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How To Write A Satire Essay


“by reason of its unusual potency and relative harmlessness, hydropsin may be employed to great advantage in all paper where it is desirable to increase the volume of urine without injury to the renal structures ”on the basis of the claimed composition, the action of hydropsinmust be essentially that of digitalis or of digitalis and squill consequently, if it possesses “unusual potency, ” it cannot possess“relative harmlessness, ” and vice versa neither digitalis norsquill should be employed “in all paper” of nephritis, even if it is“desirable to increase the volume of urine ”the composition claimed for hydropsin brands it as an irrationalmixture in which potent drugs are combined with, and more or lesscovered up by, others that are obsolete and inefficient the name, instead of indicating its composition, suggests diseases in which itmay be thoughtlessly and indiscriminately used the claim that thedanger of toxic or cumulative action has been removed, if accepted byphysicians, tends to uncritical use with possible disastrous results hydropsin is ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies because ofconflict with rules 1, 2, 6, 8 and 10 -- from the journal a m a , jan 8, 1916 digitalysatum report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted how to write a satire essay the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary digitalysatum is sold in the united states by ernst bischoff company, inc , new york the firm claims that it is a dialysate prepared fromthe juice of freshly gathered digitalis, containing all the activeprinciples, and representing the fresh plant weight for weight it issaid to be standardized physiologically and to contain 12 per cent alcohol sterisol-digitalysatum, intended for injection, appearsto be the “dialysate” without alcohol, diluted with equal writings ofphysiologic sodium chlorid solution the council essay years ago foundboth products ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies becauseof unwarranted therapeutic claims the preparations are still beingadvertised to physicians under claims which imply superiority to allother digitalis preparations for instance. “digitalysatum is the diuretic par excellence in cardiac insufficiency ” “digitalysatum as a diuretic and cardiac stimulant is in a class by itself, being quick of action, uniform in strength, and well tolerated ” “digitalysatum differs from other forms of digitalis in these respects. Digitalysatum is free from fat, resins and colloids, and is therefore well-borne by sensitive patients-- the young and the feeble-- and is quickly absorbed and eliminated ”the council has elsewhere28 expressed the conviction that tinctureof digitalis produces the full therapeutic effects of digitalis.

For i have learnedto know their advantages in stings of scorpions, and also in boneswhich became lodged in the throat, and which were at once coughedup as a result of conjuration thesis remedies are excellent in everyrespect, and magic formulæ answer their purpose” “alexander oftralles, ” book 11, chapter i , vol ii , page 477 one of the mostprominent post-galenian physicians also, alexander of tralles, openlyavows, with reference to this utterance of galen, that he himself isa believer in magic cures, and he says. “if the great galen, as wellas thesis other physicians of ancient times, bear witness to this fact the efficacy of magic treatment of the sick, why shall we not imwritingto you what we have learned from our own experience and what we haveheard from trustworthy friends?. ” “alexander of tralles, ” ibid accordingly, his βιβλία ἰατρικά was filled with enumerations of themost various magical cures but, now, if the classics of antiquemedicine have proven themselves to be so friendly to the medicalscience of magicians, what was the condition of the mind, then, ofthe average physician of ancient times?. is it astonishing if youngand old, high and low, without distinction, were blind adherents ofmagical medicine?. thus medical literature of the last century, b c , and especially that of the centuries from the christian era untillate in the middle ages, was an actual treasury of conjuration andother mummeries this description applies specifically to the “materiamedica” of quintus serenus samonicus, written in hexameters it istrue, the magical sequel to this book entailed painful