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How To Write A Dialogue Essay


So shall one handful be worth ten of those youbuy how to write a dialogue essay at the physic herb shops 2 note what places they most delight to grow in, and gather themthere. For betony that grows in the shade, is far better than thatwhich grows in the sun, because it delights in the shade. So also suchherbs as delight to grow near the water, shall be gathered near it, though happily you may find essay of them upon dry ground. The treatisewill inform you where every herb delights to grow 3 the leaves of such herbs as run up to seed, are not so good whenthey are in flower as before essay few excepted, the leaves of whichare seldom or never used in such paper, if through ignorance they werenot known, or through negligence forgotten, you had better take the topand the flowers, then the leaf 4 dry them well in the sun, and not in the shade, as the saying ofphysicians is.

Ethyl alcohol how to write a dialogue essay 12 5%. And aromatics ”although the claim is made that the “formula” of wheeler tissuephosphates has been “suggested by professor dusart, ” such of dusartpapers as were available in this country111 failed to disclose any“formula” that was at all comparable to this product 111 dusart, l. Recherches expérimentales sur le rôle physiologiqueet thérapeutique du phosphate de chaux, paris, 1870. Quel est l’acidedu suc gastrique?. lille, 1874, unbound, 8 pages. Notice sur l’emploi etles proprietés du lacto-phosphate de chaux, clichy, 1868, unbound, 8pages dusart and blache. Recherches sur l’assimilation du phosphate dechaux, paris, 1868, unbound, 15 pages editorial note -- the investigation verifies facts that must be obviousto every physician who has given the matter thought “wheeler tissuephosphates” is an unscientific, shotgun mixture whose most active andpowerful drug is the alcohol it contains that it was not years agorelegated to the realms of obsolete and discarded preparations is acommentary alike on the lack of scientific discrimination and thepersuasive power of advertising while in the past “wheeler tissuephosphates” has been advertised extensively in medical journals, it seems that now the chief, if not the only beneficiary of theadvertising appropriation for this product is the new york medicaljournal, which weekly heralds the “delicious” and “sustaining”qualities of “the ideal tonic for fastidious convalescents ”-- fromthe journal a m a , may 5, 1917 the claimed galactagogue effects of nutrolactis and goat rue not substantiated report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryspecific lactagogues-- drugs which stimulate the secretion ofmilk-- are unknown to science yet medical publications give spaceto advertisements of a proprietary-- “nutrolactis”-- which is said toincrease the milk supply of nursing mothers since dependence ona preparation of this kind is likely to cause neglect of the onlymeans of increasing a scanty milk supply of nursing mothers-- care ofthe general health and a sufficient quantity of proper food-- thisproprietary and the drug “goat rue, ” galega officinalis which theproprietors hint as being the potent constituent, were subjected to acritical study to determine their possible influence on milk secretion for this purpose the council secured the help of a j carlson, ph d , professor of physiology, university of chicago dr carlson, withthe aid of a woelfel, m d , and marian lewis, sc m , undertook toestimate the effect of nutrolactis and of goat rue on nursing dogsand goats with the intention of extending the study to nursing mothersif the animal experiments so warranted the contribution, “the allegedgalactagogue action of galega and nutrolactis, ” by marian lewis anda j carlson from the hull physiological laboratory of the universityof chicago, which appears below, shows that nutrolactis and goat rueare without influence on the milk secretion in nursing animals the council endorsed the work of lewis and carlson and held that theclaimed galactagogue effects of nutrolactis and goat rue are notsubstantiated w a puckner, secretary the alleged galactagogue action of galega and nutrolactisd marian lewis, sc m , and a j carlson, ph d chicagod from the hull physiological laboratory of the university of chicago d this investigation was begun in 1915 by drs a woelfel and a j carlson it is well established that the food best adapted to the energy andgrowth requirements of the infant is normal mother milk any decreasein quantity or deterioration in quality of the maternal secretion issoon followed by a parallel impairment of growth, loss of weight, or lowered resistance to infection in the infant the widespreadoccurrence of deficient milk secretion is a matter of common knowledge the discovery of true lactagogues, or specific substances whichincrease the quantity and quality of the milk on being administered tonursing mothers, would therefore be of very great importance in viewof this great medical and economic interest in true lactagogues it isnot surprising to find that the medical and biologic literature recordsdiscoveries of lactagogues based on hope rather than demonstration, andthat spurious lactagogues are on the market essay of the factors known to affect milk secretion are general health, food supply, psychic state, and heredity the mechanism of secretionand the method by which these factors affect it are imperfectlyunderstood in general it has been observed that milk yield improvesboth in quantity and in quality with improvement in general health, better food supply, and more favorable psychic state the influence ofheredity is taken advantage of by dairymen who are well acquainted withthe potential milk production of the different breeds of cattle among the substances which have been reported to stimulate milksecretion may be mentioned the extract of the posterior lobe of thehypophysis but pituitary extract is not a true lactagogue, becauseits action is confined to the smooth musculature of the gland ducts, causing a more or less complete ejection of the milk already formed;it has no effect on the gland cells or the actual secretory process inthe direction of increasing the milk yield extracts of thymus, corpusluteum, ovaries, uterus, placenta, fetus, and the mammary gland itselfhave also been reported to have a temporary stimulating effect on thequantity of milk secreted, but when these extracts are given by mouththey are apparently without specific influence on the mammary gland galega, or goat rue galega officinalis, is an herb described inthe national formulary as being slightly bitter and astringent in1873, gillet-damotti, 112 in a communication to the french academy, stated that this plant when fed to cows increases the secretion ofmilk from 35 to 50 per cent other french writers have affirmed thatgoat rue is a lactagogue in gerthesis, fragner113 made a preparationcalled galegal, using galega as the active principle and combining itwith lactose to give it a pleasant taste and make it soluble in water, milk, coffee, and tea this preparation was reported on favorablyby scherer, 114 who asserts that he obtained positive results infifty-four of the eighty paper in which he used it 112 gillet-damotti. Comp rend acad d sc , july 7, 1873 113 fragner.

