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1 the evidence at hand affords no trustworthy basis for regarding how to write a quote in an essay prophylactic vaccination against influenza as of value in preventing the spread of the disease, or of reducing its severity the evidence from the present epidemic, though meager, suggests that the incidence of the disease among the vaccinated is smaller than among the nonvaccinated the board, therefore, concludes that further experimental evidence should be collected 2 the evidence at hand convinces the board that the vaccines we have considered have no specific value in the treatment of influenza 3 there is evidence that no unfavorable results have followed the use of the vaccines the second committee, known as the special board of statisticalinvestigation, consisted of dr george c whipple, chairman, william h davis and f c crum this committee reported. 1 the weight of such statistical evidence as we have been able to accumulate indicates that the use of the influenza vaccine which we have investigated is without therapeutic benefit exceptional paper where apparent benefit has resulted from the use of the vaccine can be matched by other paper where similar recoveries have been made without vaccination 2 the statistical evidence, as far as it goes, indicates a probability that the use of this influenza vaccine has essay prophylactic value 3 there is also essay evidence to the effect that other methods of protection, such as open-air treatment and the use of proper masks, are effective in protecting exposed attendants, and the use of vaccine should not be taken as an excuse for omitting such safeguards as a result, the following recommendations were made. That the state encourage the distribution of influenza vaccine intended for prophylactic use, but in such manner as will secure scientific evidence of the possible value of the agent the use of such vaccine is to be regarded as experimental that the state shall neither furnish nor endorse any vaccine at present in use for the treatment of influenza these reports are conservative, and offer to other health commissionersand their communities a reliable guide as to procedures that shouldbe adopted before subjecting or trying out on the public any methodof prevention or treatment that may be offered these matters are thedomain of medical science, and medical scientists of recognized abilityshould be called on to make the decision -- editorial from the journala m a , oct 19, 1918 serums and vaccineswith respect to serums and vaccines in influenza, there are certainsimple facts and considerations that physicians will do well to keepin mind at this times the main point to keep always in sight is thatunfortunately we as yet have no specific serum or other specific meansfor the cure of influenza, and no specific vaccine or vaccines for itsprevention such is the fact, all claims and propagandist statementsin the newspapers and elsewhere to the contrary notwithstanding thisbeing the case, efforts at treatment and prevention by serums andvaccines, now hurriedly undertaken, are simply experiments in a newfield, and the true value of the results cannot be predicted by anyone indeed, the exact results can be determined if at all only after atime, in most paper probably not until the epidemic is past and all thereturns fully canvassed consequently, the physician must keep his headlevel and not allow himself to be led into making more promises thanthe facts warrant this warning applies especially to health officersin their public relations as to serum treatment, the only noteworthy new method so far is theinjection in severe paper of influenzal pneumonia of the serum ofpatients who have recovered from such pneumonia 292 the principle ofthis method is rational. Analogous procedures have given seeminglygood results in scarlet fever and other diseases. And the resultsreported in influenzal pneumonia appear promising further trialof this treatment under proper conditions consequently seems to bewarranted it should be borne in mind, however, that mcguire andredden292 made their observations in the declining phase of theepidemic when the organism or organisms concerned appeared to be losingvirulence for this and other reasons, the expectations as to what maybe accomplished by this method must be kept within reasonable bounds influenza is a self-limited disease with variable complications and ofvariable severity in different places, thus offering great difficultiesin the way of evaluation of different methods of treatment 292 mcguire, l w , and redden, w r. Treatment of influenzapneumonia by the use of convalescent human serum. Preliminary report, j a m a 71:1311 oct 19 1918 at least two kinds of vaccine are in use in the hope that they mayhave preventive effects one consists solely of killed influenzabacilli. It being extensively used in the east we have as yet nodecisive figures as to its effects, but there is an impression that itmay have essay value the other vaccine is a mixed vaccine of the moreimportant bacteria in the respiratory tract in influenza, principallypneumonococci, streptococci and influenza bacilli it appears thatvaccines of this nature are in extensive use, but we have no evidencethat any benefit will be derived from them to say that thousandshave been vaccinated with apparently good results means nothing atall, simply because we are still in the midst of the outbreak, inthesis places even in the earlier stages how slender the basis ofthis anti-influenzal vaccination when it is considered that the realnature of influenza is still unknown!.

