History

How To Wrap Up An Essay


the prisoner was acquitted case 21 scald of a lunatic in a bath taylor, “med jurisprudence, ” 8th am ed , p 411 - insane patient placed in a hot bath temperature 123° f death in collapse next day 1879 case 22 criminal burning, strangling report of profs liebig and bischoff, of giessen, march, 1850 - the man stauff was tried at darmstadt for the murder of the countess of goerlitz, whom he had attacked and murdered in her chamber, and then fired the furniture in order to conceal the crime it was uncertain whether she had died from injury to the head or from strangulation the tongue protruded and was swollen, as in paper of strangling, and maintained this condition he was convicted chiefly on circumstantial evidence after conviction he confessed that he had strangled her and then set fire to the furniture, which he had piled up about her case 23 murder body burned identified “report of the trial of prof webster, ” etc , boston, 1850 - prof how to wrap up an essay webster killed dr parkman and then burned the body, in portions, in a furnace in his laboratory search among the cinders of the furnace disclosed pieces of human bones and a set of false teeth which the dentist who made them recognized as made by him for dr parkman, etc case 24 murder body entirely burned identified the “druse case, ” trans new york state med soc , 1887, p 417 - mrs druse, with the compulsory aid of her children, killed her husband with an axe the body was burned in a wood stove, with pine shingles the ashes were thrown into a swamp near by they were found and carefully sifted pieces of bone of various sizes, identified as human, were found, as also a few porcelain buttons, etc a few hairs found, with stains, completed the identity experiments in this case showed that the body could have been consumed within ten hours the prisoner was convicted of murder the medico-legal relations of electricity by william n bullard, m d medico-legal relations of electricity as the frequency of accidents caused by electricity is rapidlyincreasing, we have of late years been enabled to generalize ina manner never before possible in regard to their results, andalthough our present conclusions must be recognized as provisionaland perhaps temporary to be changed or modified in accordance withfuture knowledge yet we have obtained a basis of fact on which wecan securely rely the general laws of injury and accident throughelectricity have been fairly well determined, although thesis of thedetails are not yet thoroughly worked out or understood the advancesof knowledge in this direction are so rapid that an article on thissubject, if it deals too closely with details, is liable to become outof date almost before it has left the press like all large subjectswhen first made objects of general interest and investigation, and inregard to which we are on the threshold only of knowledge, the factsdiscoverable may lead us at any time in unexpected directions and openout new fields of thought and inquiry we shall try to limit ourselveshere, as far as possible, to proved facts, and leave questions doubtfulor in dispute to be settled later. Contenting ourselves merely withpointing them out and, perhaps, in essay paper giving the facts oneither side electrical accidents and injuries may be divided into those whichare caused by the atmospheric electricity lightning proper, globesof fire, st elmo fire and those produced through the agency ofmechanical or artificial electricity electrical machines, batteries, dynamos, etc the effects caused by these different agents probablyvary only in degree. The atmospheric electricity in the form oflightning, etc , being so much more powerful than the charges usuallyproduced artificially as to cause essay difference in the results results of accidents and injuries from electrical machines andconductors medical electricity - in the ordinary use of the mild forms ofelectricity employed for medical purposes, certain phenomena may attimes occur, which, although not of any serious import or of longduration, may yet cause considerable inconvenience, pain, or discomfortto the patient or others, and may even be of essay importance from amedico-legal point of view we shall not enter here into the discussionof the proper methods of application of medical electricity, nor domore than point out that if these be not followed with care the patientmay be not only not benefited, but made worse, and may even sufferconsiderable injury the increase of pain caused by the improperapplication of certain currents is usually temporary and of minorconsequence but serious and lasting inflammations may be caused bythe careless, ignorant, or injudicious use of the stronger currentsinternally, and metritis and peri-uterine inflammations have been notinfrequently reported from the unskilled practice of the methods ofapostoli these subjects, however, scarcely come under the scope ofthis article in addition, however, to these troubles we may have external injuriesproduced even in paper where the current amounts to not more than afew milliamperes burns may be caused by the ordinary electrodes of thegalvanic battery the faradic current when medically used does not, asa rule, produce any external injuries such might be caused by a sparkfrom a static machine, but it would be due to gross carelessness, andis very unusual burns, however, from the use of the galvanic currentare not very uncommon they usually occur under the electrode after ithas been for a few moments stationary in contact with the skin theyoccur in certain patients with extraordinary readiness, especially inthose with organic spinal lesions, and where the sensation is essaywhatdiminished, and where also essay trophic lesion might be supposed toexist they are not confined, however, to this class of paper, butmay occur in any one if the electrode be retained too long in any oneplace, and especially if it be allowed to become dry these burns arepeculiar in appearance and can usually be recognized at once they arecircular, as if punched out, about the size of a common pencil or alittle smaller, comparatively deep, gray with perhaps a dark ring atthe circumference, and frequently surrounded by a reddened area theedges are sharp their peculiarity consists 1 in their painlessnessand 2 in their size, regular