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How To Write A Critique Essay


Helps the hardness and pain of the mother, and of spleenalso. Stays inflammations and swellings, comforts and strengthens anyweak writing, or out of joint. Helps to cleanse the eyes from mistiness orfilms upon them, and to cleanse the filthy ulcers in the mouth, or anyother writing, and is a singular remedy for the gout, and all aches andpains in the joints and sinews a conserve made of the flowers, is usedfor a remedy both for the apoplexy and palsy the wallnut tree it is so well known, that it needs no description time it blossoms early before the leaves come forth, and the fruitis ripe in september government and virtues this is also a plant of the sun let thefruit of it be gathered accordingly, which you shall find to be of mostvirtues while they are green, before they have shells the bark ofthe tree doth bind and dry very much, and the leaves are much of thesame temperature. But the leaves when they are older, are heating anddrying in the second degree, and harder of digestion than when theyare fresh, which, by reason of their sweetness, are more pleasing, and better digesting in the stomach. And taken with sweet wine, theymove the belly downwards, but being old, they grieve the stomach.

A person moving to another county to practise must procure anindorsement to that effect on the certificate from the said clerk, andhave the certificate recorded in the office how to write a critique essay of the clerk of the countyto which he removes 6, 875 examinations may be made wholly or writingly in writing and must be of anelementary and practical character, but sufficiently strict to test thequalifications of the candidate as a practitioner 6, 877 the board may refuse a certificate to an individual guilty ofunprofessional or dishonorable conduct, and may revoke a certificatefor like causes after giving the accused an opportunity to be heard6, 878 definition, exception - a person is regarded as practising medicine whoprofesses publicly to be a physician and to prescribe for the sick, or who appends to his name “m d , ” but students are not prohibitedfrom prescribing under the supervision of a preceptor, and gratuitousservices may be rendered in case of emergency, and the act does notapply to commissioned surgeons of the united states army or navy ormarine hospital service 6, 879 itinerant venders - every itinerant vender of any drug, nostrum, ointment, or appliance intended for the treatment of disease orinjury, or who publicly professes to cure or treat disease, injury, ordeformity by any drug, nostrum, manipulation, or other expedient, mustpay a license fee of $100 per month. The violation of this section is amisdemeanor, punishable with a fine not exceeding $500 or imprisonmentin the county jail not to exceed six months, or both 6, 880 penalty - the violation of the provisions of this act is a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of from $50 to $500, or imprisonment in thecounty jail for from thirty to three hundred and sixty-five days, orboth, for each offence. Filing or attempting to file the certificateof another, or a forged affidavit or identification, is a felonypunishable as forgery in the second degree, but the provisions of thisarticle do not apply to persons who had been practising five years inthe state prior to 1883 6, 881 fees - to the secretary of the board, for examining a genuine diploma, $1 if fraudulent or not owned by the possessor, $20 6, 873 to the clerk, for recording, the usual fees 6, 875 montana board of examiners - the governor, with the advice and consent of thecouncil, appoints seven learned, skilled, and capable physicians whohave been residents for not less than two years, no more than two fromthe same county, to constitute the board of examiners act of february28th, 1889, s 1 meetings of the board for examination are required to be held at thecapital and such other central points as the board may select, on thefirst tuesday of april and october in each year, and at other times asthe board may determine the board must keep a record of all applicantsfor a certificate, with their age, time spent in the study of medicine, name, and the location of all institutions granting to applicantsdegrees or certificates of lectures in medicine or surgery, and whetherthe applicant was rejected or received a certificate, and the registeris prima facie evidence of matters therein recorded 2 qualification - every person wishing to practise medicine or surgeryin any of their dewritingments shall do so only upon complying with therequisites of this act if a graduate in medicine, he must presenthis diploma to the board for verification as to its genuineness ifit be found genuine and issued by a medical school legally organizedand in good standing, whose teachers are graduates of a legallyorganized school, which fact the board determines, and if the personpresenting and claiming the diploma be the person to whom it wasoriginally granted, the board must issue its certificate, which shallbe conclusive of the holder right to practise any person coming tothe state may present his diploma to any member of the board, who mayissue a certificate good till the board next regular meeting ifnot