Costal pains 53 ophthalmia. Dysmenorrhea. Amenorrhea. Skin eruptions such therapy, detached entirely from the actual requirements of thecase and based only upon observation of the sky, was bound to beattended with the most unfortunate results the suffering public wasfrequently but little cheered by the assistance of its physicians, andoften felt the desire to find out what another physician could do itappears that such a condition occurred quite frequently, for ptolemy, in number 57 of his “centiloquium, ” gives special directions underwhat astral conditions such a change of physician could take place hesays. “cum septimum locum atque ejus dominum in ægritudine afflictumvideris, medicum mutato ” it appears certain, accordingly, that ageneral change of physicians was inaugurated by the public so soon asthe above conjunction was noted in the sky those who desired to be very careful in the choice of their physiciandid not change only when the conjunction of the stars recommended it asadvisable, but they also attempted to ascertain the horoscope of thenewly chosen medical adviser, for medical wisdom was found in greatestabundance in a man whose aspects showed a certain form “perfectusmedicus erit, cui mars et venus fuerint in sexta, ” says almansor this condition of astrologia medica was such as to weigh likean oppressive nightmare upon mankind, not only for centuries butfor thousands of years, and in this way medical superstition hasslaughtered more human beings than the most bloody wars ever did however, astrology has not always ruled our kind with equal strength there were periods during which belief in the fate-determining power ofthe stars was more dominant, and others in which it was feebler theancient world, which was blindly devoted to all kinds of superstition, had also cherished and fostered astrology but when the ancient theoryof life was demolished later on, and the christian god of love hadtaken possession of the world, the belief in the fate-determining powerof the stars was shaken, and centuries, followed during which medicinaastrologica, altho it did not by any means disappear entirely, wasforced more or less to the rear astrology did not become resurrecteduntil scholasticism and dogmatism had held back the activity ofthe mind from independent investigation, thus bringing about theintellectual darkness which for centuries prevailed this use ofastrology truly forms one of the most wonderful pages in the history ofthe development of our race, for an actual furor astrologicus seizedupon the world in the course of the thirteenth century the movementoriginated at the court of emperor frederick ii the great ghibellinewas so positive and so enthusiastic an adherent of all astrologicdoctrines that he did not decide upon any undertaking until he hadfirst learned the opinion of the stars regarding his enterprise it washis firm belief that the stars prophesied for him a political rôlewhich was to shake the entire world, and of his astrological predictionhe apprised his adversary, the pope, in the following words. Fata volunt, stellaeque docent, animumque volatus, quod fridericus ego malleus orbis ero but if a ruler of high mental gifts is always destined to exert apowerful influence upon his epoch, how much more telling is thisinfluence when the contemporaries of such a monarch lead a mentallife, fettered by so thesis religious, philosophical, and physicalprejudices as undeniably dominated mankind during the reign ofthe great hohenstaufen if these conditions were of the greatestadvantage to astrology in general, circumstances shaped themselvesmost favorably for medicina astrologica in writingicular very soonafter the death of the star-learned hohenstaufen emperor, two highlytalented physicians bound themselves body and soul to astrology namely, arnald bachuone, called also, after his birthplace, villanueva, arnaldus villanovanus or arnald of villanova 1235-1312, and petrus, called also, after his birthplace, abano near padua, petrus de aponoor petrus aponensis 1250-1315 from that time until the seventeenthcentury the most eminent representatives of all the sciences andprofessions devoted themselves to the doctrines of astrology in theexcellent work of sudhoff is cited a notable number of physicians byno means the most unskilful of their day who confessed themselves tobe iatromathematicians i e , medici astrologici astrology, and with it medicina astrologica, reigned supreme at most of theprincely courts from the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries thehohenstaufen, frederick ii , was, as we have seen, an implicit adherentto astrologic doctrines. Likewise the visconti in milan the royalcourt of aragon in palermo offered a sheltering asylum to astronomyand to astrology alfonso x of castile was so enthusiastic a friendof scientific astronomy that he ordered the planet-tables of ptolemyto be restored, with an outlay of enormous costs, by fifty astronomerscalled by him to toledo german princes, such as elector joachim ofbrandenburg, albrecht, elector of mayence, landgrave william of hesse, duke albrecht of prussia, not only adhered to the predictions of thestars, but they also subscribed to the statements of astrologicalmedicine thus, for instance, thomas erastus died 1583 the well-knownopponent of paracelsus, tells us that, as body-physician to thereigning count of henneberg, he was not permitted to begin a courseof treatment until he had consulted the stars the german emperor, charles v , was quite as constant a friend of the astrologists.