consequences onthe writer, for the emperor caracalla had the poor author executed ael swritingian , “caracalla, ” chapter iv , § 4 merely, as it isreported, because he dared to advise in his works as a remedy againstintermittent fever the wearing of amulets, a medical expedient whichhad been prohibited by the emperor himself the work of sextus placitus papyriensis, who lived in the fourthcentury, which treats of remedies derived from the animal kingdom, teems with magic nonsense but an actually inexhaustible stock of medical conjurations wascontained in the work of a layman, marcellus empiricus this gentleman, who had been foreign minister under the emperors theodosius the firstand the second, had written a thick folio volume on medicaments this literary performance, which, according to our ideas, appears tobe very odd for a minister of state, was by no means remarkable inthe fifth century, for the study of medical subjects was, so to say, fashionable among the laity of that period. In fact, even prelates andbishops did not think it beneath their dignity to busy themselves withvarious medical questions and to write medico-physical books thus thelaurels of medical renown haunted our good marcellus and would notlet him sleep, so that he abridged his hours of official duty to suchan extent that he was able to compile a materia medica of thirty-sixapparently never-ending chapters but if the statesmanship of marcelluswas on a par with his medical book-making, the two theodosii could nothave missed the time their cabinet minister stole from them, for hismedical scribbling is an utterly worthless compilation not only didmarcellus copy from medical authors of the most discordant opinion, but he writingicularly busied himself in collecting indiscriminately allthe magical nonsense of the ancient times. In fact, it seems that hewas very eager to obtain all this magical rigmarole direct from themouth of the people, for he says that he collected his remedies “abagrestibus et plebeiis ” accordingly his book is as worthless andinsipid to the physician as it is valuable to the historian, especiallythe historian of civilization here are a few examples of this medicineof the magicians:remedy against warts and corns pliny, book 28, chapter iv , § 12, page 268. “lie on your back along a boundary line on the twentiethday of the moon, and extend the hands over the head with whateverthing you grasp when so doing, rub the warts, and they will disappearimmediately ”“whoever, when he sees a shooting-star, soon afterward pours a littlevinegar upon the hinge of a door, is sure to be rid of his corns ”remedy against headache pliny, ibid. “tie the rope of a hungcriminal around the forehead ”remedy against bellyache priscian, physician of the fourth century, book 1, chapter xiv , and sprengel, vol ii , page 248. “if anyone suffer from colicky pains he may sit down on a chair and say tohimself. ‘per te diacholon, diacholon, diacholon ’”“a person who has an attack of colic may take the feces of a wolf, which, if possible, should contain small writingicles of bone, enclosethem in a small tube, and wear this amulet on the right arm, thigh, orhip ” alexander of tralles, book 8, chapter ii , page 374 “take the heart from the living lark and wear it as an amulet at theleft thigh ” alexander of tralles, ibid remedy against epilepsy advised by the physician, moschiondiorthotes “alexander of tralles, ” book 1, chapter xv , page 570:“the forehead of an ass is tied to the skin of the patient and worn ”“gather iris, peonies, and nightshade when the moon is on the wane, pack them into linen and wear as an amulet ” advised by the magicianosthanes - alexander of tralles, book 1, chapter xv , page 566 “take a nail from a cross and suspend it from an arm of the patient ”given by a physician of the second century, a d , by the name ofarchigenes - alexander of tralles, book 1, chapter xv , page 566 “wear on the finger a jasper of bluish-gray luster ” advised bydioscorides, book 5, 159 remedy against podagra gout “alexander of tralles, ” book 12, page582. “take a gold leaf and write upon it when the moon is on thewane. Mei, threu, mor, for, teux, za, zon, the, lu, chri, ge, ze, on as the sun becomes firm in this name and daily renews itself, so doesthis formation also make firm as conditions were previously quickly, quickly, rapidly, rapidly for behold!. i call the great name in whichbecomes firm again what was destined to die.