a graduate, the person must present himself to the board for suchexamination as may be required, unless he shall have been in continuouspractice in the state for not less than ten years, of which fact hemust present satisfactory evidence in the form of affidavits to theboard 3 all persons entitled to practise under the ten-year provision and allpersons commencing the practice of medicine and surgery in any ofits branches shall apply to the board for a certificate, and at thetime and place designated by the board, or at the regular meeting, beexamined in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, histology, materia medica, therapeutics, preventive medicines, practice of medicine, surgery, obstetrics, diseases of women and children, diseases of the nervoussystem, diseases of the eye and ear, medical jurisprudence, and suchother branches as the board may deem advisable, and present evidence ofhaving practised the required term of ten years, or of having attendedthree courses of lectures of at least four months each. The examinationmust be both scientific and practical, and of sufficient thoroughnessand severity to test the candidate fitness to practise medicine andsurgery the examination may be held in the presence of the dean of anymedical school or of the president of any medical society of the state after the examination, the board must grant to a candidate who is foundqualified, a certificate to practise medicine and surgery the boardmay refuse or revoke a certificate for unprofessional, dishonorable, or immoral conduct, or may refuse a certificate to any one who maypublicly profess to cure or treat diseases, injuries, or deformitiesin such manner as to deceive the public in paper of refusal orrevocation, the aggrieved applicant may appeal to the district court ofthe county of his application 4 certificates must be recorded within sixty days after their date in theoffice of the county recorder in the county where the holder resides;or in case of removal certificates must be recorded in the county towhich the holder removes the county recorder must indorse on thecertificate the date of its record 5 exceptions - the act does not apply to midwives of skill and experienceattending paper of confinement, nor to commissioned surgeons of theunited states army or navy in the discharge of their official duties, nor to physicians or surgeons in actual consultation from other statesand territories, nor to students practising medicine under the directsupervision of a preceptor, nor to gratuitous services in paper ofemergency 6 penalty - violation of the act is a misdemeanor, punishable with a fineof from $100 to $500, or imprisonment in the county jail from thirty toninety days, or both definition - any person is regarded as practising within the meaning ofthe act who appends “m d ” or “m b ” to his name, for a fee prescribesmedicine, operates in surgery, attends in obstetrics, or recommends forthe use of any sick person the use of any drug or medicine or otheragency of treatment, cure, or relief of any wound, fracture, or bodilyinjury or disease, as a physician or surgeon 7 re-examination - any one failing to pass the examination is entitled toa second examination within six months without fee 8 fees - to the treasurer of the board, for examination, $15 s 4 to the secretary of the board, for examination, in advance, $15 s 8 to the county recorder, for recording, the usual fee 5 to the county attorney, for prosecuting a violation, to be charged ascosts, $5 7 nebraska qualification - it is unlawful for any person to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or any of their branches, without havingobtained and registered a certificate no person is entitled to acertificate unless he be a graduate of a legally chartered medicalschool or college in good standing the qualifications are determinedby the state board of health the act does not prevent physiciansresiding in other states from visiting patients in consultation withresident physicians who have complied act of 1891, c 35, s 7 a medical school is defined as a medical school or college whichrequires a previous examination for admission to its courses of study, and which requires for granting the degree of “m d ” attendance onat least three courses of lectures of six months each, no two ofsaid courses to be held within one year, and having a full faculty ofprofessors in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, toxicology, pathology, hygiene, materia medica, therapeutics, obstetrics, gynæcology, principle sic and practice of medicine and surgery, and clinicalinstruction in the last two named but the three-year clause does notapply to degrees granted prior to july, 1891 8 a person intending to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics mustpresent his diploma to the said board, with his affidavit that he isthe lawful possessor of the same and has attended the full course ofstudy required for the degree of “m d , ” and that he is the persontherein named such affidavit may be taken before any person authorizedto administer oaths, and it shall be attested under the hand andofficial seal of the official, if he have a seal false swearing isperjury 9 if investigation of the diploma and affidavit proves the