1st, and most important, by anexamination of the wound, and, 2d, by an examination of the instrumentsaid to have been used certain writingiculars of the wound may furnishindications as to the weight, form, and sharpness of the instrumentused there are certain wounds which must have been made by aninstrument, namely, incised and punctured wounds the above questionis determined more or less by what has been said in a former sectionon wounds, but we will now consider what special features of these andother classes of wounds indicate the nature, shape, size, etc , of theweapon used incised wounds must be made by a cutting instrument we would hereexclude those contused wounds of the scalp and eyebrows which closelyresemble incised wounds, but we have already seen that we can diagnosebetween these wounds and incised wounds by careful inspection but thelocality should put us on our guard, so that in case of wounds of thesetwo regions we should be especially careful in making the examination in the case of incised wounds we cannot often tell the shape or size ofthe weapon, but we are able to tell certain characteristics about it the sharpness of the instrument may be inferred from the clean andregular edges the depth of the wound may also indicate the how to write a dialogue essay sharpnessof the weapon a long “tail” in the wound indicates that the weapon wassharp as well as that this was the writing of the wound last made if theedges of the wound are rough, we may infer that the edges of the weaponwere rough and irregular wounds caused by bits of china or glass orfragments of bottles, besides having rough and lacerated edges, arecharacterized by an irregular or angular course in the skin essay cutting weapons, like an axe, act as much by means of their weightas by their cutting edges wounds caused by such weapons we can oftendistinguish by the following signs. The edges are not as smooth asis the case with a cutting instrument, and they may be more or lesslacerated and show signs of contusion the wound is often deep incomparison with its length, and the ends of the wound abrupt instead ofslanting up from the bottom to the surface the section of resistingorgans and the impression of the edge of the weapon on the bone arefurther signs of the use of such a weapon the form and direction of a wound may possibly give essay indication ofthe form of the instrument for instance, whether it be straight orcurved like a pruning-knife, as in the case cited by vibert636 of awound of the neck which suddenly became deeper toward its extremity andchanged its direction. The whole being explained on the suppositionthat it was made by a pruning-knife but it is in punctured wounds especially that we are enabled mostoften and most accurately to determine the kind of a weapon used here from the form of the wound we may judge of the form and size ofthe weapon in speaking of punctured wounds in a former section wedivided them into four groups, reference to which may here be made inthe first group, or those caused by cylindrical or conical weapons, when the weapon is very fine it may leave no track at all. If a littlelarger, we may infer from a linear bloody track that the weapon wasneedle-like in shape the length of the instrument or the depth towhich it penetrated may be found, as a rule, only by dissection if theweapon were larger and conical, we have seen that the wounds would belinear with two angles, the length of the wound being parallel to thedirection of the fibres in the skin here we may judge of the form of the weapon from the followingcircumstances. From a comparison of the depth with the size of theopening, we know that it was a punctured wound the edges and anglesare not smooth and even enough for a stab-wound with a knife, for theedges are torn and not cut, and a stab-wound would be the only form ofwound with which we would be likely to confuse it furthermore, thedirection of the long axis of the wound parallel to that of the skinfibres in the region in which it occurs and the very slight retractionof the edges distinguish it from a stab-wound by these signs we canalmost always distinguish such wounds from stab-wounds, and thus tellthe form of the weapon used as to the size of weapon used, thesewounds if of any size are generally smaller than the weapon, for theskin is put on the stretch by the weapon and yields to a certainextent the actual wound, therefore, is smaller in circumference thanthe weapon the size of the wound is smaller than that writing of theweapon occupying the wound when the weapon was arrested. It may be verymuch smaller than the weapon at its largest point small wounds of thiskind are generally larger than the instrument producing them the second group of punctured wounds, or stab-wounds, are by far themost common and, therefore, the most important variety of puncturedwounds if the stab-wound is perpendicular to the surface theform of the wound may represent pretty closely that of the weapon atthe point where the latter was arrested, whether it has a single ordouble cutting edge but even here there are exceptions frequently aweapon with a broad back and only one cutting edge may produce a woundresembling that of an instrument with two cutting edges, the secondangle tearing as in the former class here on close examination we canessaytimes distinguish the difference between the two angles, and judgecorrectly of the shape of the weapon in fact, wounds made by commonpocket-knives are regularly slit-like and not wedge-shaped, as thewound is caused only by the cutting edge of the knife again, if thesingle cutting edge is blunt, in rare paper the wound is produced inthe same manner as those of the first group, or conical and cylindricalinstruments we would be led to suppose that the wound was produced bysuch an instrument, as both angles are torn, unless the direction ofthe wound might not follow that of the fibres of the