Outwardly used, it helps such as hold their necks on oneside. Half a dram is enough at one time galen, dioscorides, apuleius calendula, &c marigolds the leaves are hot in the second degree, and essaything moist, loosen the belly. The juice held in the mouth, helps the toothache, and takes away any inflammation or hot swellingbeing bathed with it, mixed with a little vinegar callitricum maiden-hair see adianthum caprisolium honey-suckles. The leaves are hot, and therefore naughtfor inflammations of the mouth and throat, for which the ignorantpeople oftentime give them. And galen was true in this, let modernwriters write their pleasure if you chew but a leaf of it in yourmouth, experience will tell you that it is likelier to cause, thanto cure a sore throat, they provoke urine, and purge by urine, bringspeedy delivery to women in travail, yet procure barrenness and hinderconception, outwardly they dry up foul ulcers, and cleanse the facefrom morphew, sun-burning and freckles carduncellus, &c groundsell cold and moist according to tragus, helps the cholic, and gripings in the belly, helps such as cannot makewater, cleanses the reins, purges choler and sharp humours. The usualway of taking it is to boil it in water with currants, and so eat it i hold it to be a wholeessay and harmless purge outwardly it easethwomen breasts that are swollen and inflamed. As also inflammations ofthe joints, nerves, or sinews ægineta carduus b mariæ our ladies thistles they are far more temperatethan carduus benedictus, open obstructions of the liver, help thejaundice and dropsy, provoke urine, break the stone carduus benedictus blessed thistle, but better known by the latinname.

To appointmedical examiners, who may be members of the council, to hold finalexaminations, who shall be regularly qualified practitioners of notless than five years’ professional standing and three years’ residencein the province 15, as amended 1882, c 30, s 2, 3 correction of register - the registrar is required to erase the namesof all registered persons who shall have died, left the provincewithout the intention of returning, or ceased how to write a satire essay to practise for fiveyears. And from time to time to make the necessary alterations in theaddresses or qualifications of registered persons any name erasedshall be restored by the order of the council on sufficient cause dulyshown 18 neglect to register - persons entitled to registration, neglecting oromitting to register, are not entitled to any rights or privilegesconferred by the act 19 system of practice - no person otherwise qualified shall be refusedregistration or license on account of the adoption or the refusal toadopt the practice of any writingicular theory of medicine or surgery in case of refusal the aggrieved writingy may appeal to the governor incouncil, who is required, on due cause shown, to issue an order to thecouncil to register his name and grant him a license to practise, andthereupon the council shall forthwith register his name and grant him alicense to practise 20 evidence of qualification, fraudulent registration - no qualificationcan be entered unless the registrar be satisfied by proper evidencethat the person claiming it is entitled to it an appeal may be madefrom the registrar decision to the council any entry proved to thesatisfaction of the council to have been fraudulently or incorrectlymade may be erased by the order in writing of the council, and the nameof such person fraudulently registering, or attempting to register, may, at the discretion of the council, be published in the next issueof the royal gazette 21 forfeiture of right - a registered medical practitioner convicted offelony, or after due inquiry judged by the council to have been guiltyof infamous conduct in any professional respect thereby, subject toappeal to the governor in council, forfeits his right to registration, and by the direction of the council his name shall be erased from theregister 22 the time and place of inquiry under the preceding section must be fixedby the council, and at least fourteen days’ notice given to the writingyagainst whom inquiry is ordered act 1886, c 82, s 6 the act of 1886, c 82, regulates the procedure on such inquiry additional qualifications - every person registered who may obtain ahigher degree or other qualification is entitled to have it registeredin substitution for, or in addition to, the qualifications previouslyregistered, on the payment of such fee as the council may demand act1881, c 19, s 23 practitioner rights - every person registered under the act isentitled according to his qualifications to practise medicine, surgery, midwifery, or dentistry, or either or any of them as the case maybe, and to demand and recover reasonable and customary charges forprofessional aid, advice, and visits, and the cost of any medicine orother medical or surgical appliances rendered or supplied by him to hispatients 24 no person is entitled to recover any such charge unless he shall proveupon the trial that he is registered under this act 25 definition - the words “legally