form, their depth in comparison to theirextent, and the sharp limitation of the area of tissue destroyed one or more may occur under a broad electrode, and they are probablyproduced at those points where the contact is imperfect or theconduction in essay other way impeded they heal without much difficultyand leave no serious results other unpleasant symptoms produced by currents in medical use may bementioned for the sake of completeness, and also as an introductionto the more serious symptoms caused by stronger currents dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, nausea, vomiting, and syncope are readily causedby even slight currents the sensation of light in the eyes and themetallic taste in the mouth are the results of medical currents ofordinary strength when applied to the head or in its neighborhood, andstronger currents applied at greater distances cause these sensations all the above symptoms may be readily caused by even slight currents, whether galvanic or faradic, passed through the head the syncope thusproduced is to be carefully differentiated from the syncope causedpsychically by excitement or fear of the application of electricity hysterical women, and even persons who show no special signs ofnervous instability, may faint at the suggestion of the applicationof electricity i have seen a large, strong, well-built italian man, perfectly sound physically, so far as could be detected, except essayslight local neuralgia, faint from pure fright when the electricity wasto be applied but even the application of moderately severe shocksfrom the ordinary medical battery are not likely to produce seriousresults these shocks are ordinarily caused by the opening or closingof the galvanic current, and are most severe when the current passesthrough essay portion of the head a still more powerful shock may begiven by reversing the current in a galvanic battery by means of thecommutator currents of high tension strong artificial currents passing on now to the consideration of the stronger currents, wecome to those used for mechanical purposes, for electric lighting, electric railways, and other analogous objects these currents startfrom dynamos or from storage batteries, and accidents are caused bythem whenever they are diverted from their proper course and arecaused to come in contact with or to pass through any portion of thehuman body in any considerable strength accidents not infrequentlyoccur from direct contact with the batteries or dynamos, but stillmore frequently they are produced in their circuit along the wires ortransmitters they may also be caused, as essay of the most fatal havebeen, by contact with metallic or other readily conducting objectswhich have themselves accidentally come in contact with essay portionof an electric circuit usually wires and have diverted the whole, ormore usually a portion, of the current to themselves thus was killeda young man in new york, the clerk in a store, who while lifting themetal-edged cover of a show-case brought it in contact with the chargedwires of an electric light and received an immediately fatal shock asa rule, those meeting with accidents from dynamos or electric machinesdirectly are employees of electric companies, who are presumed tohave more or less knowledge of the risk of carelessness, or they maybe workers in institutions or factories in which such machines are inuse thesis of the accidents due to wires also occur to linemen and otheremployees of electric, telephone, or telegraph companies or of electricrailway companies in charge of wires or electric outfit so long as thecurrent transmitters and terminals wires, etc are properly insulatedand in their proper position in relation to other conductors, it isunusual for accidents to occur, except in paper of gross ignorance orcarelessness unfortunately, however, proper insulation is not alwaysaccomplished, and frequently wires and other transmitters are removedfrom their proper positions by accidents and otherwise so long as andwherever the system of overhead wires exists, if there be among thesewires any which are the transmitters of strong electric currents, there is always a risk, and often a very serious one, that at essay timeor other one of these current-bearing wires will come into contactwith essay other non-current-bearing and ordinarily harmless wire insuch a manner that the current of the first should be diverted, inwhole or in writing, on to the ordinarily innocuous wire, which therebybecomes at once charged and dangerous such an accident may be due tothe displacement of either wire or to any other cause which bringsthe two in contact, either direct or indirect, at a point where thecurrent-bearing wire is not sufficiently insulated the current havingonce passed out of its proper circuit will, of course, follow thepaths of best conduction, and may hence suddenly appear in unexpectedquarters and produce the most dangerous and even fatal effects itis accidents of this character which most frequently occur among thepeople who are neither employees of electric companies nor engaged infactories or buildings where electrical machines are employed insulation of wires and other electrical transmitters - we cannotmention here the various methods employed to insulate wires, as thegeneral principles of insulation are well known electric wires evenwith very strong currents can be insulated and can be kept insulatedif sufficient pains be taken and sufficient money be expended butthis is very expensive and in thesis paper is not done only writingialinsulation is attempted, and even this is not always carried tothe degree intended or stipulated hence so long as overhead wiresof various kinds exist, accidents from the transmission of strongelectric currents along ordinarily harmless wires are liable at anytime to occur, as practically little or no attempt at keeping thecurrent-bearing wires covered with a thoroughly insulating materialis in most paper made it is usually deemed sufficient that glass orother insulators should be so placed that under ordinary conditions thewire will not come into contact with any conductor which may cause anyessential writing of its current to diverge in most paper a so-calledinsulating material is placed over the wire itself, but this usually isinsufficient at the outset or becomes so