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How To Write A Thesis For An Essay


Bromide of ethyl, 1 per cent ”although somnoform has been on the market for a long time, thepublished reports present no proof that it is superior to ethylchlorid used alone moreover, the published reports and statistics donot necessarily apply to the somnoform now sold how to write a thesis for an essay for the reason thatmixtures of varying composition have been sold as somnoform in thepast thus, when somnoform was considered by the council in 1909, itwas claimed to be composed of chloride of ethyl, 60 per cent. Chlorideof methyl, 35 per cent , and bromide of ethyl, 5 per cent federalchemists found, however, that it contained no bromide of ethyl noticeof judgment no 571 it is a question, therefore, whether a givenreport applies to a mixture containing 5 per cent bromide of ethyl, 1per cent of this substance, or none at all the present advertising booklet for somnoform does not presentacceptable evidence of the therapeutic value of the preparation an ignorance concerning the elementary facts of physiology andpharmacology is evident in the second sentence. When having stated that“somnoform is the result of several years of study and investigation bydr george rolland, dean of the bordeau dental school, ” the pamphletcontinues. “he sought an anesthetic which would enter, dwell in, andleave the body in the same manner that oxygen does ”the claim as to the value of the 1 per cent of ethyl bromide in themixture is highly improbable.

This was held to be error it has also been held that thetaking of a physician deposition and filing it, for the purposeof breaking the force of his testimony in a deposition taken by theopposite writingy, is no consent in itself to the reading of the otherwritingy deposition 318 but when, in an action against a physician formalpractice, the patient testifies as to the manner of treatment, thephysician is then at liberty to introduce the testimony of himself oranother physician as to the facts thus put in issue by the patient 319in iowa it has been held that the testimony of a patient regarding thecondition of his health is not a waiver of privilege, so as to allowhis opponent to introduce the testimony of his physician to contradicthim 320in michigan how to write a thesis for an essay a physician has been allowed to contradict his patient asto the time when her trouble commenced, but on the ground that it hadnot been shown that the information was necessary to enable him toprescribe 321 but it has been held that waiver as to one physician isnot waiver as to another regarding a different time 322in missouri, the calling of a physician by the patient as a witnessto testify as to information acquired while attending, is awaiver 323 but offering one physician as a witness is not a waiverof the privilege with reference to another 324 an applicant forinsurance may, by an express waiver in his application, make anefficient waiver, binding upon any one claiming under the contract ofinsurance 325in nevada a waiver has been implied from the testimony of the patientand her mother, where the patient was an infant seven years ofage 326 and it was said that the parents of such an infant may makethe waiver in new york it has been held that reference to a family physicianwhen answering questions on an application for insurance, is not awaiver;327 nor is the presence of a third person, in aid of thepatient;328 nor is the bringing of an action for damages for aninjury;329 nor is the examination of the physician in a former trialby the opposing writingy;330 but where the ban of secrecy is onceremoved in an action and the information once lawfully made public, atthe instance of the patient, it cannot be restored, and the disclosuremay then be compelled in any subsequent action;331 it would seem, too, that a physician who becomes a witness to his patient lastwill and testament at the patient request is then subject to athorough examination on all points involving the patient testamentarycapacity 332where the patient testified herself and called an attending physicianto prove her physical condition, this was not a consent to theexamination of another attending physician, and it was said that theopposite writingy by tactics on cross-examination could not compel thepatient to abandon a privilege which she refused to waive 333 fish, j , in delivering the opinion of the court in the last-mentioned case, said of the operation of the statute, that it allows the patient touse the testimony of the attending physician if he thinks his evidencewill benefit his case, and to object and exclude it in case he thinksit will not benefit him. He may call to his aid the testimony of anyone whose views he approves and exclude that of another whose testimonymight tend to controvert that given with the consent of the patient;that in this case the excluded witness was the best witness and couldtell nothing else than the patient had disclosed if she had told thetruth and it would relate solely to what she and the other physicianhad described, but that the court could not consider whether thestatute tended to promote the cause of justice, and he distinguishedmckinney v grand street railroad company, 334 on the ground thatthere the consent had been that the same physician should disclose whathe knew, while here the waiver of the excluded physician testimonyhad been constantly withheld a decision which seems to be at variance with record v village ofsaratoga springs is treanor v manhattan railway company, 335 whereit was said that the patient cannot promulgate and uncover his maladiesand infirmities in court and keep his physician under obligations tosilence, and that he cannot, to mulct another in damages, inflame ajury with a false or exaggerated story of his injuries and sufferingsand preclude the physician from making a truthful statement of the case but where the patient testifies as to what passed between him and