skin, in whichcase we would be left in doubt stab-wounds are essaytimes angular fromthe knife being withdrawn in a slightly different direction from thatin which it was introduced or from an unequal retraction of the skin see fig 9 if the stab-wound is obliquely directed, we canstill judge of the general shape of the weapon, with exception ofthe paper above mentioned the dimensions and size of the weapon arehere much harder to determine the dimensions of a stab-wound in theskin may be the same as those of the weapon, or of that writing of theweapon which is arrested in the wound, but often they are not so tomeasure the size of a wound exactly so as to get at the exact size ofthe instrument, we should place the region of the wound in the sameposition, etc , that it was when the wound was inflicted, and this wecannot often do as the skin was tense or relaxed at the time the woundwas inflicted, so the wound in the skin appears smaller or larger, justas with a sheet of rubber under similar conditions if the instrumentis very blunt, the wound in the skin may be smaller than the weaponwhether the skin near the wound is tense or not thus hofmann saw thewound from a blunt bayonet one centimetre shorter than the weapon the wound of the skin may be shorter and broader than the weaponused on account of retraction of the edges of the wound, and this isespecially marked when the wound lies transversely to the direction ofthe skin fibres on the other hand, the length of the external woundis more often greater than that of the weapon, because the wound iselongated by making pressure toward the cutting edge on withdrawal ofthe weapon, and an oblique wound measures longer than the weapon ifthe blow is from above downward and the cutting edge of the weapon isuppermost, the length of the wound is not so likely to be increasedmuch beyond the measurement of the weapon as when the cutting edge isdirected downward there is but one condition in which a stab-woundis at all likely to correspond in dimensions with that of the weapon, and that is when the wound is perpendicular to the surface even herethe wound may be lengthened on withdrawal of the weapon, and we haveto allow for retraction of the edges and try to put the writings in thesame condition of tension or laxity as at the time of wounding evenin the most favorable case, therefore, we cannot with certainty tellthe exact size of the weapon if a stab-wound be directed obliquely tothe surface, then the length of the wound is greater than that of theweapon, unless this increase be exactly counterbalanced by the lateralretraction of the wound the size of the weapon in such oblique woundsis further obscured by the changes of size due to withdrawal of theweapon, retraction of the edges, and the condition of the tension ofthe skin at the time the wound was inflicted illustration. Fig 9 - angular stab-wounds of the anterior chest wallcaused by a strong pocket-knife dupuytren remarks that stab-wounds are smaller than the weapon owingto the elasticity of the skin, but a lateral motion of the weapon maycause considerable enlargement of the wound if a stab-wound hastraversed a writing of the body, the wound of exit is smaller than that ofentrance the depth of a punctured wound may be any writing of the length of theweapon, or it may even be deeper than the length of the weapon owing toa depression of the surface by the force of the blow, or the pressureof the handle of the weapon or the hand holding it we have alreadyseen that this may occur in a marked degree in penetrating wounds ofthe abdomen involving one of the movable viscera, also in wounds ofthe thorax, writingly from depression of the surface and writingly from anexpansion of the thorax when opened at the autopsy, thus increasing themeasured depth of the wound punctured wounds of the third class madeby instruments with ridges or edges, like foils, files, etc , presentmore or less the shape of the weapon if the edges are cutting, butnot always so if the direction of the wound be oblique or the writingsunevenly stretched if the edges are not cutting they cause wounds moreor less like the first class of punctured wounds, but we can oftendistinguish them from the latter by little tears in the edges theentrance and exit wounds may not be alike wounds made by bits of glass and earthenware have irregular anduneven edges taylor637 relates a case, reg v ankers warwicklent ass , 1845, where the wound was attributed to a fall on essaybroken crockery, but the wound was cleanly incised and the prisonerwas convicted as it may be alleged in defence that a given wound wascaused by a fall on broken crockery or other substances capable ofproducing a punctured wound, it is important to notice whether theedges are lacerated and irregular or smooth and clean the authorquoted above cites another case which occurred to watson, where theprisoner alleged that a deep, clean-cut wound of the genitals of awoman which had caused her death was due to a fall on essay brokenglass the character of the wound disproved this defence anotherfeature of such wounds, especially if they be deep in comparison totheir length, is that they are very apt to contain small writingicles ofthe glass or earthenware which caused them in fact, in all wounds itis well to search for any small fragments which will throw light uponthe weapon used wounds caused by scissors are often of characteristic shape if thescissors were open we find two symmetrical, punctured diverging wounds, presenting more or less clearly the form of the blades of the scissors if the blades have been approximated there is a triangular intervalbetween the punctures, the apex of which is truncated if any skinremains between the punctures lacerated wounds may not indicate the weapon used as clearly aspunctured wounds, but the agent which produced them is often indicatedby the appearance of the wound they are generally