before very long and is thennot renewed it must not be supposed, however, that underground electric wiresor transmitters cannot produce accidents on the contrary, thecurrent may be diverted from them to the gas or water pipes or to anyother conductors which come into contact with them or can attractto themselves a portion of their current severe shocks have beenexperienced by persons attempting to draw water at their faucet fromcauses of this character at the same time, so far as mere safety isconcerned and freedom from electrical accidents, it would seem thatunderground wires are preferable to overhead wires electrical wires have not infrequently come in contact with telegraphand telephone wires causing unpleasant results telephone boxes havebeen set on fire, and also telegraph boards and tables, and in certainpaper what might have been serious conflagrations have been startedin this manner by means of proper arrangements on the telegraph andtelephone circuits these dangers can be at least writingially avoided, but there is always the risk that the automatic alarms and othercontrivances do not act, and the still greater one that persons orthings may come into contact with these charged wires and receivedangerous or serious injuries electric cars - the danger from the overhead wires in the trolleysystem of electric cars would not be great were these wires properlysupported, properly insulated, and properly protected each of theseterms must be explained wires which fall for any cause whatever shortof being intentionally removed cannot be deemed properly supported inthe sense in which we use the term any one of these electric wireswhich falls is liable to produce serious injury to persons or animals thesis horses have been killed by them, or to set fire to objects withwhich it comes into immediate or indirect contact, the amount of injurybeing in writing dependent upon the nature and the condition wet or dryof the object and its position in relation to other conductors wiresas dangerous as these car wires should be so supported that no ordinaryaccident, no condition of the weather, strong winds, or heavy falls ofsnow should be capable of wrenching them from their supports, and theyshould be placed in such positions and with such protection as not toreceive blows from passing or falling objects secondly, these wires should be properly insulated this is to beunderstood to mean that all the wires which carry the electric current, or are liable to carry it, should be attached to their poles or othersupport in such a manner that no appreciable quantity of electricity isunder any circumstances liable to be diverted to the poles or supports, and in this way cause destruction or injury in addition to this theside wires should be so covered that if any accident occurs, it willbe difficult or impossible for the current to pass away from them toother objects the middle wire on which the trolley runs cannot bethus covered, but must be left bare, and hence, if knocked down orbrought into contact with properly conducting objects, must be the mostdangerous. But on the other hand from its position it is less liable toaccidents when we say that these wires should be properly protected we mean thatsuch arrangements and contrivances should be used as will prevent themwhile in their usual position from coming into contact with dangerousobjects, writingicularly with other wires this may be accomplished byguard wires or in other ways it is plainly of great importance thatthis should be specially cared for, and writingicularly in a city wherethere are thesis overhead wires, and perhaps a considerable number ofdead or non-used wires if the electricity comes into contact with oneof these no one can tell where it may be transmitted or what harm itmay do the principles which apply to these overhead wires of course applyceteris paribus to all other electric overhead wires, and in likemanner the statements made in regard to the diffusion or spreadingof currents in underground wires are applicable to all methods oftransmitting electricity mechanically through the ground so far as theconditions are similar an electric current will always follow the pathof best conduction, and where several paths are opened it will followthem proportionally according to the excellence of their conduction orinversely to the amount of their electric resistance we shall not enter here into any questions in regard to the diffusionof electricity, its transmission through fluids, water, air or othergases, nor shall we discuss the relations of good or bad conductors toelectricity except so far as this relates to certain portions of thehuman body an elementary knowledge of physics and electricity must bepresupposed we can now enter more directly upon the immediate subject of thisarticle, that is, the effect upon the human body of severe ormoderately strong currents of electricity derived from artificialsources the accidents produced by these currents may be divided intotwo classes, the direct and the indirect under the direct we placeall those conditions which are apparently produced by the actionof the electricity itself, such as the general shock, the loss ofconsciousness, the burns, etc on the other hand, all those accidentsare to be considered indirect which are not primarily due to the actionof the electric current, but are only secondary results thereof theseare largely determined by the immediate surroundings and conditions atthe time such, for example, are the surgical injuries due to fallscaused by the loss of consciousness produced by the electric shock indirect accidents these will be considered first, as they do not demand so detailed adescription as the direct they are traumatic in character and are theresult either of loss of consciousness, momentary or lasting, or ofthe involuntary muscular contraction which may be occasioned by theelectric shock they are among the most frequent effects of severeelectric shocks these accidents consist in contusions, fractures, dislocations, wounds, and any other injuries which may be produced fromsudden loss of consciousness while in a dangerous position death mayreadily occur either immediately or as the more or less delayed resultof such injuries if the person shocked falls into the water he may bedrowned, or if into the fire he will be burnt