ” years ago millbank118 reported good results from theuse of nutrolactis after more than a year use he concluded that itwas more satisfactory than any other lactagogue hitherto employed byhim, which is not saying very much, as specific lactagogues are as yetunknown nutrolactis is still 1916 extensively advertised in variousmedical journals as a lactagogue 117 the north dakota agricultural experiment station has recentlypublished bulletin 22, 1915, p 386 a complete chemical analysisof nutrolactis it contains only 0 60 per cent solids includingstrychnin and emodin it has a bitter taste the alcohol content was3 5 per cent the report concludes. “a little strychnin, a littlealcohol, and a little laxative is about all there is to cause anincrease in the milk secretion ”118 millbank. New york m j 50:544, 1889 methods of investigationthe alleged lactagogue action of galega and nutrolactis was testedon lactating dogs and goats in these animals the psychic factors, or suggestion, are largely eliminated if the results had beenpositive or had indicated lactagogue action, the test would have beenextended to nursing women the puppies and kids were weighed beforeand after nursing and a record kept of the amount of milk obtained ateach nursing the animals nursing from three to five times daily the mothers were fed with varying doses of the drugs, and the milkyield compared with that of a control period during which no drugswere administered an effort was made to keep the conditions of theexperiments uniform throughout the galega was ground and mixed with the food the nutrolactis wasmixed with food given by the stomach tube, or in essay paper with aspoon galega was tested on two goats and nutrolactis on one goat andnine dogs the results are given herewith:galega goat 1. Control period, 1, 600 gm , milk av daily yield for 7 days galega period 30 gm galega mixed with oats, 860 gm , milk av daily yield for 8 days kids weaned at end of period goat 2. Control period, 1, 161 gm milk av daily yield for 9 days galega period 30 gm galega mixed with oats, 860 gm milk av daily yield for 8 days 25 gm galega in same way, 810 gm milk av daily yield for 10 days control period, 896 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days nutrolactis goat 3. Control period, 896 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days nutrolactis period 30 c c nutrolactis mixed with oats, 658 gm milk av daily yield for 9 days control period, 666 gm milk av daily yield for 5 days dog 1. Control period, 176 gm milk av daily yield for 7 days nutrolactis period 8 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 55 gm milk av daily yield for 12 days dog 2. Control period, 189 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days nutrolactis period 8 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 72 gm milk av daily yield for 11 days dog 3. Control period, 93 gm milk av daily yield for 8 days nutrolactis period 8 c c nutrolactis on bread, 17 gm milk av daily yield for 5 days dog 4. Control period, 28 gm milk av daily yield for 7 days nutrolactis period 8 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 47 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days 10 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 43 gm milk av daily yield for 8 days control period, 41 5 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days nutrolactis period 10 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 33 5 gm milk av daily yield for 4 days dog 5.

By the patient ” the former qualifying termsare used in the statutes of arkansas, indian territory, and missouri;the latter in the statutes of kansas and oklahoma the liberalinterpretation put upon this term in the missouri law has alreadybeen shown 383 the law of the indian territory is adopted fromarkansas 384 the statute how to write argument essay is strictly construed in arkansas, 385 butthis term does not seem to have received interpretation “advice ” the laws of indiana, ohio, and wyoming expressly cover thephysician advice in new york it is incompetent for the physicianto disclose what he told his patient;386 but advice to a patientconcerning a third person is not privileged 387the relation of physician and patient - under each of the statutes, the relation of physician and patient must have existed at the timethe information was acquired in those paper where the relation isestablished by contract and is recognized by both physician and patientas existing, no difficulty arises in determining that it does exist it is in those paper where essay one of these elements is lacking thatthe difficulties are met in california it has been held that therelation exists where a physician attends and prescribes for a person, notwithstanding he was employed by another, who seeks to disclosethe evidence 388 in michigan, where the physician was employed bydirection of the prosecuting attorney to examine the defendant in jail, and so notified the defendant at the outset of the examination, andhe submitted voluntarily to a personal examination, and there was nointention to prescribe or to act as the defendant physician, it washeld that the relation did not exist, and that the physician couldtestify as to the defendant physical condition 389in one new york case it has been said that the relation is oneof contract, and that the test is whether the physician would bechargeable with malpractice or negligence for failure to advise orprescribe in case the alleged patient were in urgent need of it atthe time 390 but the decisions of the court of appeals extendthe privilege to paper where this test would lead to a differentconclusion 391where the physician to a county jail was called in to attend aprisoner and examined him, though there was no prescription at thetime, but it appeared that the doctor told the prisoner what he shouldprescribe, and subsequently two physicians came to see the prisonerat the instance of the coroner and examined him as they would haveexamined one of their patients, though they did not prescribe and hadno conversation about a prescription, it was held that the prisonerhad, under the circumstances, reason to suppose that the relationof physician and patient did exist between him and all three of thephysicians, and that their testimony as to what they learned on suchvisits should have been excluded. And the rule is thus stated. Wheneverthe patient has reason to suppose that the relation exists and does infact and truth so suppose, in