accidental butwhere they occur, as they not infrequently do, on the bodies ofnew-born children, they may give rise to the charge of infanticide in essay paper the weapon which caused the wound fits the woundproduced, and thus important evidence may be furnished the prosecution taylor638 cites the case of montgomery omagh sum ass , 1873, wherea bill-hook which fitted the injuries on the skull of the deceased wasfound buried in a spot to which the prisoner was seen to go thesefacts connected the prisoner with the weapon and the weapon with themurder in other paper the wounds may be so lacerated or contused thatthe indications of the weapon are obscured contusions and contused wounds - the shape of a contusing body isessaytimes reproduced by the contusion and the ecchymosis thus we areenabled to distinguish the marks of a whip, the fingers, the fist, etc this is best seen when the ecchymosis is fresh, for soon the edgesextend and the outline is less clearly marked plaques parcheminées, which we have already described as the marks of contused erosions, may show the form of finger-nails, etc contused wounds like simplecontusions may show the shape of the weapon if the contusing body has a large area, the whole of this area cannotoften strike the body at once, so that the outline of the contusiondoes not represent that of the weapon but in general, severecontusions present greater difficulties than the preceding classes ofwounds we must generally be content if we can determine whether thewound was caused by a weapon, including the fist, or by a fall, andwe are often unable to say even this a fall is often alleged by thedefence as the cause of the injury, but of course if the prisonerwas responsible for the fall he is responsible for the results of thefall if there are contusions or contused wounds on several writingsof the head, or if the wounds are on the vertex of the head, it ispresumptive of the use of weapons we cannot often swear that eachand every wound on the head was due to the use of a weapon on theother hand, the presence of grass, sand, gravel, etc , in a wound ispresumptive of a fall and of the origin of the wound in this manner in case of a fall from a height the wound or wounds might be in almostany writing of the body, on the vertex or elsewhere such a fall may bethe result of accident, suicide, or murder it is not unusual forfemale complainants to ascribe their wounds to a fall to exculpatethe prisoner, especially if this happens to be her husband we shouldremember that in the scalp or over the eyebrows a contused wound causedby a blunt instrument may resemble an incised wound as already stated, however, if the wound is fresh careful examination will lead to acorrect opinion, and the use of a sharp instrument may be disproved if the wound is not recent there is great difficulty in judging ofthe cause it is well to caution against accepting the interestedstatements of others in regard to the use of a weapon, unless thecharacter of the wound bears them out very strongly there may be a badmotive for imputing the use of a certain weapon to the assailant it isfar better to rely solely upon the evidence furnished by the wound insuch paper it would be useful if we could lay down essay general rules todiscriminate between wounds caused by the blow of a weapon and thosecaused by falls, but this we are unable to do so as to cover all paper each case must be judged by itself if the question is asked which of two weapons caused certaincontusions or contused wounds, we are still less likely to be able toanswer it in such a case we must make an accurate examination of theform of the wound and compare it closely with that of the weapon insuch paper also the second source of information on which we base ouropinion as to the relation of a weapon to the wound may be of use, namely, the examination of the weapon the presence of blood, hair, cotton or woollen fibres on one of two weapons indicates that this wasthe weapon used the presence of blood is writingicularly to be lookedfor, and in those writings of the weapon from which it could be washed offleast easily we should further note the condition of the point andedge of the weapon, and if the edge is broken or nicked at all, whetherthis condition is old or recent the sharpness of the edge shouldfurther be noted, and if the edge is sharp note whether it has recentlybeen sharpened all these points have a certain bearing on the case also the location, shape, depth, etc , of the wound should be carefullynoted to see if an accidental fall would be likely to account for it for these features of the wound may be such that no fall could cause it we see, therefore, that in incised and punctured wounds the use of aweapon may not be hard to make out, but that in general the questionwhether a writingicular instrument caused the wound is often difficult orimpossible to answer often the best we can do is to say that the woundcould have been produced by the weapon v was a wound self-inflicted or was it inflicted by another?. In other words, was it suicidal or homicidal?. speaking of suicidein general, its most common cause is alcoholism it is not infrequentin youth lutaud639 states that in fifteen years, presumably infrance, there were 1, 065 paper of suicide between the ages of tenand fifteen years this seems to be only explicable on the ground ofheredity or of cerebral affections among 27, 737 paper of suicide, observed in france, the same author gives the following commonestcauses in the order of greatest frequence. Drowning, strangulation, pistol-wounds, incised and punctured wounds, poison the age, sex, and social conditions influence the choice of means thus among malesdrowning is preferred by the young, pistol-wounds by the adult, andhanging by the aged, while among females asphyxia is the favoritemethod, as there is no pain and no disfigurement while thesis pathologists consider suicide