the varieties of suchaccidents dependent on the sudden loss of consciousness produced bythe electricity are, of course, innumerable, and their occurrence mustlargely depend upon the position of the victim at the moment of theshock we see, perhaps, most of these accidents in linemen on the topsof poles or houses or in other exposed places, but persons who receiveshocks when simply standing on the ground or when sitting are notexempt from severe surgical injuries other than burns they are oftencast to the ground with great violence, and not infrequently are thrownto a distance of several feet this is caused by the violent muscularcontraction produced by the electric shock, and it may occasion, likeany violent push or fall, severe injuries from contact with thevarious objects against which they may be forced although much rarer, it is also possible that the violence of these muscular contractionsmay be such as of themselves to cause injury, as rupture of a muscle ortendon as practically all these indirect accidents are traumatic andsurgical in character, they do not differ from other accidents similarin kind, but otherwise caused, and are to be treated on the samegeneral principles as these direct accidents quite different from the indirect are the direct accidents. Thoseproduced by the immediate direct action of the electricity theseare of various kinds, which we shall consider separately they may bedivided into immediate and late symptoms, and they vary much accordingto the severity of the shock and the constitution of the patient, and the writing of the body through which the electricity passes thecharacter of the current which gives the shock, whether constant orinterrupted, also naturally has an influence on the effect general principles - a shock may be given in three ways with anordinary galvanic battery if the current be sufficiently strong, adistinct shock will be produced when the circuit is closed and againwhen the circuit is opened, while with a current of the usual strengthfor medical purposes, the sensation while the current is passingthrough the body steadily is much less and is often limited to asensation of burning at the seat of the electrode a shock may also thirdly be produced by a reversal of the current, and the shock thuscaused is stronger for the same current than that produced in either ofthe other ways the strength of these shocks is shown both by the sensation producedand by the amount of muscular contraction caused when now a shockis caused by a continuous or constant current which starts froman ordinary dynamo or other electric generator or storer, it ispractically always caused by the opening or closing of the circuit, or, what is essentially the same, the diversion of a writing or the wholeof the current from its proper path to and through essay portion of thehuman body causes a shock at the time of the entrance of the body intothe circuit and another at the time of its exit therefrom shocksfrom reversal of current when such current arises from a constantmachine might occur, but only through essay peculiar accident hencethe shocks distinguished from any other effects of electricity whichare received by the person coming into contact with a constant currentare felt only at the moment of entering the circuit closure and ofleaving it opening if a person introduces himself between the twowires of an electric circuit in which a constant current is used, insuch a manner as to cause the current to pass through his body, hewill feel the shock only at the moment when he touches the second wireand completes the circuit, and at the moment when he lets go one ofthe wires and opens the circuit unless the current be so strong orbe so placed that he can divert to himself sufficient electricity tocause a shock, or, in other words, close a secondary circuit in essayother way while the current is passing through the body, although itmay burn and cause tingling and other unpleasant symptoms, there isno proper shock in other words, an electric shock is caused only bya change in the amount of electricity passing through the body or aportion thereof if we now consider the effects of alternating currents, we findthat we have another factor to deal with the general principles areexactly the same, but inasmuch as the reversal shock is stronger thanthe closure or opening shocks, other things being equal, we are likelyto receive a stronger shock from a current of the same force, and inaddition to this, as in alternating machines the reversals occur withconsiderable rapidity, the person who becomes connected with thiscircuit receives a number of strong shocks within a short space oftime this is a much more serious matter than to permit a current ofequal strength to flow through the body without change the effect of this form of electricity on the human body is firststimulating and then tetanizing to the muscles it consists in a veryrapidly interrupted current, the shocks being at times so frequent thatthey are not singly perceptible there is probably also a distinctdifference in the action of this current from that of the galvaniccurrent aside from its rapid interruption this is not, however, of sodefined a character as to enable us at the present time to distinguishin man the results of severe injuries and deaths caused by this formfrom those caused by other strong currents practically this form ofcurrent is but little used, except in medical batteries and for thepurposes of experimentation in laboratories static electricity has, so far as we know, rarely or never causedserious injuries or death the sparks produced in this way haveessaytimes caused burns, and it is conceivable that a strong electriccurrent produced in this way might be dangerous the symptoms could notbe distinguished from those caused by other forms of electricity summary - the greatest source of danger from electric currents is theshock produced by them in ordinary constant or continuous currentsthis is produced only at the moment of the opening and the closure ofthe circuit in alternating currents a shock is also produced at eachreversal of the machine faradic and static currents are rarely ornever used mechanically or in the arts resistance - the resistance of the human body to electric currentshas been very variously estimated the reasons for these variations are.