a case where the physician attends undercircumstances calculated to induce the opinion that his visit is of aprofessional nature, and the visit is so regarded and acted upon by theperson attended, the relation of physician and patient contemplated bythe statute may fairly be said to exist 392but the fact that it is the duty of a physician to prescribe for aperson in case of need, does not constitute the relation, thoughthe position of the physician gives him the opportunity to observesuch person. So, therefore, a jail physician was not precluded fromtestifying as to what he had observed of a prisoner, where it did notappear that he had ever attended the latter in a professional capacityor had ever been called on to attend him 393it would seem, however, that where it is the duty of a physician toattend a person in a professional capacity or to acquire knowledgeconcerning him in such capacity, he cannot disclose informationactually acquired in the performance of his duty it has been saidthat a medical attendant at an insane asylum cannot testify as to themental condition of an inmate;394 and that a physician employed in ahospital to notice and enter in its records the arrival and conditionof the patients coming in, cannot testify as to information soacquired 395it is immaterial that another person employs the physician to examinethe patient, and to report to the employer, and that the personexamined does not appear to desire any knowledge as to his condition;if the examination is made as a professional act, the relation ofphysician and patient is established between the physician and theperson examined, even though it be the only interview 396and in a case where the public prosecutor sent a physician to a personfor the purpose of making a professional examination, so as to obtainevidence against another person charged with crime, and the personexamined accepted the services of the physician in a professionalcharacter, it was held that he could not testify as to the results ofhis examination 397but where the district attorney sent a physician to jail to make anexamination of a prisoner mental and physical condition, and he madesuch examination, and it did not appear that he prescribed for ortreated the prisoner or that the prisoner accepted his services, theopinion of the physician as to his mental condition was admitted 398where the defendant employed a physician to examine the plaintiff, andhe went as coming from the defendant for that purpose, and examinedthe plaintiff in the presence of his attending physician, but not asthe plaintiff physician and not for the purpose of prescribing, therelation of physician and patient was not established 399 where aphysician examined the plaintiff at the instance of the plaintiffphysician, but it was not shown that he was requested or expectedto treat or prescribe or to advise in respect to either, or that hedid either, it was held that the relation was not established;400but a physician consulted by the patient regular physician for thepurpose of advice concerning his treatment is a physician contemplatedby the statute;401 as is also the writingner of a physician whois present during a conference with the patient or who overhearssuch a conference 402 attendance at the patient house is notcontemplated as essential by the law, and it makes no differencewhere the examination is conducted 403 but where the physician wasalso a county clerk and the alleged patient was an attorney, and theconsultation took place in the clerk office and consisted of anexamination of an eruption on the skin, which was made gratuitously andwithout a prescription being made or asked for, the relation was heldnot to have been established, notwithstanding that the clerk made useof his knowledge and learning as a physician in forming his opinion, and that it was in confidence that he possessed medical skill that theperson requested the examination 404it does not follow that the relation once established continues always;the secrecy growing out of the relationship, as to knowledge thenacquired, always continues unless properly waived. And the physicianwill not be allowed to testify in regard to matter which is writingly theresult of such information, though another writing may have been acquiredindependent of the relation;405 but where it is clear that the matterdesired is independent of the relation of physician and patient, suchevidence is admissible if otherwise competent 406“professional capacity ” the states in which the statutes limitthe privilege to information acquired in a professional capacityhave been enumerated 407 as to what constitutes a professionalcapacity, the discussion of the facts that establish the relation ofphysician and patient, and of the information necessary to enable aphysician to prescribe or a surgeon to act, makes it unnecessary todiscuss at length the meaning of this phrase the decision in lunzv massachusetts mutual life insurance company408 would make itappear that in missouri information apparent on a casual inspectionwhich any one might make is not received in a professional capacity, but this idea is disapproved in the later case of kling v city ofkansas 409 information acquired by the physician by observing thepatient on the street anterior to his employment as a physician is notreceived by him in a professional capacity 410in new york, where the physician had not seen the patient before orsince his interview for the purpose of treatment, and he was askedwhat his opinion was, based on a general sight of the man before theexamination, it was held that the physician could not properly answer, as all the information upon which the opinion would be based musthave been acquired in a professional capacity;411 but in anothercase a physician was permitted to express his opinion as to the mentalcondition of a patient whom he had seen at various times when notin attendance, excluding from his mind any knowledge or informationobtained while acting as her medical attendant and confining his answerto such knowledge and information as he had obtained by seeing her whennot his patient 412 it has been said that where information is notsuch as is obtained on sight by any person, but by removing clothingand by percussion and listening to the action of the lungs, these areprofessional acts and the information may be considered as obtainedprofessionally 413 it has been said that information received in aprofessional capacity involves a