applicantentitled to practise, the board issues its certificate, which must befiled in the office of the county clerk of the county where he resides, or intends to practise 10 the act gave physicians entitled to practise at the time of itsenactment six months in which to comply with its provisions withreference to them 11 the secretaries of the board may issue certificates, without a vote ofthe board, when the proof upon which certificates are granted may havebeen on file in its office for ten days without a vote of the board, when no protest has been filed, and if, in their opinion, the proofcomplies with the act 12 when the holder of a certificate removes to another county, he mustfile and record it in the office of the county clerk in the county towhich he removes 13 the board may refuse certificates to persons guilty of unprofessionalor dishonorable conduct, and may revoke for like causes provided theygive the person an opportunity to be heard 14 penalty - no person is entitled to receive any sum of money formedical, surgical, or obstetrical service unless he shall have compliedwith the act 15 violation of the act is a misdemeanor, punishable with a fine of from$50 to $300 and costs of prosecution, and a person convicted shallstand committed till the fine and costs are paid 16 definition, exceptions - to operate on, profess to heal, prescribe for, or otherwise treat any physical or mental ailment of another, is topractise medicine under this act but it does not prohibit gratuitousservices in paper of emergency, nor apply to commissioned surgeonsin the united states army or navy, nor to nurses in their legaloccupation, nor to the administration of ordinary household remedies17 itinerant vender - to be an itinerant vender of any drug, nostrum, ointment, or appliance for the treatment of disease or injury, or forsuch an one to publicly profess to cure or to treat disease or injuryor deformity by any drug, nostrum, manipulation, or other expedient, is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $50 to $100, orimprisonment in the county jail from thirty days to three months, orboth, for each offence 18 fees - to the secretaries of the board of health, for certificate attime of application, $5 to the secretaries of the board of health, for taking testimony, samefees as a notary public is allowed for same service 19 to county clerk, for recording, usual register fees for recording10 nevada qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine or surgery whohas not received a medical education and a diploma from essay regularlychartered medical school having a bona fide existence when thediploma was granted act of 1875, c 46, s 1 a copy of the diploma must be filed for record with the county recorderof the county in which the person practises, and at the same time theoriginal, or a certificate from the dean of the medical school of whichhe is a graduate, certifying to his graduation, must be exhibited2 the person filing a copy of a diploma or a certificate of graduationmust be identified as the person named therein, by the affidavit of twocitizens of the county, or his affidavit taken before a notary publicor commissioner of deeds for this state, which affidavit must be filedin the office of the county recorder 3 penalty - practising without complying with this act is a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of from $50 to $500, or imprisonment in thecounty jail from thirty days to six months, or both, for each offence filing a diploma or a certificate of another or a forged affidavit ofidentification is a felony 4 exceptions - the act does not apply to a person who in an emergency mayprescribe or give advice in medicine or surgery in a township whereno physician resides, or when no physician or surgeon resides withinconvenient distance, nor to those who had practised medicine or surgeryin the state for ten years next preceding the passage of the act, norto persons prescribing in their own family 6 new jersey board of examiners - the state board of medical examiners, appointedby the governor, consists of nine members, persons of recognizedprofessional ability and honor, five of the old school, three of thehomœopathic, and one of the eclectic, among whom can be no member ofany college or university having a medical dewritingment act 1890, c 190, s 1 the board must hold meetings for examination at the capital on thesecond thursday of january, april, july, and october of each year andat such other times as they deem expedient. They shall keep a registerof all applicants for examination, showing the name, age, and lastplace of residence of each candidate, the time he has spent in medicalstudy in or out of a medical school, the names and locations of allmedical schools which have granted the said applicant any degree orcertificate of attendance upon lectures in medicine, and whether theapplicant has been rejected or licensed, and it shall be prima facieevidence of all matters contained therein 2 qualification - all persons commencing the practice of medicine orsurgery in any of its branches must apply to the board for a license applicants are divided into three classes:1 persons graduated from a legally chartered medical school not lessthan five years before the application 