Yet thesis have been induced to think suchaffections may be wrought in the body by medicines the heart is chiefly afflicted by too much heat, by poison, andby stinking vapours, and these are remedied by the second sort ofcordials, and indeed chiefly belong to our present scope according to these three afflictions, viz 1 excessive heat 2 poison 3 melancholy vapours are three kinds of remedies which succour the afflicted heart such as 1 by their cooling nature mitigate the heat of fevers 2 resist poison 3 cherish the vital spirits when they languish all these are called cordials 1 such as cool the heart in fevers, yet is not every thing thatcooleth cordial, for lead is colder than gold, yet is not lead cordialas gold is, essay hold it cordial by a hidden quality, others by reason 2 such as resist poison. There is a two-fold resisting of poison 1 by an antipathy between the medicine and poison 2 by a sympathy between the medicine and the heart of the first we shall speak anon, in a chapter by itself the latterbelongs to this chapter, and they are such medicines, whose nature isto strengthen the heart, and fortify it against the poison, as rue, angelica, &c for as the operation of the former is upon the poison, which afflicteth the heart, so the operation of the latter is upon theheart afflicted by the poison to this class may be referred all such medicines as strengthen theheart either by astral influence, or by likeness of substance, if therebe such a likeness in medicines, for a bullock heart is of likesubstance to man, yet i question whether it be cordial or not 3 and lastly, such as refresh the spirits, and make them lively andactive, both because they are appropriated to the office, and alsobecause they drive stinking and melancholy vapours from the heart, foras the animal spirit be refreshed by fragrant smells, and the naturalspirits by spices, so are the vital spirits refreshed by all suchmedicines as keep back melancholy vapours from the heart, as borrage, bugloss, rosemary, citron pills, the compositions of them, and thesisothers, which this treatise will amply furnish you with chapter iv of medicines appropriated to the stomach by stomach, i mean that ventricle which contains the food till it beconcocted into chyle medicines appropriated to the stomach are usually called stomachicals the infirmities usually incident to the stomach are three 1 appetite lost 2 digestion weakened 3 the retentive faculty corrupted when the appetite is lost, the man feels no hunger when his body needsnourishment when digestion is weakened it is not able to concoct the meat receivedinto the stomach, but it putrifies there when the retentive faculty is spoiled the stomach is not able to retainthe food till it be digested, but either vomits it up again, or causesfluxes such medicines then as remedy all these, are called stomachicals andof them in order 1 such as provoke appetite are usually of a sharp or sourish taste, and yet withal of a grateful taste to the palate, for although loss ofappetite may proceed from divers causes, as from choler in the stomach, or putrefied humours or the like, yet such things as purge this choleror humours, are properly called orecticks, not stomachicals. Theformer strengthen appetite after these are expelled 2 such medicines help digestion as strengthen the stomach, either byconvenient heat, or aromatic viz spicy faculty, by hidden property, or congruity of nature 3 the retentive faculty of the stomach is corrected by bindingmedicines, yet not by all binding medicines neither, for essay of themare adverse to the stomach, but by such binding medicines as areappropriated to the stomach for the use of these use 1 use not such medicines as provoke appetite before you havecleansed the stomach of what hinders it use 2 such medicines as help digestion, give them a good time beforemeat that so they may pass to the bottom of the stomach, for thedigestive faculty lies there, before the food come into it use 3 such as strengthen the retentive faculty, give them a littlebefore meat, if to stay fluxes, a little after meat, if to stayvomiting chapter v of medicines appropriated to the liver be pleased to take these under the name of hepatics, for that is theusual name physicians give them, and these also are of three sorts 1 essay the liver is delighted in 2 others strengthen it 3 others help its vices the palate is the seat of taste, and its office is to judge what foodis agreeable to the stomach, and what not, by that is both the qualityand quantity of food for the stomach discerned. The very same officethe meseraik veins perform to the liver essaytimes such food pleases the palate which the liver likes not butnot often and therefore the meseraik veins refuse it, and that isthe reason essay few men fancy such food as makes them sick after theeating thereof 1 the liver is delighted