decision, though it may be negative;and that signing as witness to a will is not a professional act 414matter necessary to enable a physician to prescribe or a surgeon toact - a list of those states whose laws limit the privilege to matternecessary to enable the witness to prescribe or act for the patient isto be found in another place 415in arkansas, where six hours after delivery, the patient stated to herphysician who attended at accouchement, that she had never been engagedto marry and never had promised to marry, the statements were held notto be necessary to enable the physician to act 416in iowa, a physician who had treated a patient for injuries was notallowed to testify whether his patient told him that the car on whichhe was injured was in motion at the time, because as the injury wouldbe likely to be more severe if the car was in motion, that informationwas necessary to enable the physician to prescribe 417in michigan, a physician was allowed to contradict his patient asto when her trouble commenced, in the absence of evidence thatsuch information was necessary to enable him to act 418 where aphysician was asked whether he treated a person for typhoid fever, and he answered that she was not so diseased, it was held that thisinformation was not necessary to enable him to act 419 and the samewas held to be true where a physician examined a prisoner at the jailand testified that he was diseased, the prisoner having been notifiedat the time of the examination that it was made by direction of theprosecuting attorney and there being no intention to prescribe or actfor the prisoner 420 but it has been stated that all disclosures bya patient to a physician respecting ailments are privileged whethernecessary to enable the physician to prescribe or not 421in minnesota, a physician was allowed to disclose statements as tosuffering made by his patient, but not for the purpose of enabling himto prescribe or act 422in missouri, it has been said that information as to the way in whichan injury was inflicted is of the greatest necessity for successfultreatment. And that it is information which physicians universallydemand and receive 423 in another case, with reference to the causeof a patient condition, it was said that while knowledge of thecause may not be necessary, the disclosure of the cause cannot be madewithout a disclosure of the condition, and that as a medical personcannot tell indirectly what he is forbidden to tell directly, thephysician evidence of the cause is inadmissible 424 in another caseit was said that any information, necessarily coming to a physician inorder to treat his patient, is to be regarded as necessary informationthough unimportant, and that the test is how it was acquired, notwhether it could have been acquired in a different way, and thereforeit was incompetent for a physician to testify that his patient wasdrunk when he treated him 425in new york, in an early case, 426 where a man consulted a physicianwith reference to committing an abortion and told him that a certainwoman was pregnant by him, this admission was said not to be essentialto enable him to prescribe, even if the relation of physician andpatient were considered established. But this seems to be at variancewith the later case of people v brower, 427 where the accusedconsulted a physician with reference to the treatment of a woman onwhom he had attempted to commit an abortion, and admitted that hehad done so, and the physician was not permitted to disclose it a broader view is now taken of the word necessary it has beenheld by the court of appeals that a physician could not testifythat his patient had a venereal disease while under his care as aphysician, the presumption being that he learned it for the purpose ofprescribing;428 and again, that it is assumed from the relationshipthat the information would not have been imwritinged except for thepurpose of aiding the physician to prescribe 429 but this presumptiondoes not attach to information regarding a patient, communicated by athird person 430where a person went to a physician to call for medicine, andit appeared that he was not consulting for himself and was notrepresenting any one else who needed or desired medical assistance, thephysician was allowed to testify as to a conversation which took placeat that time 431in the case of edington v ætna life insurance company, 432 it wassaid that before the exclusion, the facts on which it is justifiedmust appear in essay way, and the court must know essaywhat of thecircumstances. From the opinion it is easy to infer that it is onlyconfidential communications and information as to secret ailments whichmay be regarded as necessary within the statute. But this view wasoverruled in grattan v metropolitan life insurance company, 433and there it was distinctly stated that it is enough that the witnessacquired the information in his character as physician and in the dueand proper exercise of his calling, and that it is not incumbent onthe person objecting, to show by formal proof that the informationwas necessary to enable the witness to prescribe in this case theexamination of the witness was as to the cause of his patientdeath, and the argument urged upon the attention of the court was thatinformation regarding the cause of death could not be necessary toenable the physician to prescribe, as the utility of the prescriptionceased with the death and before the cause was determined. But thecourt held that the privilege attached, because, although the death wasthe result of the cause, the facts constituting the cause were learnedwhile the physician was attending the living patient in a professionalcapacity and from the symptoms manifested at that time in consonance with the decision in grattan v metropolitan lifeinsurance company, 434 it has been held that a physician whoamputated a patient leg could not testify as to its condition at thetime it was amputated 435the fact that the physician does not prescribe does not defeat theprivilege. If the information is acquired in the course of professionalemployment the statute operates, for the decision that neither advicenor medicine is needed is a professional act within the spirit of thelaw 436 medicus optimus, medicamentum minimum, is the maxim used inanother case to illustrate this point 437but it cannot be predicated as matter of law that a physician cannotexclude from his consideration facts learned or opinions formed whileattending as physician.