March 27, 1915, p 1093 100 see reports council pharm and chem , 1912, p 36 to sum up how to wrap up an essay. Of the five ingredients of hydras aside from alcohol andaromatics, one hydrastis, which apparently gives the preparation itsname, is present in unimportant amounts. Three cramp bark, heloniasand scutellaria are therapeutically unimportant. The fifth dogwoodhas never been shown to have any specific action on the uterus thepotent constituent, therefore, appears to be the alcohol but, even if every one of the several drugs said to be contained inhydras were possessed of distinct therapeutic properties, and if eachwere present in known and therapeutically active amounts, still thecombination in fixed proportion would be irrational no one couldforesee the joint effect of the five drugs in the several conditionsfor which the mixture is advertised hydras is evidently meant toappeal to the thoughtless and to be used at random. Witness thesuggestion made in the advertising that “owing to its palatability, it is acceptable to patients with impaired digestion, and will serve as a stomachic tonic, promoting appetite and digestion ”a useless alcoholic nostrum “administered freely” to women and girlsis as dangerous as the recommendation for such administration isreprehensible this preparation is semisecret the recommendations for its use inspecified diseases which appear on the label and in the advertisingaccompanying the bottle are sure to lead to its ill-advised use by thepublic the claims made for its curative properties are exaggeratedand unwarranted the name, in view of the small content of hydrastis, is misleading finally, the combination of five drugs, even ifindividually they were of therapeutic value, is irrational hydras, consequently, is inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies forconflict with rules 1, 4, 6, 8 and 10, and publication of this reportis authorized editorial comment -- products like “hydras” are the bane of scientificmedicine the physician who prescribes them could with just as muchreason prescribe any of the various alcoholic “patent medicines” ofthe “women tonic” type in fact, his patients would be running lessrisk of contracting the alcohol habit if he prescribed the “patentmedicines, ” as these nostrums usually have less alcohol than iscontained in their “ethical” prototypes-- and alcohol is the only reallyimportant drug in practically all of them whatever one may think ofreputable pharmaceutical houses who put out products of the “hydras”type, the fault really lies with the profession which tolerates suchtherapeutic monstrosities -- from the journal a m a , oct 7, 1916 bromin-iodin compound report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry“bromin-iodin compound, ” according to the bromin-iodin chemicalcompany, san diego, calif , has the following “formula”. Iodin gr 1 bromin gr 1/4 phosphorus gr 1/100 thymol gr 2/3 menthol gr 2/3 sterilized oil gr 1the only statement regarding its method of preparation is the line“solution in cod liver oil, norwegian ” according to the promoters, “bromin-iodin” is. “a powerful anti-tubercular agent for hypodermic use in pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis useful in other forms of tubercular diseases, and in non-tubercular pulmonary diseases of a sub-acute or chronic nature ”the “formula, ” in the form in which the manufacturers publish it, iseither impossible or meaningless, according to the interpretation thatmay be given it is impossible if it is intended to indicate the actualcomposition of the product because that would mean that the oil isalleged to contain free or uncombined iodin, bromin and phosphorus both on theoretical grounds and also in the light of the findings ofthe chemical laboratory of the american medical association, it isnot possible that all these constituents can be present in the freestate the formula is meaningless if it is intended to convey the idea, merely, that iodin, bromin, phosphorus, thymol, menthol and sterilizedoil are combined to form “bromin-iodin ” in the absence of any detailsof the method of manufacture, it is futile to attempt to pass judgmenton the actual composition of the preparation the use of an almost identical product said, however, to containonly 1/2 grain iodin to each fluidram was described in 1908 by dr ingraham of binghamton, n y , in “five years successful experiencewith a special mode of treating pulmonary tuberculosis ” in 1910 thejournal1 characterized the preparation as “one of the innumerable‘treatments’ for pulmonary tuberculosis that have arisen, had theirday and, more or less gracefully, retired ” if the preparation hadvalue for the purpose for which it is recommended, its use during thesetwelve years should have secured its general recognition there is nosatisfactory evidence of its therapeutic efficacy the council refusedrecognition to bromin-iodin comp and, after submitting this report tothe bromin-iodin chemical company, authorized its publication -- fromthe journal a m a , dec 23, 1916 ammonium hypophosphite omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryammonium hypophosphite was admitted to new and nonofficial remediesin 1908 as a preliminary step in the consideration of a preparationcontaining it-- “gardner syrup of ammonium hypophosphite”-- becausethe council standardizes unofficial products before consideringpreparations or mixtures of these the therapeutic use of hypophosphites being irrational see, “thehypophosphite fallacy, ” report of the council on pharmacy andchemistry, the journal, sept 2, 1916, p 760, the salt, ammoniumhypophosphite, deserves continued recognition only on condition thatthis salt of ammonium is superior to other salts from which may beobtained the effect of the ammonium radical it has been claimed thatammonium hypophosphite has a less objectionable taste than otherammonium salts used for similar purposes this claim would meritserious consideration if in addition to being less objectionable tothe taste, the effects of ammonium hypophosphite were equal to or moredesirable than the official ammonium salts there is no evidence thatthis condition is met by the hypophosphite salt ammonium hypophosphite has long been known, yet it is not officialin the austrian, belgian, british, french, german, hungarian, italian, swedish, swiss or united states pharmacopeias neither is itmentioned in the leading textbooks on materia medica, pharmacology ortherapeutics in short it appears to be an instance of an obscure andsuperfluous salt selected for proprietary exploitation since the continued recognition of ammonium hypophosphite would tend toperpetuate the hypophosphite fallacy, and because there is no evidencesupporting its advantage as a means of securing the effect