qualified medical practitioner, ” or“duly qualified medical practitioner, ” or other words implying that aperson is recognized by law as a medical practitioner or member of themedical profession, when used in a legislative act or a legal or publicdocument mean a person registered under this act 26 unregistered persons - no person shall be appointed a medical officer, physician, or surgeon in the public service or in any hospital or othercharitable institution unless registered 27 no certificate required from any physician or surgeon or medicalpractitioner is valid unless the signer be duly registered s 28 a person not registered or licensed, and not actually employed asa physician or surgeon in her majesty naval or military service, practising physic, surgery, or midwifery for hire, gain, or hope ofreward, forfeits twenty dollars for each day of such practice s 29 the sum forfeited is recoverable with costs the procedure in referenceto all penalties is regulated by act of 1886, c 82 persons liable as provided in secs 29 and 30 are not entitled to orsubject to the provisions of any act for the relief of debtors act1882, c 30, s 4 on the trial of such cause, the burden of proof as to license or rightto practise is upon the defendant act 1881, c 19, s 31. Act 1886, c 82, s 3 fraudulent registration - wilfully procuring or attempting to procureregistration by making or producing, or causing to be made or produced, a false or fraudulent representation or declaration, or aiding orassisting therein, is punishable with a forfeiture of not less than$100 act 1881, c 19, s 33 wilfully or falsely pretending to be or using any name or descriptionimplying registration is punishable with a forfeiture of from $50 to$100 34 limitations - no prosecution can be commenced under the act after oneyear from the date of the offence act 1886, c 82, s 4 exceptions - the act does not prevent persons from giving the necessarymedical or surgical aid or attendance to any one in urgent need ofit, provided it be without gain, and the giving of it be not made abusiness or way of gaining a livelihood. Nor does it prevent any womanfrom giving the necessary aid in paper of confinement as heretoforeaccustomed act 1881, c 19, s 36 examination - all persons who subsequent to the passage of the actpass the examination prescribed by the council of physicians andsurgeons, or presenting approved credentials, certificates, or diplomasequivalent to such examination, are entitled to register and receive alicense to practise 38 physicians in army or navy - a person while employed in actual servicein her majesty naval or military service as a physician or surgeon, may practise physic, surgery, or midwifery with registry or license39 non-residents - non-resident registered practitioners of medicineresiding in the state of maine or in the province of quebec or novascotia near the boundary line of this province whose regular practiceextends into any town, parish, or county in new brunswick may registerunder the act 44 no other non-resident practitioner of medicine is entitled to register act 1884, c 17, s 1 exceptions - the act does not extend to clairvoyant physicianspractising at the time of its passage in the province, nor to midwives act 1881, c 19, s 45 students - the act establishes a uniform standard of matriculation orpreliminary examinations sched b oaths - any oath or affidavit required by the medical act may be takenbefore any justice of the peace or person by law authorized to take anyoath or affidavit act 1882, c 30, s 6 fees - to the registrar, for registration under secs 12 and 13, $10 act 1881, c 19, s 12 and 13 to the registrar, for the registration of an additional qualification, such fee as the council may demand act 1881, c 19, s 23 to the registrar, or his deputy, annual fee from each practitioner, tobe fixed by the council, not more than $2 nor less than $1 act 1882, c 30, s 5 each registered medical practitioner must, if required by the council, pay to the registrar, or a person deputed by him, an annual feedetermined by the council, not less than $1 nor more than $2, payablejanuary 1st each year, and recoverable as a debt with costs in the nameof the council act 1882, c 30, s 5 if any practitioner omit to pay the registration fee before theregistrar causes the register to be printed in the royal gazette, theregistrar shall not cause the name of such practitioner to be printed, and he shall thereupon cease to be deemed a registered practitioner;but afterward, on paying such fee, he shall be entitled to all hisrights and privileges as a registered practitioner from the time ofpayment act 1884, c 17, s 2 newfoundland medical board - there is a board composed of seven regularly qualifiedmedical practitioners of not less than five years’ standing, appointedas provided in the act, and known as the “newfoundland medical board, ”whose duties relate, among other things, to the making and enforcing ofmeasures necessary for the regulation and the practice of medicine act1893, c 12, s 2, 3, 19 the board is authorized to appoint examiners and fix times