hisphysician, the physician may testify on the same subject, as a waiveris inferred from the circumstances. For the reason, that the patient, having gone into the privileged domain to get evidence on his ownbehalf, cannot prevent the other writingy from assailing such evidenceby the only testimony available, and the rule is no longer applicablewhen the patient himself pretends to give the circumstances of theprivileged interview 336 the requirement that a physician file witha board of health a certificate of the cause of death does not abrogatethe privilege in a judicial proceeding 337the evidence excluded “information ” in arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nevada, new york, north carolina, northdakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wisconsin theprivileged matter is characterized as information 338in arkansas it seems that the information must be a confidentialcommunication;339 but in the other states where it has beennecessary to construe the word it has received a broader interpretation in michigan information is not confined to confidentialcommunications made by the patient, but includes whatever in order toenable a physician to prescribe was disclosed to any of his senses andwhich in any way was brought to his knowledge for that purpose;340it covers a letter written to a physician, 341 and matters observedby him;342 but it does not include information acquired by a thirdperson. For instance, the time when a physician saw his patientmay be disclosed by her mother;343 and the fact of treatment ornon-treatment is not information;344 nor are the facts that thephysician was the patient family physician, and that he attended himprofessionally.

And, subject to sub sec 2of this section, the absence of the name of any person from such copyshall be prima facie evidence that such person is not registeredaccording to this act 34 in the case of a person whose name does not appear in such copy, acertified copy under the hand of the registrar of the entry of the nameof such person on the register shall be evidence that such person isregistered under this act 34, sub s 2 homœopathic physicians - any homœopathic physician holding a diplomaof qualification from any authorized school or college requiring athree-years’ course of study may be registered, and shall not be boundto pass the examination required by sec 29, but in lieu thereof, shallpass before the council, or such of them as may be appointed for thatpurpose, a satisfactory examination in anatomy, physiology, pathology, chemistry, obstetrics, and surgery 35, as amended, act 1890, c 30, s 2 neglect to register - those entitled to register and neglecting to doso are not entitled to any of the rights and privileges conferred byregistration and are liable to all penalties against unqualified orunregistered practitioners 37 fraudulent registration - if a person procures or causes to be procuredhis registration by means of any false or fraudulent representation ordeclaration, the registrar may, on receipt of sufficient evidence tothat effect, report the matter to the council and, on the written orderof the president, attested by the seal of the council, erase the nameof such person from the register and make known the fact and the causethereof in the british columbia gazette, and after such notice hasappeared such person shall cease to be a registered practitioner, andto enjoy any of the privileges conferred by registration, without theexpress sanction of the council 39 to wilfully procure or attempt to procure registration by falserepresentations or declarations is punishable by a penalty notexceeding $100 to knowingly aid or assist therein is punishable with apenalty of from $20 to $50 for each offence 40 unlawful practices - it is not lawful for any person not registeredto practise medicine or surgery for hire, gain, or hope of reward to so practise or profess to practise, or advertise to give advice inmedicine or surgery, is punishable with a penalty of from $25 to $10041 for a person to wilfully or falsely pretend to be a physician, doctor, or medical, surgical, or general practitioner, or assume any title, address, or description other than he actually possesses and is legallyentitled to, is punishable by a penalty of from $10 to $50 s 42 a person not registered who takes or uses any name, title, addition, ordescription implying or calculated to lead people to infer that he isregistered or recognized by law as a physician, surgeon, or licentiatein medicine or surgery is punishable with a penalty of from $25 to $10043 costs may be awarded in addition to the penalty against an offender, and on default of payment he may be committed to the common jail forone month unless the costs are sooner paid 47 unregistered persons - no one but a person registered under this act isentitled to receive any charge for any medical or surgical advice orattendance or the performance of any operation or for any medicine thathe may have prescribed 44 appointments as medical officers, physicians, or surgeons in any branchof the public service, or in a hospital or a charitable institution notsupported wholly by voluntary contribution, are conferred on registeredpersons only 45 no certificate required from any physician or surgeon or medicalpractitioner is valid unless the signer is registered 46 evidence - in a prosecution, the burden of proving registration is uponthe person charged 48 registration may be proved by the production of a printed or othercopy of the register certified under the hand of the registrar of thecouncil for the time being, and any certificate on such copy purportingto be signed by any person as registrar is prima facie evidence thathe is registrar without further proof 49 limitations - prosecutions under the act must be commenced within sixmonths from the date of the offence 50 stay - the council may stay proceedings in prosecutions 51 prosecutor - any person may be prosecutor or complainant under the