an act of mental alienation, and though such may be the case in a large number or even in amajority of paper, yet in a considerable number it is a voluntaryand rationally planned act the question, is it suicide or homicide?. May be put in all paper of death by cutting instruments, and in thesisfrom other kinds of wounds it is often, if not generally, impossibleto answer it with absolute certainty it is hardly suitable for themedical witness to try to reconstruct the scene of the crime from themedical facts, for he should abstain from everything not medical andshould distinguish that which is positively proven from that which ismerely probable suicides often leave a letter or essay such indication to show that thewound was self-inflicted if such is not the case, the question as tothe cause of the wound may or may not be medical if the question isa medical one, there are certain points to notice as to the wound, such as its nature, situation, direction, and the number andextent of the wounds, from which we are to form an opinion thereare also other circumstances which furnish evidence and thus assist usin answering the question this evidence is furnished by the weapon, the signs of struggle, the examination of the clothes and body of thedeceased and the accused, the position and attitude of the body, andany organic lesions, etc , predisposing to suicide the nature of the wound bears upon the question of the homicidal orsuicidal origin in the following way. Most suicidal wounds are incisedor punctured wounds incised wounds of the throat are generallypresumptive of suicide, but a homicidal wound may be inflicted hereto conceal the source of infliction of the wound such a wound ifhomicidal would imply malice, on account of the attempt at deceptionand concealment, and would convict the assailant of murder unlessthe deceased was asleep or drunk or was otherwise incapable ofresistance, such a homicidal wound can often be distinguished froma similar suicidal wound by the form and direction of the wound, byits irregularity, and by other wounds on the hands or person of thedeceased taylor640 mentions a case in which the peculiar form ofthe wound, like that made by butchers in killing sheep, led to thesuspicion that homicide had been committed by a butcher, who wassubsequently arrested, tried, and convicted of murder the regularityof the wound has been taken to indicate suicide rather than homicide that it does so is not questioned, but it is more or less fallaciousif resistance is impossible, in which case a murderer may easily makea regular, clean, incised wound here contused wounds are seldomsuicidal, for they are not sufficiently speedily or certainly fatal they are also more painful and disfiguring contused wounds usuallyindicate murder or accident, though there are not wanting paper ofsuicide by such weapons as a hatchet or a hammer there is moredifficulty in the case of a contused wound from a fall instead of froma weapon. For here we have to decide whether the fall was accidental, suicidal, or homicidal the nature of the wound is of little assistancein the case of insane or delirious patients, who may commit suicide inthe most unusual and curious manner taylor641 relates the case of a delirious patient in guy hospital, in 1850, who tore away the whole of the abdominal muscles from thelower writing of the anterior abdominal wall if the case had not occurredin the hospital or where there were witnesses of the deed, the natureof the wound would have indicated homicide except for the delirium the following case, quoted by the same author, illustrates a wound ofvery unusual nature and situation, which might have been taken fora homicidal wound with intent to conceal as far as the situation ofthe wound was concerned the wound was accidental and occurred in thefollowing way a girl fifteen years old jumped on to her uncle kneewhile he was holding a stick between his legs which she did not notice the stick passed up her anus, but she withdrew it and went on playing, though she complained of pain on the following night acute symptomsof peritonitis set in, and she died of it in forty-eight hours onpost-mortem examination a rent was found in the anterior writing of therectum penetrating the peritoneal cavity the situation or position of the wound - a suicidal wound must be insuch a position that the deceased could have inflicted it himself suchwounds are, therefore, generally anteriorly or laterally situated the“site of election” for suicidal wounds is the neck for incised woundsand the chest, especially in the region of the heart, for puncturedwounds the situation of suicidal wounds, of lunatics, etc , shows allkinds of fantasies the mere situation does not suffice to distinguishsuicidal wounds, as a murderer may simulate a suicidal wound forpurposes of concealment essay regard a wound in the back as proofagainst suicidal origin, but it is not so much the situation of a woundas the situation taken in connection with the direction which furnishesthe proof against suicide in such wounds as a rule, a suicidal wound, besides being in an accessible writing of thebody, is also in a writing commonly known to be rapidly mortal, as theneck and heart but suicidal wounds are not always in the situationwhich is anatomically best for being rapidly fatal concealed wounds orwounds in inaccessible writings presumptive of murder may be suicidal andso placed to impute them to another and give rise to the suspicion ofmurder the blood-vessels of the arms and legs may be selected as thesite of a suicidal wound this situation is often regarded as uncommon, though the writer has met with it in one or more paper of attemptedsuicide it is illustrated in the famous case of abdul aziz, the sultanof turkey he was found dead under suspicious circumstances with twooblique, ragged wounds at the bend of each elbow, directed from abovedownward and from within