ofexaminations 5 the secretary of the board is the registrar 7 register, evidence - it is the duty of the registrar on or beforejanuary 1st in each year to cause to be published in the royalgazette of newfoundland a list of the names of all persons appearingon the register at that date, with their places of residence, titles, diplomas, and qualifications as conferred by any college or body, withthe date 8 such register is called the medical register, and a copy thereofis prima facie evidence that the persons therein specified areregistered according to the act. And the absence of a name therefrom isprima facie evidence that such person is not so registered s 9 qualification - the members of the board form a body of medicalexaminers of diplomas and degrees, whose certificate shall be the onlylicense permitting the practice of medicine, surgery, or midwifery, except as hereinafter provided, provided the applicant for such licenseshall previously have obtained a medical diploma from a recognizedcollege or university, or as hereinafter provided 10 every person is entitled to have his name entered on the registeron satisfying the board that he holds a degree or diploma from essayregular university or school of medicine in good standing, and he shallthen receive from the board a license bearing its seal, on the paymentto the registrar of $5, and shall have his name entered on the register11 no such licensed practitioner shall be entitled to practise in any yearwithout taking out from the board, before the 1st of january in everyyear, a certificate of practice for which he shall pay $1 s 12 students - the act provides the requirements for entering on the studyof medicine, surgery, or midwifery in the colony 13, 14, 17 duties of board - the board is required to examine all degrees andother credentials produced or given in evidence under the act forthe purpose of enabling the owners to practise, and, if it be deemednecessary, to oblige the owner to attest on oath or affidavit that heis the person whose name is mentioned therein, and that he has becomepossessed of the same by lawful means 16 the board is required to cause every member of the professionpractising in newfoundland to enter his name, age, place of residence, date of license or diploma and where it was obtained, on the register18 neglect to register - a person entitled to be registered, who neglectsor omits to apply, is not entitled to any of the rights or privilegesconferred by the act so long as the neglect or omission continues25 additional qualification - a person registered who obtains a higherdegree or diploma is entitled to have it inserted in the register inaddition to or in substitution for those previously registered s 26 rights of registered persons - a person properly registered under theact is entitled to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery in anywriting of the colony, and to demand and recover reasonable charges forprofessional aid or advice with the cost of medicine or other medicaland surgical appliance supplied by him 27 unregistered persons - no person whose name is not registered under theact is entitled to recover any fees for any medical or surgical advice, or for any services whatsoever rendered in the capacity of a medicalman, nor to recover the payment of charges for any medicine or medicalor surgical appliance which may have been both prescribed and suppliedby him this clause is not intended to interfere with the practice ofmidwifery by competent females as hereinafter provided 28 offences and penalties - except as hereinafter provided, if a personnot registered or licensed under the act practises medicine, surgery, or midwifery for hire, gain, help sic or reward, or wilfully andfalsely pretends to be a physician, doctor of medicine, surgeon, orgeneral practitioner, or takes or uses any name, title, addition ordescription, implying or calculating sic to deceive or lead thepublic to infer that he is registered under this act, or who proposesby public advertisement, card, circular, or otherwise, to practisemedicine, surgery, or midwifery, or give advice therein, or in anywiselead people to infer that he is qualified to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery, he shall forfeit $20 for each day that he sopractises or leads people to infer that he is a practitioner, or shallsuffer imprisonment not exceeding twelve months 29 persons violating the above regulations are subject to the penalties ofthe act, and in all paper the burden of proof as to qualification isupon the defendant or practitioner 30 expulsion of member - the newfoundland medical board may try and expelany member of the profession for acts of malpractice, misconduct, orimmoral habits, provided five-sevenths of the whole number record theirsignatures to such a measure 32 exceptions - the act does not prevent private persons from giving thenecessary medical or surgical aid in times of urgent need, providedsuch aid or attention is not given for gain or hire, nor the giving ofit made a business or a way of gaining a livelihood 34 every person