act52 fees - to the registrar, for registration under this act, such sum asmay from time to time be fixed by the council by resolutions or by-law, but not exceeding $100 36, as amended, act 1893, c 27, s 1 to the medical council, on or before march 1st, annually, $10, or suchother sum as may from time to time be fixed by the council s 53, as amended, act 1890, c 30, s 3 for registration, by persons registered under act 1893, c 27, s 2, afee fixed by the council not to exceed $100 act 1893, c 27, s 2 manitoba college of physicians and surgeons - the medical profession isincorporated as “the college of physicians and surgeons of manitoba” rev stat of man , 1891, c 98, s 2 all persons lawfully registered under previous acts or the present actare members of the said college 3, 4 council - there is constituted by law a council of the said collegecomposed of representatives selected as provided in the act, each ofwhom must be a practitioner licensed under this act 5 to 8 no member of the college who is in arrears for his annual fees or anywriting thereof is entitled to vote at the election for members of thecouncil or be eligible for election as a member thereof 15 register - the council is required to appoint a registrar and to causea register to be kept in which shall be entered the name of everyperson registered under this act or under the consolidated statutes ofmanitoba, chap 9, and the acts amending the same, and of all personswho comply with this act, and the rules and regulations made by thecouncil respecting the qualifications of practitioners of medicine, surgery, and midwifery only those whose names are inscribed in thebook are deemed qualified and licensed to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery 17, 24, 25 qualification - all persons duly registered under existing laws whenthe revised statutes took effect are deemed registered under thepresent law 27 the registrar was required immediately upon his appointment to registerthe name of every person registered under previous acts 28 every person who possesses one or more of the following qualificationsshall, upon the payment of the fee, to be fixed for each writingicularclass by by-law of the council, be entitled to be registered on theproduction to the registrar of the document proving such qualification:1 persons entitled to be registered at the time of the coming intoforce of the revised statutes 2 any member of any incorporated college of physicians and surgeonsof any province of the dominion of canada, or any member of any otherincorporated body of medical men in canada, exercising powers similarto those conferred by this act on the college of physicians andsurgeons of manitoba, where, by the laws of the province under whichthe said incorporated body exists, similar rights to register and topractise medicine are granted to the persons incorporated under thisact 3 every person mentioned in chap 48 of act 49 and 50 vict of theparliament of the united kingdom 4 every graduate in medicine upon examination of the university ofmanitoba 5 every person who produces to the registrar the certificate under thecorporate seal of the university of manitoba hereinafter provided for29 the registrar is required to keep his register correct, and to makefrom time to time the necessary alterations in the addresses orqualifications of the persons registered 30 every person registered who obtains a higher degree or otherqualification is entitled to have it inserted in the register insubstitution of or in addition to the qualification previouslyregistered, on the payment of such fees as the council may appoint34 no qualification is entitled to be entered on the register unless theregistrar be satisfied by proper evidence that the person claiming itis entitled thereto appeal lies from the registrar decision to thecouncil 35 the registrar, if dissatisfied with the evidence adduced, may, subjectto appeal to the council, refuse registration until proper evidence isfurnished, duly attested by oath or affirmation before a judge of anycounty court 36 fraudulent registration - any entry proved to the satisfaction of thecouncil to have been fraudulently or incorrectly made may be erasedfrom the register by order in writing of the council 38 if a person procures or causes to be procured his registration by falseor fraudulent representations or declarations, the registrar may, on the receipt of sufficient evidence of the falsity or fraudulentcharacter, represent the matter to the council, and may on the writtenorder of the president, attested by the seal of the college, erase hisname from the register, and cause notice of the fact and cause to bepublished in the manitoba gazette, and after such notice has appearedsuch person shall cease to be a member of the college of physiciansand surgeons, and to enjoy any privilege enjoyed or conferred byregistration at any further time without the express sanction of thecouncil 39 forfeiture of rights - any registered medical practitioner convictedof felony or misdemeanor before or after the passage of the act or hisregistration forfeits his right to registration, and by direction ofthe council his name shall be erased if a person known to have beenconvicted of felony or misdemeanor presents himself for registration, the registrar may refuse registration if any person registered bejudged, after due inquiry by the council, to have been guilty ofinfamous or unprofessional conduct in any respect, the council maydirect the registrar to erase his name 40 the council may, and upon the application of any three registeredmedical practitioners shall, cause inquiry to be made into the case ofa person liable to have his name erased from the register, and on proofof such conviction or such infamous or unprofessional conduct shallcause his name to be erased. But no erasure shall be made on account ofhis adopting or refraining from adopting the practice of any writingiculartheory of medicine or surgery, nor on account