2 all other persons graduated from legally chartered medical schools 3 medical students taking a regular course of medical instruction applicants of the first class are examined in materia medica, therapeutics, obstetrics, gynæcology, practice of medicine, surgery, and surgical anatomy. Those of the second and third classes areexamined in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, materia medica, therapeutics, histology, pathology, hygiene, practice of medicine, surgery, obstetrics, gynæcology, diseases of the eye and ear, medicaljurisprudence, and such other branches as the board may deem advisable;questions for applicants of the first and second classes are the samein the branches common to both the board after january 1st, 1892, cannot license applicants of the second or third classes withoutsatisfactory proof that the applicant has studied medicine and surgerythree years, is of good moral character, and over twenty-one yearsof age. Applicants of the third class, after they shall have studiedmedicine and surgery at least two years, can be examined in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, histology, pathology, materia medica, andtherapeutics. If the examination is satisfactory to all the members ofthe board, it may issue a certificate that the applicant has passed afinal examination in these branches, and such certificate, if presentedby the applicant when he shall make application for a license topractise, shall be accepted by the said board in lieu of examinationin those branches all examinations shall be both scientific andpractical, but of sufficient severity to test the candidate fitnessto practise medicine and surgery 3 all examinations shall be in writing. The questions and answers, except in materia medica and therapeutics, must be such as can beanswered in common by all schools of practice, and if the applicantintends to practise homœopathy or eclecticism, the member or membersof the said board of those schools shall examine the said applicant inmateria medica and therapeutics. If the examination is satisfactory, the board shall issue a license entitling the applicant to practisemedicine a license shall not be issued unless the applicant passes anexamination satisfactory to all members of the board. The examinationpapers kept on file by the secretary of the board are prima facieevidence of all matters therein contained. On refusal of the board toissue a license for failure on examination, the applicant may appealto the governor, who may appoint a medical commission of review ofthree members, one from each school of medicine, who shall examine theexamination papers of the applicant and from them determine whether alicense should be issued, and their decision shall be final. If thesaid committee by unanimous vote reverse the determination of theboard, the board shall issue a license.

And thosecelebrated physicians of the early times, whom our author seems tohave writingicularly studied, hippocrates, galen, and avicen, regardedthose as homicides who were ignorant of astrology paracelsus, indeed, how to write a critique essay went farther. He declared, a physician should be predestinated to thecure of his patient. And the horoscope should be inspected, the plantsgathered at the critical moment, &c culpeper was a writer and translator of several works, the mostcelebrated of which is his herbal, “being an astrologo-physicaldiscourse of the common herbs of the nation. Containing a completemethod or practice of physic, whereby a man may preserve his body inhealth, or cure himself when sick, with such things only as grow inengland, they being most fit for english constitutions ”this celebrated, and useful physician died at his house inspitalfields, in the year 1654 this book will remain as a lastingmonument of his skill and industry “culpeper, the man that first ranged the woods and climbed the mountains in search of medicinal and salutary herbs, has undoubtedly merited the gratitude of posterity ” dr johnson theenglish physicianenlarged amara dulcis considering divers shires in this nation give divers names to one andthe same herb, and that the common name which it bears in one county, is not known in another. I shall take the pains to set down all thenames that i know of each herb. Pardon me for setting that name first, which is most common to myself besides amara dulcis, essay call itmortal, others bitter-sweet. Essay woody night-shade, and othersfelon-wort descript it grows up with woody stalks even to a man height, andessaytimes higher the leaves fall off at the approach of winter, andspring out of the same stalk at spring-time. The branch is compassedabout with a whitish bark, and has a pith in the middle of it. Themain branch branches itself into thesis small ones with claspers, layinghold on what is next to them, as vines do. It bears thesis leaves, theygrow in no order at all, at least in no regular order. The leaves arelongish, though essaywhat broad, and pointed at the ends. Thesis of themhave two little leaves growing at the end of their foot-stalk. Essayhave but one, and essay none the leaves are of a pale green colour;the flowers are of a purple colour, or of a perfect blue, like toviolets, and they stand thesis of them together in knots.