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You mayfind it plentifully, if you look in the fields near gray inn, andnear chelsea time they flower from the beginning of june to the latter end ofaugust government and virtues it is essaything how to write argument essay hotter and drier than thegarden clary is, yet nevertheless under the dominion of the moon, aswell as that. The seeds of it being beat to powder, and drank withwine, is an admirable help to provoke lust a decoction of the leavesbeing drank, warms the stomach, and it is a wonder if it should not, the stomach being under cancer, the house of the moon also it helpsdigestion, scatters congealed blood in any writing of the body thedistilled water hereof cleanses the eyes of redness, waterishnessand heat. It is a gallant remedy for dimness of sight, to take oneof the seeds of it, and put into the eyes, and there let it remaintill it drops out of itself, the pain will be nothing to speak on, it will cleanse the eyes of all filthy and putrified matter. And inoften repeating it, will take off a film which covers the sight. Ahandessayr, safer, and easier remedy by a great deal, than to tear itoff with a needle cleavers it is also called aperine, goose-shade, goose-grass, and cleavers descript the common cleavers have divers very rough square stalks, not so big as the top of a point, but rising up to be two or threeyards high essaytimes, if it meet with any tall bushes or trees whereonit may climb, yet without any claspers, or else much lower, and lyingon the ground, full of joints, and at every one of them shoots fortha branch, besides the leaves thereat, which are usually six, set ina round compass like a star, or a rowel of a spur. From between theleaves or the joints towards the tops of the branches, come forth verysmall white flowers, at every end upon small thready foot-stalks, whichafter they have fallen, there do shew two small round and rough seedsjoined together which, when they are ripe, grow hard and whitish, having a little hole on the side, essaything like unto a navel bothstalks, leaves, and seeds are so rough, that they will cleave to anything that will touch them the root is small and thready spreadingmuch to the ground, but die every year place it grows by the hedge and ditch-sides in thesis places of thisland, and is so troubleessay an inhabitant in gardens, that it rampsupon, and is ready to choak what ever grows near it time it flowers in june or july, and the seed is ripe and fallsagain in the end of july or august, from whence it springs up again, and not from the old roots government and virtues it is under the dominion of the moon thejuice of the herb and the seed together taken in wine, helps thosebitten with an adder, by preserving the heart from the venom it isfamiliarly taken in broth to keep them lean and lank, that are aptto grow fat the distilled water drank twice a day, helps the yellowjaundice, and the decoction of the herb, in experience, is found to dothe same, and stays lasks and bloody-fluxes the juice of the leaves, or they a little bruised, and applied to any bleeding wounds, stays thebleeding the juice also is very good to close up the lips of greenwounds, and the powder of the dried herb strewed thereupon doth thesame, and likewise helps old ulcers being boiled in hog grease, it helps all sorts of hard swellings or kernels in the throat, beinganointed therewith the juice dropped into the ears, takes away thepain of them it is a good remedy in the spring, eaten being first chopped small, and boiled well in water-gruel, to cleanse the blood, and strengthenthe liver, thereby to keep the body in health, and fitting it for thatchange of season that is coming clown woods descript it grows up essaytimes to two or three feet high, butusually about two feet, with square green rough stalks, but slender, joined essaywhat far asunder, and two very long, essaywhat narrow, darkgreen leaves, bluntly dented about the edges thereof, ending in a longpoint the flowers stand towards the tops, compassing the stalks atthe joints with the leaves, and end likewise in a spiked top, havinglong and much gaping hoods of a purplish red colour, with whitish spotsin them, standing in essaywhat round husks, wherein afterwards standblackish round seeds the root is composed of thesis long strings, withessay tuberous long knobs growing among them, of a pale yellowish orwhitish colour, yet essay times of the year these knobby roots in thesisplaces are not seen in this plant this plant smells essaywhat strong place it grows in sundry counties of this land, both north andwest, and frequently by path-sides in the fields near about london, andwithin three or four miles distant about it, yet it usually grows in ornear ditches time it flowers in june or july, and the seed is ripe soon after government and virtues it is under the dominion of the planetsaturn it is singularly effectual in all fresh and green wounds, andtherefore bears not this name for nought and it is very available instaunching of blood and to dry up the fluxes of humours in old frettingulcers, cankers, &c that hinder the healing of them a syrup made of the juice of it, is inferior to none for inward wounds, ruptures of veins, bloody flux, vessels broken, spitting, urining, or vomiting blood.