outward the joint on the left side waspenetrated, while only the skin and veins were involved on the rightside death was due to bleeding from the ulnar artery and the veins the clothing was soaked with blood and scissors stained with bloodwere found on the sofa these wounds were consistent with suicide, though not what would be expected nineteen physicians who examined thebody agreed in reporting it as suicidal, though one reason given forthis opinion, namely, “that the direction and nature of the wounds, as well as the instrument which might have effected them, lead to theconclusion of suicide, ” was hardly a valid one, for the wounds were nottypical of suicide in nature, direction, or position such wounds arerarely homicidal, though at least one such case is mentioned suicidal incised wounds, as has been said, are usually in the neck, where they may essaytimes be arrested by the larynx, especially if it beossified, though the incision often divides the larynx the situationof the wounds is often between the larynx and the hyoid bone, and thenmeeting no bony resistance, they may divide the great vessels andeven nick the vertebræ but it is rare to be so deep, at least on bothsides at once as a rule, it is deepest on the side on which it isbegun and ends more superficially as far as the situation of a woundis concerned, there is no wound which a suicide can inflict but whatmay also be inflicted by a murderer the reverse, however, is not true we cannot always certainly distinguish between suicidal and homicidalwounds from their situation the direction of the wound is one of the most important points tonotice it is considered by essay to furnish presumptive evidencefor the medical jurist, and taken in connection with the nature andsituation of the wound may often lead us to a positive opinion asto the question of the suicidal or homicidal nature of a wound theevidence from the direction of wounds is only furnished by incised andpunctured wounds, rarely by contused wounds suicidal incised wounds ofthe throat are almost always directed from above downward and from leftto right if the suicide be right-handed, and in the same direction fromright to left if the person be left-handed transverse wounds in thissituation without obliquity are also compatible with suicide, thoughperhaps more common in homicide, while obliquely transverse wounds fromabove downward and from right to left in a right-handed individual areindicative of their infliction by another homicidal incised woundsof the neck inflicted from behind or the right side, if the victimand assailant are right-handed, or from the left side if they areleft-handed, may have the same direction as similar suicidal wounds such a wound may be inflicted by a murderer to deceive as to the causeof the wound by raising the suspicion of suicide if an incised woundof the throat be inflicted by another from in front, then its directionis usually the reverse of a similar self-inflicted wound homicidal incisions, especially in the throat, may extend at one or theother end beyond the skin wound in similar suicidal wounds at bothangles of the wound the skin is the first and the last writing injured, and in such wounds the spine is seldom reached it should be bornein mind in this connection that a given suicide may be ambidextrousand this fact may be unknown to the friends of the deceased this isespecially the case in the use of the razor from practice in shaving, and the razor is the usual weapon used in such incised wounds of thethroat neglect of this point may lead to an unwarranted suspicion ofmurder the two following paper cited by taylor642 well illustratethis fact:in the case of sellis, 643 the man was generally supposed to beright-handed, though he was found dead in bed with his throat cutand the razor on the left side of the bed in point of fact, he wasambidextrous in the use of the razor the second case, which occurredin london in 1865, was still more remarkable a publican was found dead in bed with his throat cut in a left-handedmanner he was supposed to be right-handed and there was bloody waterin a basin in the room his wife, who gave the alarm, had marks ofbruises on her, and though she said she had found her husband dead inbed after having left it for a short time, suspicion fell upon her, especially as they were in the habit of quarrelling the suspicionswere removed, however, by the explanation that he had been brought upas a wood-carver, which required him to use both hands equally, andthat he had frequently threatened to kill himself, and further that thebloody water in the basin was due to a daughter washing her hands afterhaving touched her father it is even conceivable that an ambidextrousperson, to avoid suspicion of suicide or to impute murder to another, might inflict a suicidal wound from right to left notwithstanding allthis, the above paper are very rare exceptions, and the rules statedabove as to incised wounds in the throat hold in almost every case in the case of stab-wounds of the chest, especially in the cardiacregion, the same rule as to the direction holds good, and in thesewounds we can often define the direction more accurately than in thecase of incised wounds if the suicide is right-handed the wound isregularly on the front or side of the body and directed obliquely fromabove downward and from right to left, while it is from left to rightin case of a left-handed suicide a murderer from behind, or from thatside the hand of which the victim would use, may inflict a wound in thesame situation and direction as a suicidal one here again this maybe done with the motive of concealment of the nature of the crime homicidal stab-wounds inflicted from in front, as they generally are, are usually directed from left to right, and they may be directed fromabove downward or in the opposite direction oblique wounds from abovedownward may be either suicidal or homicidal.