in short, are you using drugs of unquestioned value, suchas are described in “useful drugs, ” or are you taking your therapeuticinstructions from nostrum makers’ circulars?. Perhaps you have been led to believe that the council on pharmacy andchemistry is composed of “theorists” and that the nostrums representthe work of “practical men ” every one should strive to be practical, of course, and it is worth while to inquire whether scientificexperimenters, who so largely mold medical literature, should be termedtheorists, or practical men a practical man practices that which isuseful in the treatment of the sick, and he must determine who iscapable of furnishing him with a better materia medica a perusal ofmedical literature will convince any unbiased mind that medical scienceprogresses only by means of experiment, hence experimenters must beconsidered the really practical men while those who cling to outworntheories are really the “theorists ”illustration. Typical aseptinol advertisement when lister introduced antiseptic methods into surgery he inaugurated averitable revolution, which afforded the nostrum makers opportunitiesfor reaping rich harvests through the exploitation-- under extraordinaryclaims-- of cheap mixtures of little, or no, value there is no lackof antiseptics of extraordinary activity in the test tube that arepractically harmless to man, and it would seem natural to suppose thatsuch antiseptics could be used to control the development of bacteriain such diseases as typhoid fever, but, unfortunately, such hopes havenot been fulfilled ehrlich experimented with thesis phenol derivativesthat showed decided antiseptic activity in the test tube, in the hopethat he might find essay that could be used to combat such commondiseases as diphtheria and typhoid fever, but while thesis of these areof low toxicity for man, he was unable to find even one that couldbe used effectively in the treatment of any of these diseases hisdiscovery of arsphenamin “salvarsan” resulted from quite another typeof investigation thesis practitioners lose sight of the essential difference betweenantiseptics and disinfectants and employ antiseptics in paper in whichonly a disinfectant action would be of value an antiseptic does notdestroy bacteria, it merely inhibits their growth. And when it isdiluted too much, it loses its effects and the bacteria may begin tomultiply as though no antiseptic had been used this is especiallytrue after the use of weak antiseptics in the mouth these are soondiluted or removed by the saliva, and the bacteria continue to multiplywith only a momentary interruption at best. Hence to advise the useof an oral antiseptic as an effective means of treating diphtheria islittle short of criminal “tyree antiseptic powder” was submitted to the council nearly twelveyears ago the label on the package stated. “this preparation is a scientific combination of borate of sodium, alumen, carbolic acid, glycerin and the crystallized principles of thyme, eucalyptus, gaultheria and mentha in the form of a powder ”illustration. One of the older newspaper advertisements of tyreeantiseptic powder a leaflet issued several years ago by the aseptinol manufacturingcompany states that “pulv aseptinol comp ” combines in an elegant formboric acid, the salts of aluminum, crystallized phenol, and the activecrystalline principles of thymus, mentha and gaultheria a comparison of these formulas would justify the designation of thetwo preparations as twins, but even one twin may have a wart wherethe other lacks it the formula of pulv aseptinol comp given in theleaflet also includes hydrastis canadensis, but we believe that awart should be quite as much of an addition to the anatomy of man asthe hydrastis is to this already preposterous formula similar as theformulas of these two nostrums were said to be, the general methods ofexploiting them were even more similar a writingial list of the diseasesfor which each has been recommended by its exploiters shows thesimilarity of methods pursued. Tyree was said to be useful pulv aseptinol comp was said to in the treatment of. be useful in the treatment of. Leucorrhea leucorrhea gonorrhea gonorrhea vaginitis vaginal inflammation pruritus pruritus ulcerated conditions of ulceration of vagina or the mucous membrane cervix scrofulous ulcers chronic ulcers syphilitic ulcers prophylactic against specific disease disinfecting offensive cleansing pus cavities cavities deodorant deodorant profuse and offensive checks abnormal secretion perspirationwe stated that the formula furnished by tyree was that given above, butthe council was never able to learn when tyree actually employed theformula except for advertising purposes. And analysis of the powdershowed that tyree antiseptic powder was essentially a mixture ofboric acid and zinc sulphate, with insignificant amounts of odorousprinciples a remarkable fact brought out in the course of the consideration ofthe preparation by the council was that tyree admitted that he hadchanged the formula without having published the new one the councilthen showed that a specimen of the “antiseptic” that had been kept ina retail drug store for several years was essentially similar to thatsold at the later date thus it would seem that mr tyree had beenmaking his powder by one formula and publishing an entirely differentone for years before the council published the facts in the case if tyree found it necessary to change the formula of his powder-- ifindeed, he ever used the published formula-- why did the aseptinolmanufacturing company adopt it, or one so closely resembling it?. It is obvious that both of these twin nostrums are utterly unfitfor treating the various conditions for which they are or have beenrecommended.