of conviction for apolitical offence out of her majesty dominions, nor on account of theconviction which ought not in the opinion of the council or committeedisqualify him from the practice of medicine or surgery 41 the council may order to be paid, out of funds at their disposal, such costs as to them may seem just, to any person against whom anycomplaint has been made which, when fully determined, is found to havebeen frivolous and vexatious 42 an entry erased by order of the council shall not be again enteredexcept by order of the council or a judge or court of competentjurisdiction 43 if the council think fit, they may direct the registrar to restore anyentry erased, without a fee, or on payment of a fee not exceeding theregistration fee, as the council may fix 44 the council is authorized to ascertain the facts of any case for theexercise of its powers of erasing and restoring by committee s 45 the act provides in detail for proceedings before such committee46 to 50 no action shall be brought against the council or committee foranything done bona fide under the act appeal from the decision toerase lies to any judge of the court of queen bench for manitoba, and such judge may make such order as to restoration or confirmationof erasure or for further inquiry, and as to costs, as to him may seemright 51 evidence - in a trial under this act the burden of proof as toregistration is on the person charged 53 the production of a certificate that the person named is dulyregistered, certified under the hand of the registrar, is sufficientevidence of registration, and his signature in the capacity ofregistrar is prima facie evidence that he is registrar without proofof signature or that he is registrar 54 the registrar is required to print and publish from time to time underthe direction of the council a correct register of the names andresidences, with medical titles, diplomas, and qualifications conferredby any college or body, with the date thereof, of all persons appearingon the register as existing on the day of publication 55 the register is called “the manitoba medical register;” a copy thereoffor the time being purporting to be so printed and published is primafacie evidence that the persons specified are registered s 56 in the case of any person whose name does not appear in such copy, acertified copy under the hand of the registrar of the council of theentry of the name of such person on the register is evidence thatsuch person is registered 57 the absence of the name ofany person from such copy is prima facie evidence that he is notregistered 58 practitioner rights - every person registered is entitled accordingto his qualifications to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery, orany of them as the case may be, and to demand and recover full costsof suit, reasonable charges for professional aid, advice, and visits, and the cost of any medicine or other medical appliances rendered orsupplied by him to his patient 59 neglect to register - a person neglecting to register is not entitledto the rights and privileges conferred, and is liable to all penaltiesagainst unqualified or unregistered practitioners 60 unregistered persons - it is not lawful for any person not registeredto practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery for hire, gain, or hope ofreward 61 no person is entitled to receive any charge for medical or surgicaladvice or attendance, or the performance of any operation, or forany medicine which he may have prescribed or supplied, unless he beregistered, but this provision does not extend to the sale of any drugor medicine by a licensed chemist or druggist 62 no person can be appointed as a medical officer, physician, orsurgeon in the public service, or in any hospital or other charitableinstitution not supported wholly by voluntary contribution, unless hebe registered 63 no certificate required from any physician or surgeon or medicalpractitioner is valid unless the signer be registered 64 definition - the expression “legally qualified medical practitioner, ”or any other words importing legal recognition as a medicalpractitioner or member of the medical profession, in any law, isconstrued to mean a person registered under this act 65 immunities - a person registered under this act is exempt from jury andinquest duty if he desire it 66 limitations - no duly registered member of the college of physiciansand surgeons is liable in an action for negligence or malpractice byreason of professional services requested or rendered, unless it becommenced within one year from the termination of such service s 67 examinations - the university of manitoba is the sole examining bodyin medicine, and the council of the university may grant to any persona certificate under the seal of the university that the council ofthe university have been satisfied that the person mentioned in thecertificate is, by way of medical education and otherwise, a properperson to be registered under this act. But such certificate shall notbe granted until the person making such application shall have givenevidence of qualification by undergoing an examination or otherwise, as the statutes of the university require, and the applicant shall inall other respects first comply with the rules and regulations of theuniversity in that behalf 68 homœopathists - until a homœopathic medical college for teachingpurposes is established in manitoba, in the case of candidates wishingto be registered as homœopathists, the full time of attendance uponlectures and hospitals required by the university statutes may be spentin such homœopathic medical colleges in the united states or europe asmay be recognized by the university of manitoba 69 every candidate who at the time of his examination signifies hiswish to be registered as a homœopathic practitioner shall not berequired to pass an examination in materia medica or therapeutics, ortheory or practice of physic, or in surgery or midwifery, except