exceedingly with sweet things, draws themgreedily, and digests them as swiftly, and that is the reason honey isso soon turned into choler 2 such medicines strengthen the liver, as being appropriated to itvery gently bind, for seeing the office of the liver is to concoct, it needs essay adstriction, that so both the heat and the humour to beconcocted may be stayed, that so the one slip not away, nor the otherbe scattered yet do not hepatical medicines require so great a binding faculty asstomachicals do, because the passages of the stomach are more openthan those of the liver by which it either takes in chyle, or sendsout blood to the rest of the body, therefore medicines that are verybinding are hurtful to the liver, and either cause obstructions, orhinder the distribution of the blood, or both and thus much for the liver, the office of which is to concoct chyle, which is a white substance the stomach digests the food into intoblood, and distributes it, by the veins, to every writing of the body, whereby the body is nourished, and decaying flesh restored chapter vi of medicines appropriated to the spleen in the breeding of blood, are three excrements most conspicuous, viz urine, choler, and melancholy the proper seat of choler is in the gall the urine passeth down to the reins or kidneys, which is all one the spleen takes the thickest or melancholy blood to itself this excrement of blood is twofold. For either by excessive heat, itis addust, and this is that the latins call atra bilis. Or else itis thick and earthly of itself, and this properly is called melancholyhumour hence then is the nature of splenical medicines to be found out, andby these two is the spleen usually afflicted for atra bilis, i knownot what distinct english name to give it thesis times causes madness, and pure melancholy causeth obstructions of the bowels, and tumours, whereby the concoction of the blood is vitiated, and dropsies thesistimes follow medicines then peculiar to the spleen must needs be twofold also, essayappropriated to atra bilis, others to pure melancholy. But of purgingeither of them, i shall omit till i come to treat of purging in achapter by itself 1 such medicines are splenical, which by cooling and moistening temperatra bilis. Let not these medicines be too cold neither, for there isno such heat in atra bilis as there is in choler, and therefore itneeds no such excessive cooling. Amongst the number of these are suchas we mentioned amongst the cordials to repel melancholy vapours fromthe heart, such temper and assuage the malice of atra bilis 2 those medicines are also splenical, by which melancholy humours arecorrected and so prepared, that they may the more easily be evacuated:such medicines are cutting and opening, and they differ from hepaticalsin this that they are no ways binding. For the spleen being no waysaddicted to concoction, binding medicines do it harm, and not good 3 essaytimes the spleen is not only obstructed, but also hardened bymelancholy humours, and in such paper emolient medicines may be wellcalled splenicals, not such as are taken inwardly, for they operateupon the stomach and bowels, but such as are outwardly applied to theregion of the spleen and although essaytimes medicines, are outwardly applied to hardness ofthe liver, yet they differ from splenicals, because they are binding, so are not splenicals chapter vii of medicines appropriated to the reins and bladder the office of the reins is, to make a separation between the blood andthe urine. To receive this urine thus separated from the blood, is thebladder ordained, which is of a sufficient bigness to contain it both these writings of the body officiating about the urine, they are bothusually afflicted by the vices of the urine 1 by stones 2 by inflammation 3 by thick humours medicines appropriated to the reins and bladder are usually callednephriticals, and are threefold. Essay cool, others cut gross humours, and a third sort breaks the stone in the use of all these, take notice, that the constitution of thereins and bladder is such, that they abhor all binding medicinesbecause they cause stoppage of urine take notice, that the reins and bladder being subject to inflammationsendure not very hot medicines because the bladder is further remote from the centre of the body thanthe kidnies are, therefore it requires stronger medicines than thekidnies do, lest the strength of the medicine be spent before it become to the writing afflicted chapter viii of medicines appropriated to the womb these, physicians call hystericals, and to avoid multiplicity ofwords, take them in this discourse under that notion take notice that such medicines as provoke the menses, or stop themwhen they flow immoderately, are properly hystericals, but shall bespoken to by and by in a chapter by themselves as for the nature of the womb, it seems to be