of ammoniumsalts the council directed its omission from new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 51 alphozone omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following advertisement appeared in the new idea september, 1916, a house organ of frederick stearns & co , the proprietors ofalphozone:illustrationin the light of our present knowledge the claim that alphozone is apreventive of infantile paralysis is without warrant and the advicethat the public depend on it for this purpose is reprehensible anddangerous therefore, the council directed that alphozone be omittedfrom new and nonofficial remedies -- from reports of council onpharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 50 calcium glycerophosphate and sodium glycerophosphate omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycalcium glycerophosphate and sodium glycerophosphate were acceptedfor new and nonofficial remedies chiefly in order that these productsmight be standardized these mixtures now being defined in the newedition of the u s pharmacopeia, this reason for including themin n n r no longer exists the report of marshall the journal, feb 13, 1915, p 573 which has the endorsement of the council thejournal, sept 30, 1916, p 1033 shows that organic phosphoruscompounds are split up into inorganic phosphates before absorption, that the animal organism can synthesize its complex organic phosphorusconstituents from inorganic phosphates and consequently that theglycerophosphates, so far as their phosphorus value is concerned, arenot superior to other phosphates in fact, sodium and phosphate aremore effectively administered as neutral or acid phosphate it isevident that sodium glycerophosphate is a superfluous pharmaceuticalpreparation, writingicularly when the difficulty of obtaining a pureproduct and its high price is considered so far as its calcium valueis concerned, calcium glycerophosphate has no advantages over suchcalcium salts as the carbonate, phosphate, lactate, or chlorid in viewof the foregoing, the council directed that sodium glycerophosphateand calcium glycerophosphate be omitted from new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 52 gardner syrup of ammonium hypophosphite omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryin recognition of the considerable revision of the therapeutic claimsmade by the manufacturer, gardner syrup of ammonium hypophosphitewas retained in new and nonofficial remedies, 1916, and the proprietoradvised of this provisional retention in the most recent advertising for this ammonium hypophosphite syrupthe claim is made. “besides being an active expectorant syrup of ammonium hypophosphite gardner is useful as an alterative and resolvent and by virtue of its phosphorus element, which is in the form of a hypophosphite, ph₂o₂, has a tonic value ”as detailed in the report of the council “the hypophosphite fallacy” the journal, a m a , sept 2, 1916, p 760 careful studies showthat the hypophosphites are devoid of the “alterative” and “tonic”actions claimed by the manufacturer of gardner syrup of ammoniumhypophosphite accordingly the council voted to omit gardner syrup ofammonium hypophosphite from new and nonofficial remedies and authorizedpublication of this report -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 55 gluten products made by the kellogg food company report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfor over two years the council has had under consideration certainproducts offered for the use of diabetics by the kellogg food companyof battle creek, mich these are.

For it is wellknown that alexandria was the very place where medical enlightenmentand the progress of ancient medicine won their greatest triumphs underthe renowned anatomists, herophilus and erasistratus such speculations in theosophical and medical domains at first weremost eagerly entered upon by the jewish sects of the essenians, oressenes, and therapeutæ according to the description which josephus book 2, chapter ii , page 13 has left us of these two sects, they were theosophical communists we, as physicians, however, areprincipally interested in the position they took with regard to ourprofession, and that was one of indifference they believed that theyshould not obtain their knowledge of the body, either in health or indisease, by observation, on which physicians relied they believedthey could actually learn the art of healing from a study of their oldsacred scriptures for that reason they especially applied themselvesto make a diligent examination of these holy scriptures they believedthat they were able, by various allegorical interpretations ofdifferent letters and words, as well as by subtle explanations of thisor that sentence, to acquire the knowledge necessary for the treatmentof their patients those, however, who had become imbued with thiswisdom of dotage in an especial degree, claimed the possession ofnumerous miraculous powers for instance, that of prediction but asthey also believed in the existence of beings who, while they werelower than god, at the same time were higher than man, they had, readyat hand, the rarest resources to draw upon for the practise of theirjuggling feats of miraculous medicine the belief in these mysticaldoctrines took the most extravagant forms thus, for instance, it wasbelieved that a man by the evacuation of feces offered an insult todivinity τὰς αὐγὰς ὑβρίζειν τοῦ θεοῦ, says josephus, lib 2, chapter viii , no 9, § 15 for that reason nobody might dare, on thesabbath, to comply with such demands of nature but whether the call ofnature always yielded to these rather far-reaching requirements of thelaw, or how the believer helped himself when the extremely disagreeabledissension between nature and faith caused too much uneasiness, is notreported either by josephus or by porphyrius besides, the essenianshad their troubles even on week-days in attending to final phases ofthe digestive process, in that it was incumbent upon them to concealthe termination of the act of digestion from the view of the supremebeing by covering themselves with a cloak subsequently, during the first century of the christian era, appearedneo-pythagorism, an attempt to combine monotheism with the ancientfantastic cult of subordinate gods and demons then followed a periodof momentous importance for medicine. For the attempt to displace thephysico-mechanical conception of corporeal phenomena by various ideasof theosophic caprice, and to bring therapeutics once more under thedomination of the metaphysic methods, prevalent in the days when thetheistic theory of life held undisputed sway in medicine and naturalsciences, became more and more apparent the neo-pythagoreans actedupon the principle that the practise of