theoperative practical writings thereof, before any examiners other thanthose homœopathic examiners who shall be appointed by the university ofmanitoba 70 unlawful practices - to wilfully procure or attempt to procureregistration by false or fraudulent representation or declaration, ispunishable by a penalty not exceeding $100 to knowingly aid or assisttherein, is punishable by a penalty of from $20 to $50 for each offence73 persons not registered, for hire, gain, or the hope of reward, practising or professing to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery, or advertising to give advice in medicine, surgery, or midwifery, areliable to a penalty of from $25 to $100 74 a person wilfully or falsely pretending to be a physician, doctorof medicine, surgeon, or general practitioner, or assuming a title, addition, or description other than he actually possesses and islegally entitled to, is liable to a penalty of from $10 to $50 s 75 for a person to assume a title calculated to lead people to infer thathe is registered, or is recognized by law as a physician, surgeon, or accoucheur or a licentiate in medicine, surgery, or midwifery, ispunishable with a penalty of from $25 to $100 76 on prosecution, costs may be awarded in addition to the penalty, andthe offender may be committed to the common jail for one month, unlessthe penalty and costs are sooner paid 78 prosecutor - any person may be prosecutor or complainant under the act80 limitations - prosecutions are limited to commence within six monthsafter the date of the offence 81 appeal - a person convicted under this act, giving notice of appeal, must before being released give satisfactory security for the penaltyand costs of conviction and appeal 82 stay - the council may stay proceedings in prosecutions 84 fees - the council is authorized to determine by by-law an annual fee, which is required to be paid by each member of the college the fee canbe not less than $2, nor more than $5, is payable on january 1st, andmay be recovered as a debt by the college 32 the fee for registration is subject to regulation by the council33 new brunswick medical society - all persons registered under the act constitute thenew brunswick medical society act 1881, c 19, s 2 council - there is a medical council called the council of physiciansand surgeons of new brunswick, of nine legally qualified medicalpractitioners, of not less than seven years’ standing. Four arenominated and appointed by the governor in council, and five by the newbrunswick medical society 3, 5 the secretary of the council is the registrar 7 register, evidence - the registrar is required before may 1st annuallyto print and publish in the royal gazette of the province, and suchother manner as the council shall appoint, a correct register of thenames and residences and medical titles, diplomas, and qualificationsconferred by any college or body, with the dates thereof, of allpersons appearing on the register on the 1st of january the registeris called the medical register. A copy for the time being purporting tobe so printed and published, or a certificate signed by the presidentof the council, and attested by the registrar with the corporate sealof the council, is prima facie evidence that the persons thereinspecified are registered and qualified. The absence of a name from suchcopy or the want of such certificate is prima facie evidence thatsuch person is not registered if a name does not appear on the copy, acertified copy, under the hand of the registrar of the council, of theentry of a name on the register is evidence of registration s 8 entrance upon study - a person beginning or entering on the studyof physic, surgery, or midwifery, for the purpose of qualifying topractise in the province, must have obtained from the council acertificate that he has satisfactorily passed a matriculation orpreliminary examination in the subjects enumerated in the act, unlesshe has passed a matriculation examination for the medical course inarts and science at essay college in great britain, ireland, canada, theunited states of america, or the continent of europe 10 the act prescribes formalities for admission to such preliminaryexamination 10 qualification - subject to the exceptions hereinafter, no personcan lawfully practise physic, surgery, or midwifery unless he beregistered, or unless he shall have received from the council a licenseto practise 11 no person is entitled to registration or license unless he shallsatisfy the council that he has passed a matriculation or preliminaryexamination. That after passing such examination he has followed hisstudies for not less than four years, one of which may be under thedirection of one or more general practitioners duly licensed. Thatduring such four years he has attended at essay university, college, or incorporated school of medicine in good standing, courses oflectures amounting together to not less than twelve months on generalanatomy, on practical anatomy, on surgery, on practice of medicine, on midwifery, on chemistry, on materia medica and pharmacy, and onthe institutes of medicine or physic, and one three-months’ courseof medical jurisprudence. That he has attended the general practiceof an hospital in which are not less than fifty beds under the chargeof not less than two physicians or surgeons, for not less than oneyear or two periods of not less than six months each. That he hasalso attended two three-months’ courses or one six-months’ course ofclinical medicine, the same of clinical surgery. That he has, after anexamination in the subjects of the course, obtained a degree or diplomafrom such university, college, or incorporated medical school if suchinstitution require a four-years’ course for its diploma, or for thewant of such degree or diploma that he has satisfactorily passed anexamination in the various branches hereinbefore specified before theexaminers appointed by the council. That he is not less than twenty-oneyears of age.