residing in the colony and who shall have practisedmedicine, surgery, and midwifery for five years consecutively in onelocality previous to the passage of the act, on the proof of the same, shall have his name registered and receive a license to practise underthe act. Provided, the board may grant a license to any person who mayhave practised for a shorter period, on being satisfied by examination, or inquiry, that such person is reasonably competent and fit. Andfurther provided, that the board may, after examination and inquiry, license persons with a reasonable amount of competence to practisein specified localities, in which no qualified practitioners reside37 any person while employed in actual service in any naval or militaryservice as physician or surgeon may practise medicine, surgery, andmidwifery after having been registered 38 definition - the words “legally qualified medical practitioner” or“duly qualified medical practitioner, ” or any other words importing aperson recognized by law as a medical practitioner or a member of themedical profession, when used in any act of the legislature or legal orpublic document, mean a person registered under this chapter, unless asotherwise provided 39 medical appointments - no person shall be appointed as a medicalofficer, physician, or surgeon in any branch of the public service orany hospital or other charitable institution unless he be registeredunder the provisions of this chapter 40 theories of medicine or surgery - no person otherwise fully qualifiedshall be refused registration, or a license to practise, on account ofhis adopting or refusing to adopt the practice of any writingicular theoryof medicine or surgery in case of such refusal by the board, the writingyaggrieved may appeal to the governor in council, who, on due causeshown, shall issue an order to the board to register the name of suchperson and grant him a license 41 midwives - the act does not prevent competent females from practisingmidwifery 42 fees - to the registrar, for license, $5 11 to the board, each year, for a certificate of practice, $1 s 12 northwest territories college of physicians and surgeons - the members of the medicalprofession are a body corporate under the name of “the college ofphysicians and surgeons of the northwest territories” ord 5 of 1888, s 2 every person registered according to ordinance 11 of 1885 is a memberof the said college and shall be held to be registered under thisordinance from the date of its passage 3, as amended ord 9of 1891-92 every person registered under this law is a member of the college4 council - there is a council of said college elected by the membersfrom the members registered in pursuance of this ordinance s 5, 6, 7 the council appoints among other officers a registrar 26 register, qualification - persons registered under ordinance 11 of 1885are entitled to register under this ordinance 31 the council is required to cause the registrar to keep a register ofthe names of all persons who have complied with this ordinance, andthe rules and regulations of the council respecting the qualificationsrequired from practitioners of medicine or surgery only those personswhose names are inscribed in the register are deemed qualified andlicensed to practise medicine or surgery, except as hereinafterprovided 32 the registrar is required to keep his register correct and to make thenecessary alterations in the addresses or qualifications of personsregistered 33 the council is required to admit on the register. A any person possessing a diploma from any college in great britainand ireland having power to grant such diploma entitling him topractise medicine and surgery, and who shall produce such diploma andfurnish satisfactory evidence of identification. B any member of the college of physicians and surgeons of theprovinces of manitoba, ontario and quebec upon producing satisfactoryevidence of the same and of identification. C any person who shall produce from any college or school ofmedicine and surgery in the dominion of canada requiring a four-years’course of study and sic a diploma of qualification. Provided hefurnish to the council satisfactory evidence of identification, andpass if deemed necessary, before the members thereof, or such examinersas may be appointed for the purpose, a satisfactory examinationtouching his fitness and capacity to practise as a physician andsurgeon, upon payment to the registrar of fifty dollars 34, as substituted by ord 14, 1890, amended by ord 9, 1891-92 powers of council - the members of the council are required to makeorders, regulations, or by-laws for the regulation of the register andthe guidance of examiners, and may prescribe subjects and modes ofexamination, and may make all regulations in respect of examinations, not contrary to the ordinance, that they may deem expedient andnecessary 36 the council may by by-law delegate to the registrar power to admit topractice and to register any person having the necessary qualificationsentitling him to be registered by the council ord 24, 1892, s 4 the council may direct the name of