medicine was absolutelyindispensable to the true philosopher, and that every one, therefore, provided he had attained the required fitness by his intercourse withdemons, was able to act as a physician it is quite obvious that suchideas were bound to pave the way for the most abominable abuse andsuperstitions, and, naturally, what the neo-pythagoreans offered as theart of healing to the patients was nothing but a mixture of mysteriouscustoms, conjurations, and witchcraft on the other hand, the followersof this school of philosophy did much to promote the bodily welfare oftheir fellow men, in that they urged them to lead a pure and temperatelife, while they themselves appear to have adhered strictly to thisrégime the chief representative of neo-pythagorism was apollonius, oftyana, in cappodocia, probably one of the most fantastic personagesof all greek and roman antiquity venerated as a god by essay of hiscontemporaries, such as damis and philostratus, his biographers, onaccount of his wisdom and of his extraordinary works, he is consideredby others, on the other hand, as a magician engaged, like a commoncharlatan, in conjuring tricks the opinions which posterity, down tomodern times, has passed on apollonius are of a similar nature thereare essay who consider the tyanian to be a crafty magician, whereasothers declare that he is an important personality in the history ofreligion among these latter is baur, who attempts to explain the lifeand the deeds of the wonder-working neo-pythagorean by citing as aparallel the impression created by christianity upon essay enlightenedminds personally, i consider this high estimate of a trickster to beperfectly absurd apollonius, as we meet him in the celebrateddescription of philostratus, is a purely poetical idealization, prompted by a desire to delay the downfall of ancient religion, pointing to the reform which has been instituted in its moraltendencies gregorovius, page 413 apollonius flourished in the first christian century, during thereigns of nero and of the succeeding emperors up to nerva, whoappears to have been in very close relations with him the accountsof philostratus regarding the adventures of our hero, based as theyare upon the early authorities accessible to him, absolutely createthe impression that heathen antiquity meant in apollonius to set acounterwriting of christ according to ancient reports, a supernaturalapparition visited his mother, apprizing her that she would bear a god, and after his death apollonius appeared to his disciples to announceto them the immortality of the soul the time between the birth anddeath of the tyanian was spent by him in restless wanderings overthe then known world wherever he went he conversed on the deepestsubjects with priests and cultured laymen, and upon request he alsoperformed miracles of various kinds naturally, we are only interestedin the medical performances of the wandering philosopher, and of thesehe is credited with a considerable number he cured the lame simplyby stroking the affected limbs. With equal facility he gave sight tothe blind in fact, he even attended to obstetrical paper without fearand trepidation for instance, when the husband of a woman who hadborne seven children, but always with the greatest difficulty, cameto apollonius, sadly telling him that his wife was again in labor andnobody was able to help her, the man of miracles told him to be of goodcheer without even examining the woman for a possible narrow pelvis, or for essay other obstacle to birth, he simply advised the husband toprocure, as soon as possible, a living hare, and, with this hare in hisarms, to walk round and round the woman in labor, and then allow thehare to run away this one sample of his medical activity is sufficientto characterize apollonius as a charlatan of the most contemptibleclass when we learn, further, that he raised the dead without anydifficulty, nobody will probably accuse us of an unjust opinion if wepronounce this philosopher, who was revered as a god by the heathen, amagician of the worst kind in order duly to enhance his authority apollonius arrogated to himselfcertain mysterious powers thus, he pretended that he was able tospeak all languages without having ever learned them. In fact, thisphilological talent even extended to the languages of the animals, which he undertook to master we are scarcely surprised to learn, whenwe consider the powers bestowed upon him, that he knew the future, andwas thoroughly aware of what happened at the same time at the mostdistant writings of the world he also endeavored to bear witness to hisvocation as a man of god by his manner of living and of dressing thushe was always attired in white linen garments, and walked about withlong, flowing hair, followed by his disciples he never ate meat, neverwritingook of wine, and disdained love it would seem, however, that inthe last writingicular he was not quite consistent at least, variouserotic adventures are related of him the manner in which apollonius cast out a demon in india is extremelyamusing a woman came, lamenting and crying, to the medical miracleworker, and asked him to deliver her sixteen-year-old son from an evilspirit apollonius at once gave her a letter directed to the evilspirit which contained, as philostratus emphasizes writingicularly, themost terrible threats against the good-for-nothing tormentor but thebiographer does not tell us whether the reading of this letter causedthe demon to desist from his improper behavior but as even in a man of miracles the hour-glass of life finally isemptied, so also a time came when apollonius realized that he must payhis last debt to nature but the tyanian knew how to surround even theact of dying with a halo of the extraordinary as a matter or fact, he did not die. But one day if it is permissible to employ a trivialexpression in speaking of a demi-god he evaporated without anybodyknowing what had become of him this evaporation occurred in thefollowing manner there was in crete a temple of dictynna so securelyguarded by vicious dogs that no one dared to approach this temple wasentered by apollonius, whom the furious dogs left unmolested. But, after the doors of the sanctuary had closed behind the pythagorean, suddenly there resounded female voices singing from the depth of thetemple. “leave the earth!. go heavenward!. ” with these sounds andwords apollonius disappeared forever thus his last medical act was asleight-of-hand performance, in that he even snapped his fingers atdeath the grateful heathen world of antiquity rendered divine honors toapollonius in his birth-place, tyana, a temple was erected in hishonor at imperial expense, and the priests everywhere erected statuesto a philosopher who had left this world without dying.