That in the head was constant, severe, and lasted sevendays, elsewhere less constant pain in the arms accompanied by paralysis and anæsthesia and lastingthree months has been reported headache is not rare as a later or secondary symptom disturbances of sensation other than pain are not rare a certain amount of hyperæsthesia almost always exists in the portionaffected immediately after the stroke this is often so marked thatit cannot be wholly due to the burns or other injuries it is usuallyvery temporary and ceases in a few hours in essay paper a permanent orlasting sensitiveness to the action of electricity is said to remain anæsthesia, loss or diminution of sensation, occurs either with orwithout paralysis in the paper reported by balfour, one boy saidhe could not feel his legs and another that his arms were cut off in a case reported by free there was loss of sensation in the rightupper extremity from the elbow to the fingers and in the left lowerextremity from the knee to the toes as a rule, the loss of sensationis temporary and quickly passes away, but it may last, in company withparalysis, for essay time in such paper either an organic lesion or atraumatic neurosis is to be suspected paræsthesiæ are very common after lightning stroke most frequent, perhaps, is the subjective sensation of numbness tingling, formication, and the sense of “pins and needles” may occur reflexes - as a rule, the deep reflexes seem to remain normal thesuperficial reflexes of the writings affected are at least temporarilyincreased special senses - sight - affections of the eye the eye and thesurrounding writings may be directly injured by burning we also find thesisserious conditions caused by the lightning the pathology of which willbe considered later when a person is first struck he may perceive aflash of light or a ball of fire before losing consciousness whileunconscious the pupils are usually dilated, but react sight may be atonce totally lost, but this is usually only temporary there may beamblyopia. Photophobia, lachrymation, and pain are not uncommon for atime cataract may be produced and other severe ocular affections mayresult hearing - sudden and total deafness may be caused by lightning, as inthe case of cook, where perforation of both tympana was found this mayprove to be only temporary, as in the case of nason, where the patient, though totally deaf at first, is reported as hearing fairly on thefifth day. On the seventeenth day, however, the hearing was still dull the deafness may be permanent with deafness tinnitus is apt to occur hyperacustia, or extreme sensitiveness to noise, has also been reportedin several paper smell and taste - the person affected essaytimes has noticed a smellresembling that of sulphur, and this has also been said to have beenapparent to others a metallic taste in the mouth is not rare general symptoms - when first struck by lightning and while stillunconscious, the patient has usually a flushed and reddened face, with dilated pupils immediately following, or perhaps without thispreliminary stage, appear the symptoms of collapse cyanosis may occur, and the patient may appear to be asphyxiated fever, not caused by injuries, may essaytimes occur, but certainly notto any extreme degree in thesis paper the temperature when taken wasnormal, and even in paper of severe stroke without serious surgicalinjury the temperature has not risen above 101° in these latter paperit is hard to say how far the temperature is affected by the burnswhich are always present the pulse is essaytimes slow, essaytimes rapid and feeble, or almostimperceptible. At times it is irregular the respiration is apt to be labored in paige case there was markeddyspnœa it may be almost imperceptible it is essaytimes slow andessaytimes rapid nausea and vomiting occur often after recovery of consciousness vertigo and reeling may exist from various causes it is probable that seminal emissions may occur at the moment of shock menstruation, when present, may be checked or may continue pregnantwomen do not necessarily abort pathology and pathological anatomy a few words must be said in regard to the pathological conditions whichmay be directly produced by lightning and can be detected during life the burns, wounds, ecchymoses, dendritic marks, and other externalsigns have already been fully considered certain pathological changes, however, have been found in the eyeswhich are capable of being verified during life in addition toswelling and œdema of the lids, to the injuries from burns and to thevarious paralyses of the ocular muscles, changes in the tissues of theeye itself may occur in the first place we may find corneal opacitiesand adhesive iritis iridocyclitis may occur cataract formation isnot rare, and its causation has given rise to thesis theories opticneuritis and neuro-retinitis are essaytimes found. And we have essaytimesoptic atrophy structural changes in the choroid may also be causedby lightning rupture of the choroid, hemorrhage from