This is seen in bodies hermetically sealed inlead coffins, which remain unchanged for a long period of time moistrather than dry air favors putrefaction by lessening evaporation airin motion retards while still air favors the change it is to be remembered that a body decomposes more rapidly in air thanin water or after burial given similar temperatures, the amount ofputrefaction observed in a body dead one week and exposed to the airwill about correspond to one submerged in water for two weeks or buriedin a deep grave for eight weeks 4 age - the bodies of children decompose much more rapidly how to write a dialogue essay thanthose of adults. Fœtuses still more rapidly aged bodies decomposeslowly, probably on account of a deficiency of moisture fat and flabbybodies decompose quickly for the same reason 5 cause of death - in paper of sudden death, as from accident orviolence, the body decomposes more rapidly than when death resultsfrom disease putrefaction sets in early in death from the infectiousfevers, such as typhus, pyæmia, and typhoid fever, also in death fromsuffocation by smoke or coal gas, by strangulation or after narcoticpoisoning those writings of a body which are the seat of bruises, wounds, or fractures, decompose rapidly. This is especially seen inwritings after a surgical operation 6 manner of burial - when a body is buried in low ground in a damp, swampy, clay soil, decomposition advances rapidly, as also when thegrave is shallow so the body can be exposed to constant variations oftemperature a porous soil impregnated with animal and vegetable matterfavors putrefaction, as also burying a body without clothes or coffin;this is especially seen where infants have been thrown into the groundand loosely covered with earth circumstances retarding putrefaction 1 the temperature - below 32° f and above 212° f putrefaction isentirely arrested the rapidity of the change considerably lessens asthe temperature advances above 100° f a remarkable instance of thepreservative power of cold is given by adolph erman, who states thatthe body of prince menschikoff, a favorite of peter the great, exhumedafter ninety-two years’ burial in frozen soil, had undergone hardly anychange buried in hot sand as is seen in the desert, a body putrefiesvery slowly and generally becomes mummified 2 moisture - absence of moisture retards decomposition in the dryair of the desert bodies have been preserved for a long period of time 3 air - if access of air to a body be prevented in any way by itsinclosure in a coffin, by closely fitting clothes, or by completeimmersion in water, putrefaction is retarded 4 age - adults and old people decompose more slowly than children males are said to change less rapidly than females, lean people thanfleshy ones 5 cause of death - putrefaction is delayed after death from chronicdiseases unless they are associated with dropsy poisoning by alcohol, chloroform, strychnine, and arsenic retard putrefaction in the lattercase the putrefactive changes seem to stop after they have oncecommenced, and often a result very similar to mummification is seen death from the mineral acids, especially sulphuric, appears to delayputrefaction 6 manner of burial - putrefaction is retarded by burial a shorttime after death. By interment on high ground, in dry, sandy, orgravelly soil. By having the grave deep, over six feet in depth ifpossible by the body being well wrapped and secured in a tight coffin, a lead one being the best in this respect lime or charcoal appliedfreely about a body will retard decomposition, as will also injectionof the body through the arteries with such substances as arsenic, chloride of zinc, or antimony the ultimate effect of putrefactionis to reduce all bodies to inorganic compounds, chiefly water, ammonia, and carbon dioxide three conditions are necessary for itsestablishment, 1 a given temperature, 2 moisture, 3 free accessof air the order in which the various organs and tissues undergodecomposition, as given by casper, who has investigated the subjectcarefully, is as follows. Trachea and larynx, brain of infants, stomachand intestines, spleen, omentum and mesentery, liver, brain of adults, heart and lungs, kidney, bladder and œsophagus, pancreas, largevessels, and last of all the uterus as the result of putrefaction, fluids, generally blood-stained, collectin the serous cavities of the body, and should not be confoundedwith serous effusions occurring during life so also the softeningof the organs and tissue resulting from decomposition should becarefully distinguished from those resulting from inflammation thesecadaveric softenings are most frequently found in the brain, spleen, and gastro-intestinal mucous membrane inflammatory softenings aredifferentiated by being rarely general but almost always limited, bythe substance of the inflamed writing being infiltrated with serum orpus and showing traces of vascular injection in doubtful paper thepathologist should have recourse to the microscope as the result of putrefaction, various changes take place in the mucousmembrane of the stomach and intestines which simulate the effectsof poisons the color of the stomach varies from red, which becomesbrighter on exposure to the air, to a brown, slate, or livid purple wecan only presume that these color-changes are the result of irritantpoisons when they are found in non-dependent writings and writings not incontact with organs engorged with blood, when they are seen soon afterdeath, and when the membrane is covered with coagulated