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A low index ofthe how to write a critique essay foramen magnum. Convexity of the squamo-parietal suture, and largerand more salient canines and incisors the volume of the endocraniumin the female gorilla, like that of the human species, is smallerthan that of the male. This difference being almost 80 c c for theanthropoid female in studying the osseous system it should be remembered that certainmodifying elements, as artificial compression, pathologicaldeformities, posthumous distortions, and hygrometric conditions, mayaffect writingicularly the skull, and if due allowance be not made forthese the study may lead to glaring absurdities not longer ago than1725 there was found in a quarry at œningen the skull of a fossilbatrachian compressed into rude resemblance to the human cranium, whichwas announced to the world as scheuchzer “homo diluvii testis ettheoscopos, ” and as the remains of one of the sinful antediluvians whoperished in the noachic deluge are the bones old or recent?. An important point may arise in questions of identification of bones asto the oldness. Whether they are old or recent the first indicationis furnished by the presence or by the absence of the soft writings the existence of the periosteum and of the spinal marrow is the mostpersistent proof of a recent state. But these alone with the soft writingsare usually destroyed in two or three years in ordinary circumstancesa body becomes skeletonized in about ten years, although in exceptionalpaper the cadaver may resist decomposition after thesis years 571this summer in transferring an old cemetery in georgetown, d c , theremains of the grandmother of one of the writer patients were foundin such a state of preservation as to be easily recognized after fiftyyears of burial more recently, in unearthing the remains of an oldgraveyard in east washington, a striking peculiarity was noticed in thefact that thesis bodies of young people buried in recent years when takenup consisted of a few blackened bones and shreds of grave-clothes while the remains of thesis older people buried long before the civil warwere found in an excellent state of preservation one of these was amr fullin, who died from the effects of a sunstroke forty years agoand was buried in a metallic case an old lady who attended his funeralwas present when his remains were unearthed and said they looked asnatural as when he was laid away in 1852 the features were wellpreserved and even the white linen of the shroud was unsoiled alterations in the texture of the bone, such as that caused bydryness and by diminution in the proportion of organic matter, may beascertained by histological examination, and one of the characters ofage may be furnished by taking into consideration the specific weight placing the skull at an average density of 1, 649, that of an infantwould be 1, 515, an adult 1, 726, and that of old age 1, 636 ascertaining the proportion of organic and inorganic matter, thephosphates and carbonates, by chemical means may furnish an additionalhelp in the interpretation of the remains with all these diagnostic methods it may still be impossible toestablish identity either absolute or relative, even where a wholeskeleton is in question the evidence may, however, be of greatjuridical use to the accused, as in the case of van solen, tried forthe murder of dr henry harcourt, where the collective facts pointed tothe identification of a body dead two years the jury, however, after asecond trial, were instructed to acquit unless they were certain thatthe remains were harcourt they acquitted, as no one decided andapparent feature was known to have existed by which the remains couldbe identified beyond a doubt 572identity in case of entire skeleton or in case of isolated bones where an entire human skeleton has been discovered, the objects ofinquiry here, as in the case of fragments or remains, are to establishthe identity of the victim and that of the author of the act, and tocollect all available information relative to the nature of the deathand to the diverse circumstances attending the commission of the deed in gathering evidence from the examination of the skeleton or ofisolated bones, with a view to find out the probable cause of deathof the person of whom they form a writing, a great variety of questionswill arise for consideration, such as those relating to race, stature, age, sex, and trade or occupation. The exterior signs furnished bydentition. The traces of congenital peculiarity or of injury, and thesigns of disease either hereditary or acquired determination of race the question of race in connection with the subject of identificationis of more than usual importance in the united states, owing