the choroid andretina, and writingial detachment of the retina may occur from the shockwithout the patient being struck by the lightning and without ruptureof the external tissues ears - perforation of the tympanum is reported in more than one case autopsies we shall consider here the pathological conditions found in deaths fromelectricity, whether due to artificial or to atmospheric sources theresults are or may be the same in either, so far as we now know, and itis probable that the action of the electricity is practically the samein either case, only varying as regards the strength and tension of thecurrent rigor mortis - this has generally been found in paper of death fromartificial electricity in the case of jugigo, who was executed byelectricity, it was present four and one-half hours after death asregards its occurrence in death by lightning and the rapidity of itsonset, there has been much discussion it is certainly present in thesispaper, and the probability is there is nothing diagnostic in regard toit in deaths by lightning when absent, its absence is probably due tothe presence of essay external factor and has no relation to the form ofdeath we have, on the other hand, no proof that the rapidity of itsonset is increased coagulation of the blood - it has been observed frequently thatthe blood of persons struck by lightning does not coagulate readily sullivan states that in certain paper of complete disorganization afterlightning shock the blood is left fluid and incoagulable and its colorchanged to a deep black in one of the paper of death from artificialelectricity reported by grange, the heart was found sixty-two hoursafter death to be filled with liquid blood of a rosy vermilion color, which quickly became darker on contact with the air a spectroscopicexamination of the blood showed the normal lines of oxidized bloodreducible by sulphydrate of ammonium in a case reported by matzingerthe blood as submitted was black and perfectly fluid, the corpuscles, both red and white, were normal, and no fibrin was detected in thoseexecuted by electricity the blood seems to have been fluid and not inany way remarkable there seems to be no evidence that the bodies of those dying fromelectricity in any form suffer unusually rapid decomposition the only absolute sign of death from electricity is decomposition ofthe tissues, but the usual signs are to be relied upon to the sameextent as in ordinary paper of death internal organs - in the paper of death from mechanical electricityno changes in the internal organs other than those due to accidentaltraumata have been found, except a considerable degree of congestionand essaytimes minute hemorrhages in the heart substance beneath thepericardium and into the pulmonary air-vesicles and pleura in one ofgrange paper the heart was filled with liquid blood. In the other itwas completely empty, the right ventricle collapsed, the walls of theleft ventricle hard and contracted careful autopsies were made in the paper of the criminals executed byelectricity, but no important changes caused by the electric currenthave been detected either macroscopically or microscopically a fewpetechial spots tardieu spots are apt to be found underneath thepericardium in the heart tissue and essaytimes beneath the pleura theorgans were not extremely congested in the case of jugigo the vesselsof the spinal cord and its membranes contained if anything less bloodthan usual in this case the amount of blood found in the brain seemsto have been about normal, the vessels of the dura were moderatelydilated and those of the pia “in a medium state of congestion ” in thecase of kemmler the portion of the intracranial contents underneaththe head-electrode was essaywhat affected directly by the heat, themeningeal vessels in the dura were carbonized, and the brain cortexwas sensibly hardened to one-sixth of its depth, “where there was abroken line of vascularity ” the post-mortem temperature in this papereems to have remained unusually high, being 97° f in the fourthventricle and 99° f at the back of the neck three hours after death ina room where the temperature was only 83° in autopsies after death by lightning the results are in generalanalogous the brain and its membranes may be anæmic or congested effusions of blood may be found beneath the dura or in the brainsubstance itself, due to the laceration or injury of vessels ruptureof the brain is said to have occurred, and phayre reports a case inwhich the left hemisphere was entirely destroyed and changed into adark gray homogeneous fluid mass, only a small portion of the corpuscallosum remaining no extravasation of blood, laceration of thevessels or membranes, or injury of the bones was detected ecchymotic spots are frequently found beneath the serous membranes, pericardium, pleura, and peritoneum schmitz states that parenchymatous inflammation of the internal organsmay occur, and sullivan reports a case where the stomach was found tobe gangrenous over a large surface, the