any person improperly registeredto be erased from the register and such name shall be erased by theregistrar ord 24, 1892, s 5 forfeiture of rights - if a medical practitioner be convicted of anyfelony or misdemeanor or after due inquiry be judged by the council tohave been guilty of infamous conduct in any professional respect, thecouncil may, if it sees fit, direct the registrar to erase the name ofsuch practitioner from the register, and the name shall be erased ord 5, 1888, s 37, as substituted by ord 24, 1892, s 1 rights of registered persons - every person registered under theordinance is entitled to practise medicine and surgery, includingmidwifery, or any one of them, as the case may be, and to demand andrecover with costs his reasonable charges for professional aid, advice, and visits, and the cost of medical or surgical appliances rendered orsupplied by him to his patients 38 limitation - a period of one year after the term of professionalservice is established as a limitation to actions for negligence ormalpractice against members of the college 39 register, evidence - the registrar, under the direction of the council, is required to publish a register of the names and residences andthe medical titles, diplomas, and qualifications conferred by anycollege or body, of all persons appearing on the register on the dayof publication the register is called “northwest territories’ medicalregister, ” and a copy for the time being, purporting to be so printedand published, is prima facie evidence that the persons thereinspecified are registered according to the act the absence of a namefrom such copy is prima facie evidence that such person is not soregistered in case a person name does not appear on such copy, a certified copyunder the hand of the registrar of the entry of the name of such personon the register is evidence that such person is registered s 40 neglect to register - a person neglecting to register is not entitledto the rights or privileges conferred and is liable to all penaltiesagainst unqualified or unregistered practitioners 4 offences and penalties - to practise or profess to practise withoutregistration, for hire or reward, is punishable with a penalty of $10042 to wilfully or falsely pretend to be a physician, doctor of medicine, surgeon, or general practitioner, or assume any title or descriptionnot actually possessed and to which the person is not legally entitledunder this ordinance, is punishable with a penalty of from $10 to $5043, as amended by ord 24, 1892, s 2 to take or use a name or description implying or calculated to leadpeople to infer registration or recognition by law as a physician, surgeon, or licentiate in medicine or surgery is punishable with apenalty of from $25 to $100 44 unregistered persons - no person is entitled to recover for any medicalor surgical advice or attendance or the performance of any operationor medicine which he may have prescribed 45. Nor to beappointed as medical officer, physician, or surgeon in any branch ofthe public service or in any hospital or other charitable institutionnot supported wholly by voluntary contributions, unless registered46 no certificate required from a physician or surgeon or medicalpractitioner is valid unless the signer is registered 47 costs - in prosecutions, payment of costs may be awarded in addition tothe penalty, and in default of payment the offender may be committed tothe common jail for not more than one month 48 burden of proof - in prosecutions, the burden of proof as toregistration is upon the person charged 49 proof - the production of a printed or other copy of the register, certified under the hand of the registrar, for the time being issufficient evidence of all persons registered. A certificate onsuch copy purporting to be signed by any person in the capacity ofregistrar of the council under this ordinance is prima facie evidencethat he is registered without proof of his signature or of his being infact registrar 50 limitation of prosecutions - prosecutions must be commenced within sixmonths from the date of the offence 51 stay - the council may stay proceedings in prosecutions where deemedexpedient 52 prosecutor - any person may be prosecutor or complainant 53 definition - “legally qualified medical practitioner” or “dulyqualified medical practitioner, ” or any other words implying legalrecognition as a medical practitioner or member of the medicalprofession, when used in any law or ordinance, mean a person registeredunder this ordinance 55 homœopathists - homœopathic physicians may be registered under thisordinance on complying with the terms of sec 34 58 fees - to the council from each member annually as the council maydetermine, not more than $2 and not less than $1 35 to the registrar, for registration, $50 56, as substitutedby ord 24, 1892, s 3 nova scotia medical board - there is a provincial medical board consisting ofthirteen regular qualified medical practitioners of not less than sevenyears’ standing, seven nominated and appointed by the governor incouncil, and six by the nova scotia medical society