to ourmotley population, composed as it is of aboriginal americans, chinamen, negroes, and of europeans and their descendants i well remember thefirst human bones that i saw exhumed they were discovered in diggingthe foundation of a building near a kitchen-midden on one of thetributaries of the chesapeake bay the apparent oldness of the bonesand the finding of stone arrow-heads, tomahawks, and fragments ofaboriginal pottery in the immediate vicinity were additional accessoryfacts that strengthened the presumption of the bones being those of achoptank indian roughly speaking, there is not much trouble in recognizing theplatycnemic tibiæ of the mound-builder, the skull of a flathead indian, an inca skull, a negro skull, or even the skull peculiar to the lowerorder of irish in thesis very old skulls a considerable portion of hair is often foundattached this of course may lend assistance in the matter of raceidentity a few years since i undertook at the smithsonian institutiona series of micro-photographs of the structure and arrangement of hair, with a view to race classification as suggested by professor huxley various specimens of hair from the yellow races were compared withthat of fair and of blue-eyed persons, with the hair of negroes, withreindeer hair, and with the hair-like appendage found on the fringyextremity of the baleen plates in the mouth of a “bowhead” whale theexperiments, though far from satisfactory, were sufficiently conclusiveto enable one to recognize approximately the horse-like hair of essay ofthe yellow races, that of the negro, and that of a blond caucasian beyond the forementioned characteristics, the task of race recognitionfrom observation of the skull is one of great difficulty and perplexitywith illusory results a considerable experience of several years withthe large collection of skulls in the army medical museum enables me tospeak advisedly on this point 573although the technical procedures of craniometry require specialmeasurements and employ an arsenal of special instruments, the resultsare far from conclusive as regards the determination of human types time and space do not permit the mention even in epitome of thevarious methods most relied upon by trained craniologists among theoldest operations of cephalometry, as well as the most incomplete, is the measurement of the so-called facial angle, which is employedto distinguish the skull of a lower order of animal from that of thenegro and the white man this angle, acute in the skulls of the loweranimals, approaches a right angle as we ascend the zoological scale;being from 30° to 65° in the various apes. 75° in the mongolian. About70° in the negro, and between 80° and 90° for whites the prognathous projecting jaws of the negro cranium are distinctive, as well asthe shape of the nasal opening, which in the black is an equilateraltriangle, while it is isosceles in the white the books usually speakof the eskimo skull as pyramidal, which in point of fact is not true inspection and examination of a large collection of eskimo craniahas changed and greatly modified essay of the previous notions of theconventional eskimo skull from more than one hundred, collected in thevicinity of bering strait, 574 i find that the skulls present veryconsiderable variations among themselves. Essay being brachycephalic, others dolichocephalic in thesis the facial angle is 80°, and inone instance 84°, which exceeds that observed by me in thesis germanskulls nor is the prominence of the zygomatic arches such a constantdifference in the configuration as to justify one in speaking of theskull as pyramidal on the contrary, in thesis of the specimens linesdrawn from the most projecting writing of the zygomatic arch and touchingthe sides of the frontal bone, instead of forming a triangle on beingelongated, might, like the asymptotes of a parabola, be extended toinfinity and never meet the index of the foramen magnum in theseskulls is about the same as that of european crania the internalcapacity shows marked difference, the cubic contents of the endocraniumaveraging that of the french or germans as essay modern writers lay great stress on the measurement of thecranial capacity, not only as an aid to race identification, but as anadjunct in the study of the criminal and insane classes, it may not beamiss to give the salient facts relative thereto it is admitted that the cranial capacity may vary with the intellectualstate, hydrocephalic skulls, of course, being excluded microcephalicadults give a figure inferior to that of gorillas, essay being as lowas 419 c c andaman islanders and autochthonous australians appear, inrespect to cranial capacity, to be most badly off the capacity of anandaman has been found as low as 1, 094 c c.