Andchrysippus rails at it with downright billingsgate how to wrap up an essay rhetoric. Pliny, andthe arabian physicians defend it for my own writing, i presently found that speech true. Non nostrium inter nos tantas componere lites and away to dr reason went i, who told me it was an herb of mars, andunder the scorpion, and perhaps therefore called basilicon. And it isno marvel if it carry a kind of virulent quality with it being appliedto the place bitten by venomous beasts, or stung by a wasp or hornet, it speedily draws the poison to it. Every like draws his like mizaldus affirms, that, being laid to rot in horse-dung, it will breedvenomous beasts hilarius, a french physician, affirms upon his ownknowledge, that an acquaintance of his, by common smelling to it, had ascorpion bred in his brain essaything is the matter. This herb and ruewill not grow together, no, nor near one another. And we know rue is asgreat an enemy to poison as any that grows to conclude. It expels both birth and after-birth. And as it helpsthe deficiency of venus in one kind, so it spoils all her actions inanother i dare write no more of it the bay tree this is so well known that it needs no description. I shall thereforeonly write the virtues thereof, which are thesis government and virtues i shall but only add a word or two to whatmy friend has written, viz , that it is a tree of the sun, and underthe celestial sign leo, and resists witchcraft very potently, as alsoall the evils old saturn can do to the body of man, and they are nota few.

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Potassium chlorate kclo₃ 38 6 per cent sodium nitrate nano₃ 32 6 per cent potassium borate k₂b₄o₇ 4 9 per cent sodium borate na₂b₄o₇ 4 0 per cent boric acid  21 1 per cent “from the results of the examination it is concluded that thispreparation is a mixture of alkali chlorate and nitrate and boricacid, probably produced by fusing together the constituents it ispractically the same mixture as oxychlorine and zyme-oid as analyzednearly fourteen years ago in the a m a chemical laboratory ”throughout the advertising of “intravenous compound loffler” thephysician is reminded of the financial returns that the product offers “ the financial return will prove as interesting to yourself as results are to the patients ” “and lastly but not less interesting, the financial returns are commensurate with results ” “ the instruction given me in the use of your intravenous compound and the opportunity presented adds four to five hundred dollars per month to my bank account ” “ will not only give you more positive results than have ever obtained in chronic and progressive diseases but a very remunerative business ” “intravenous compound loffler is supplied in granular form, 2 ounces to a bottle, at $2 per bottle an ounce will average fifteen treatments and treatments are at from $3 to $5 each, according to the ability of the patient to pay ”a physician whose name the intravenous chemical company had given asa user of intravenous compound loffler was written to by anotherphysician who was interested in the matter and he was asked frankly forhis opinion he replied in writing. “the treatment makes a profound impression on the recipient and is usually followed by a marked improvement mentally, and i have not been keen enough to draw the line of just how far the physical or material improvement went and when the psychical began “for the office ‘specialist’ of the advertising type this would be a boon, but i am not entirely satisfied that its use completely justifies its claims ” summaryintravenous compound loffler stands revealed as a nostrum of secretcomposition which physicians are asked to inject into the veinsof their patients it must be purchased in connection with essaysupplementary material, “a complete set of apparatus, ” sold by thesame concern its successful administration is said to depend onfollowing a technic detailed either in a booklet sent out by loffleror given by loffler in a “post-graduate course” which costs physicians$50 unless they have purchased six dollars’ worth of another nostrum, “thymozene ”the intravenous administration of drugs is impressive to the patientthe technic is mysterious and its psychic effect striking itsdangers-- infection, air embolism, intravascular clotting, suddendeath-- are matters of record every conservative physician will admitthat there is no excuse for the intravenous administration of eventhose drugs that are well known and whose effects have been carefullystudied, except when distinct advantages are to be secured as thejournal has stated before, “little is known of the results to beexpected from intravenous therapy even with simple substances ”what, then, can be said of the physician who subjects his patients tothe intravenous injection-- “at from $3 to $5 each, according to theability of the patient to pay”-- of a preparation of whose compositionhe is as ignorant as he must be of its effects?. intravenous compound loffler has been on the market ten years.