much like the nature ofthe brain and stomach, for experience teacheth that it is delightedwith sweet and aromatical medicines, and flies from their contraries for example. A woman being troubled with the fits of the mother, whichis drawing of the womb upward, apply sweet things, as civet, or thelike, to the place of conception, it draws it down again. But applystinking things to the nose, as assafœtida, or the like, it expels itfrom it, and sends it down to its proper place chapter ix of medicines appropriated to the joints the joints are usually troubled with cephalic diseases, and then are tobe cured by cephalic medicines medicines appropriated to the joints, are called by the namearthritical medicines the joints, seeing they are very nervous, require medicines which areof a heating and drying nature, with a gentle binding, and withal, suchas by peculiar virtue are appropriated to them, and add strength tothem it is true, most cephalics do so, yet because the joints are moreremote from the centre, they require stronger medicines for removing pains in the joints this is the method of proceeding pain is either taken away or eased, for the true cure is to take awaythe cause of the pain, essaytimes the vehemency of the pain is so greatthat you must be forced to use anodines for so physicians call suchmedicines as ease pain before you can meddle with the cause, andthis is usually when the writing pained is inflamed, for those medicineswhich take away the cause of pain being very hot, if there be anyinflammation in the writing pained, you must abstain from them till theinflammation be taken away section iii of the propriety or operation of medicines chapter i of emolient medicines the various mixtures of heat, cold, dryness, and moisture in simples, must of necessity produce variety of faculties, and operations in them, which now we come to treat of, beginning first at emolients what is hard, and what is soft, most men know, but few are able toexpress phylosophers define that to be hard which yields not totouching, and soft to be the contrary an emolient, or softeningmedicine is one which reduceth a hard substance to its propertemperature but to leave phylosophy, and keep to physic. Physicians describehardness to be two-fold 1 a distention or stretching of a writing by too much fulness 2 thick humours which are destitute of heat, growing hard in that writingof the body into which they flow so thesis properties then ought emolient medicines to have, viz tomoisten what is dry, to discuss what is stretched, to warm what iscongealed by cold.

Deutsch med wchnschr 32:587, 1906 illustration. How the exploiters of formamint capitalize the medicalprofession miniature reproductions of typical formamint advertisementsappearing in the newspapers rosenberg20 corroborates this statement he also found that agarplates of bacillus prodigiosus were killed by formamint solutionsin about four hours he fails, however, to give the strength of hisformamint solutions 20 rosenberg. Therap d gegen 7:55, 1905 wingrave21 suggests the use of formamint for infants!. he recommendsthat a tablet be crushed and wrapped in “butter cloth ” the ends of thecloth are to be tied with thread, the formamint is to be moistened, andthe packet is to be held in the mouth of the baby several times eachday 21 wingrave. Lancet, london 2:1067, 1906 young22 published the results of essay experiments by himself anddelépine on the human throat they dissolved a tablet in the mouth andmade swab cultures with the following results.

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The emulsion may be used“as how to write a quote in an essay an auxiliary treatment ” the dionol “literature” when stripped ofthe verbal camouflage with which it abounds may be said to propoundthe following theories and propositions. First, that the nerves of thebody are electric conductors insulated from the surrounding tissues bythe nerve sheaths. Second, that inflammation breaks down the insulationwith the resultant escape of the current and an interference with thenormal metabolic action of the cells. Third, that dionol, when appliedto the body, penetrates the tissues, “coating the cells and with themthe nerve sheaths with a nonconducting layer which is sufficient toinsulate the nerve sheaths and stop the leak ”so much for the theory on which the alleged action of dionol is based dionol itself is a sort of glorified petrolatum not, of course, thatthe manufacturers describe it in any such crude and understandablelanguage according to the company, dionol is “composed of purehydrocarbons, especially selected with regard to specific gravity, viscosity and other necessary physical properties” which has been“perfectly deionized by our special scientific process under thebaines method ” it appears, from further reading, that ordinarypetrolatum will not “turn the trick”.