patient having lived severaldays paper of rupture of the heart, the liver, and the spleen arereported the medico-legal consideration of death by mechanical suffocation including hanging and strangulation by daniel smith lamb, a m , m d , pathologist army medical museum, washington, d c. Professor of anatomy medical dewritingment howard university, washington. Secretary association of american anatomists. Late acting assistant surgeon united states army. President of association of acting assistant surgeons u s a. Member of learned societies mechanical suffocation suffocation is the name applied to both the act of and conditionresulting from the deprivation of atmospheric air if the deprivationis due to mechanical interference, the term mechanical suffocation isused mechanical interference may be by pressure upon or obstruction withinessay portion of the respiratory tract suffocation by pressure uponthe neck is called hanging when the constricting force is theweight of the body itself. And strangulation in all other paper german writers designate strangulation by cords, ropes, and the likeas erdrosselung, and by the hand as erwürgung. French writers donot make this distinction in english the word throttling is probablyoftener applied to strangulation by the hand than by cords the term suffocation is also applied in a special sense to theact and result of pressure on the mouth, nose, or chest and abdomen, stopping the breathing. Or of obstruction within the respiratory tract;or of pressure upon the tract from the œsophagus, etc. Or of breathingof irrespirable gases strangulation is almost always homicidal, hanging almost alwayssuicidal, and suffocation limited usually accidental, but also oftenhomicidal strangulation may be admitted, therefore, as including all paper ofsuffocation by pressure on the neck, whether by cords or the hand. Butexcluding hanging it will facilitate the study of the subject if we use the word ligatureas a general term to cover the thesis forms of cords, ropes, etc , usedin strangulation and hanging the word garroting is often used to indicate the forcible compressionof the neck by the hands of thieves the assault is usually made frombehind, and the victim is robbed while the throttling proceeds thebrevity of the process explains why death is not more frequent theword garroting comes from the spanish. Criminal execution in spain anditaly is usually by means of the garrote, a steel collar which istightened on the neck of the condemned by a screw the notorious thugsof the east indies used essaytimes a soft loin-cloth, at others a lassoor long thong with a running noose in turkey and essay other easterncountries the bowstring is a common mode of execution an examination of the reported paper of strangulation and hangingshows a great variety of forms of ligature. Cords, ropes, thread, thongs, lassos, flexible twigs, bamboos, leather straps, girdles, turbans, fishing-nets, collars, cravats and other forms of neckwear, bonnet strings, handkerchiefs, sheets, etc women have even strangledthemselves with their own hair case 34 stones, sticks, coal, andother hard substances have essaytimes been inserted in the ligature toincrease the pressure paper 36, 38, 42, 43, 44 drunken and otherwisehelpless persons have been strangled by falling forward with the neckagainst a firm substance strangulation symptoms and treatment the symptoms and post-mortem appearances in strangulation will vary, according as the deprivation of air is sudden or gradual, writingialor complete.

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As also by such as are cold in thethird degree, the extremity of the disease considered, for by boththese the unbridled heat of choler is assuaged use 2 also they are outwardly applied to hot swellings, dueconsideration being had, that if the inflammation be not great, usethose that are less. If the inflammation be vehement, make use ofmedicines cold in the second or third degree, always let the remedycorrespond to the just proportion of the affliction use 3 thirdly, essaytimes the spirits are moved inordinately throughheat, thence follows immoderate watchings, if not deprivation of thesenses, this also must be remedied with cold medicines, for cold stopsthe pores of the skin, makes the humours thick, represses sweat, andkeeps up the spirits from fainting of medicines cold in the fourth degree lastly, the use of medicines cold in the fourth degree, is, to mitigatedesperate and vehement pains, stupifying the senses, when no othercourse can be taken to save life. Of the use of which more hereafter of moistening medicines there can be no such difference found amongst moistening medicines, that they should surpass the second degree for seeing all medicinesare either hot or cold, neither heat nor cold, seeing they areextremes, can consist with moisture, for the one dries it up, the othercondensates it use phylosophers therefore call moisture and dryness, passivequalities, yet have they their operation likewise.