r s , 5th ser , c 24, s 1 the board appoints a secretary who is the registrar of the board3, 4 register, evidence - the registrar is required before the 1st of augusteach year to cause to be printed and published in the royal gazetteof the province, and in such other manner as the board shall appoint, a correct register of the names and residences and medical titles, diplomas, and qualifications conferred by any college or body, with thedates thereof of all persons appearing on the register as existing onjune 30th such register is called “the medical register, ” and a copythereof for the time being, purporting to be so printed and published, is prima facie evidence that the persons specified are registeredaccording to this chapter the absence of a name from such copy isprima facie evidence that such person is not so registered in thecase of a person whose name does not appear in such copy, a certifiedcopy, under the hand of the registrar, of the entry of his name onthe register is evidence that such person is registered under theprovisions of this chapter 5 students - no person can begin or enter on the study of physic, surgery, or midwifery, for the purpose of qualifying himself topractise in the province, unless he shall have obtained from theprovincial medical board a certificate that he has satisfactorilypassed a matriculation examination in the subjects specified in thechapter 6 the chapter prescribes the prerequisites to admission to preliminaryexaminations 7, 12 qualification - subject to the exceptions hereinafter, no personcan lawfully practise physic, surgery, or midwifery unless his namebe registered and unless he shall have received from the provincialmedical board a license to practise 8 no person is entitled to be registered or to receive a licenseto practise unless he satisfy the board that he has passed thematriculation or preliminary examination. That after passing suchexamination he has followed his studies during a period not less thanfour years one of which may be under the direction of one or moregeneral practitioners duly licensed. That during such four years hehas attended at essay university, college, or incorporated school ofmedicine in good standing, courses of lectures amounting together tonot less than twelve months on general anatomy, on practical anatomy, on surgery, on the practice of medicine, on midwifery, on chemistry, on materia medica and pharmacy, and on the institutes of medicine orphysiology, and one three-months’ course of medical jurisprudence;that he has attended the general practice of a hospital in whichare not less than fifty beds under the charge of not less than twophysicians or surgeons, for a period of not less than one year or twoperiods of not less than six months each. That he has also attendedtwo three-months’ courses or one six-months’ course of clinicalmedicine, and the same of clinical surgery. That he has, after anexamination in the subjects of the course, obtained a degree or diplomafrom such university, college, or incorporated medical school, or, for want of such degree or diploma, that he has satisfactorily passedan examination in the various branches hereinbefore specified beforeexaminers to be appointed by the provincial medical board. That heis not less than twenty-one years of age.

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Fingersclinched. Superficial veins contained fluid black blood mark of cordextended from just below left mastoid process, where the knot wasapplied, across the thyro-hyoid membranes to a place on right sideabout two inches below ear there was scarcely a trace of it behind skin dark and ecchymosed, but no ecchymosis of subcutaneous connectivetissues no discoloration nor fracture in neck subarachnoidal fluidin excess. Puncta vasculosa unusually numerous under surface ofepiglottis reddened and showed two small dark red ecchymoses. Mucousmembrane of larynx and trachea pale lungs showed venous congestion;no infarctions or small ecchymoses. Right lung emphysematous. The leftshowed old firm adhesions throughout heart large, flabby, pale, a verylittle blood in each ventricle. Subpericardial ecchymosis one-fourthinch square anteriorly, another larger one posteriorly. Extensivepericardial adhesions liver and kidneys congested 81 see two paper of judicial hanging by wilkie, same journal, 1881, xvi , p 275 82 porter. Archiv laryngol , new york, 1880, i , p 142 - redemierhung drop five feet pulse beat rapidly a few minutes, then lessenedin frequency and stopped beating in fifteen minutes during thistime there was violent spasm of muscles of thorax and upper limbs necroscopy, dark groove around neck crossing larynx just below pomumadami brain congested lungs emphysematous cricoid cartilagefractured diagonally laryngeal mucous membrane showed ecchymosis andœdema vertebræ neither fractured nor dislocated 83 another criminal hung at the same time had dislocation ofcervical vertebræ 84 fenwick. Canada med jour , 1867, iii , p 195 - man executed;drop six feet. Second cervical vertebra torn from attachment to third;medulla torn across.