blood, mucus, or flakes of membrane effects on putrefaction of submersion in water there are certain modifications of the putrefactive changes when bodieshave been submerged in water in the first place, the changes are muchless rapid. They often do not show themselves until about the twelfthday, and then as discolorations appearing generally first about theears and temples, then on the face, from which they spread to the neck, shoulders, chest, abdomen, and finally to the legs this is almost theinverse order of the putrefactive changes in bodies exposed to the air as a result of the formation of gases, the body in a short time becomesbuoyant. After floating on the surface of the water for a time, thegases escape and the body sinks, rising a second time when fresh gashas formed the rapidity of decomposition in water varies, being most rapid whenthe temperature is from 64° to 68° f stagnant as well as shallow waterfavors putrefaction if a body becomes coated with mud the change isdelayed submersion in a cesspool also retards it, and the conditionsare such as to favor the formation of adipocere after a body has been removed from the water an exposure of a very fewhours to the air causes rapid decomposition, so that in twenty-fourhours more marked changes may occur than would have resulted from afortnight longer submersion the face soon becomes bloated and black, so that identification is well-nigh impossible it is quite importantin medico-legal paper to estimate the time which has elapsed sincedeath in bodies found submersed in water the following are the variouschanges ordinarily seen at different periods of time, as estimated bydevergie, who has especially investigated the subject:first four or five days - little change. Rigor mortis may persist, writingicularly if the water is cold fourth or fifth day - skin of the ball of the thumb and littlefinger, also the lateral surface of the fingers, begins to whiten thiswhitening gradually extends to the palms of the hands and soles of thefeet the skin of the face will appear softened and of a more fadedwhite than the rest of the body fifteenth day - face slightly swollen and red. A greenish spotbegins to form on the neck and skin of the mid-sternum the skin of thehands and feet is quite white and wrinkled the subcutaneous cellulartissue of the thorax is reddish and the upper writing of the corticalsubstance of the brain of a greenish tint at one month - the face is reddish-brown, the eyelids and lips greenand swollen, and the neck slightly green a greenish discoloration isalso seen over the upper and middle writing of the sternum the skin iswrinkled the hair and nails still remain intact the scrotum and penisare distended by gas the lungs become very emphysematous and overlapthe heart saponification when the bodies were removed from the cimetière des innocents in paris, in 1786, fourcray observed that thesis of them had been converted intoa substance which he termed adipocere he gave it this name becauseit resembles both fat adeps and wax cera under certaincircumstances which will be considered later, it is known to be alate product of the putrefactive processes adipocere is a substanceof a cheese-like consistency, yellow or yellowish-brown in color, and composed chiefly of a mixture of the fatty acids chevreul hasshown by analysis that it is a true ammoniacal soap, but that whenformed in water impregnated with lime a calcareous may be substitutedfor an ammoniacal base this may take place either in a body exposedto river-water or buried in a grave wet by water containing calciumcarbonate or sulphate saponification can only take place when animalfat is in contact with nitrogenous matter neither fat nor fibrin whenkept separate will saponify skin deprived of all its fat will not betransformed into adipocere saponification commences in the fat of the female breast, of the cheeksand other writings of the body where large accumulations of fat are found, such as around the kidneys and in the omentum as fat is distributedextensively throughout the body, nearly all writings may undergo thistransformation taylor gives the following conditions as favorable tothe change:1 bodies of young persons, because the fat is abundant and chieflyexternal 2 bodies of corpulent adults 3 exposure of bodies to the soil of water-closets 4 the immersion of bodies in water, the change taking place morerapidly in running than in stagnant water 5 humid soil, especially when bodies are placed in it one upon theother in this case the lowest of them is first changed when a body has been completely saponified it may remain in this statefor years in one instance, after seventeen years’ burial thesis of theorgans could still be recognized the time required for saponification to take place is essaytimes ofmedico-legal importance three years are usually necessary for bodiesburied in the earth the change occurs more rapidly in water paper arerecorded where the body of a new-born child was completely saponifiedin six weeks, and again, the change had commenced in a body which hadbeen in the water about four months. But these are unusual paper data upon which opinion as to time of death is formed the changes which take place in a body before putrefaction sets in mayenable a medical jurist to form an opinion as to the probable timewhich has elapsed since death.

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The inside of the mouth is violet-colored. Tongue blackish, livid, may be bitten, often falls backward. The teeth are ground together.