How To Use A Quote In An Essay

For which purpose thepills made with powder of ground pine, and of hermodactyls with veniceturpentine are very effectual the pills also, continued for essaytime, are special good for those that have the dropsy, jaundice, andfor griping pains of the joints, belly, or inward writings it helps alsoall diseases of the brain, proceeding of cold and phlegmatic humoursand distillations, as also for the falling sickness it is a specialremedy for the poison of the aconites, and other poisonous herbs, asalso against the stinging of any venomous creature it is a good remedyfor a cold cough, especially in the beginning for all the purposesaforesaid, the herb being tunned up in new drink and drank, is almostas effectual, but far more acceptable to weak and dainty stomachs thedistilled water of the herb hath the same effects, but more weakly theconserve of the flowers doth the like, which matthiolus much commendsagainst the palsy the green herb, or the decoction thereof, beingapplied, dissolves the hardness of women breasts, and all other hardswellings in any other writing of the body the green herb also applied, or the juice thereof with essay honey, not only cleanses putrid, stinking, foul, and malignant ulcers and sores of all sorts, but healsand solders up the lips of green wounds in any writing also let pregnantwomen forbear, for it works violently upon the feminine writing plantain this grows usually in meadows and fields, and by path sides, and is sowell known, that it needs no description time it is in its beauty about june, and the seed ripens shortlyafter government and virtues it is true, misaldus and others, yea, almostall astrology-physicians, hold this to be an herb of mars, becauseit cures the diseases of the head and privities, which are under thehouses of mars, aries, and scorpio. The truth is, it is under thecommand of venus, and cures the head by antipathy to mars, and theprivities by sympathy to venus. Neither is there hardly a martialdisease but it cures the juice of plantain clarified and drank for divers days together, either of itself, or in other drink, prevails wonderfully againstall torments or excoriations in the intestines or bowels, helps thedistillations of rheum from the head, and stays all manner of fluxes, even women courses, when they flow too abundantly it is good to stayspitting of blood and other bleedings at the mouth, or the making offoul and bloody water, by reason of any ulcer in the reins or bladder, and also stays the too free bleeding of wounds it is held an especialremedy for those that are troubled with the phthisic, or consumptionof the lungs, or ulcers of the lungs, or coughs that come of heat the decoction or powder of the roots or seeds, is much more bindingfor all the purposes aforesaid than the leaves dioscorides saith, that three roots boiled in wine and taken, helps the tertain agues, and for the quartan agues, but letting the number pass as fabulousi conceive the decoction of divers roots may be effectual the herb but especially the seed is held to be profitable against the dropsy, the falling-sickness, the yellow jaundice, and stoppings of the liverand reins the roots of plantain, and pellitory of spain, beaten intopowder, and put into the hollow teeth, takes away the pains of them the clarified juice, or distilled water, dropped into the eyes, coolsthe inflammations in them, and takes away the pin and web. And droppedinto the ears, eases the pains in them, and heals and removes the heat the same also with the juice of houseleek is profitable against allinflammations and breakings out of the skin, and against burnings andscaldings by fire and water the juice or decoction made either ofitself, or other things of the like nature, is of much use and goodeffect for old and hollow ulcers that are hard to be cured, and forcankers and sores in the mouth or privy writings of man or woman. Andhelps also the pains of the piles in the fundament the juice mixedwith oil of roses, and the temples and forehead anointed therewith, eases the pains of the head proceeding from heat, and helps lunatic andfrantic persons very much. As also the biting of serpents, or a maddog the same also is profitably applied to all hot gouts in the feetor hands, especially in the beginning it is also good to be appliedwhere any bone is out of joint, to hinder inflammations, swellings, andpains that presently rise thereupon the powder of the dried leavestaken in drink, kills worms of the belly. And boiled in wine, killsworms that breed in old and foul ulcers one writing of plantain water, and two writings of the brine of powdered beef, boiled together andclarified, is a most sure remedy to heal all spreading scabs or itchin the head and body, all manner of tetters, ringworms, the shingles, and all other running and fretting sores briefly, the plantains aresingularly good wound herbs, to heal fresh or old wounds or sores, either inward or outward plums are so well known that they need no description government and virtues all plums are under venus, and are likewomen, essay better, and essay worse as there is great diversity ofkinds, so there is in the operation of plums, for essay that are sweetmoisten the stomach, and make the belly soluble. Those that are sourquench thirst more, and bind the belly.

Onboiling, the red precipitate with sulphuric acid, the precipitatevolatilized and could be condensed in a watch glass adding a pinch ofmanganese dioxid to the hot sulphuric acid mixture caused an evolutionof iodin fumes a how to use a quote in an essay small amount of powdered syphilodol tablets wasplaced in the sunlight. They turned from yellow to black all thesereactions are typical of mercurous iodid-- yellow iodid of mercury mercury, silver, arsenic, antimonyi mercury -- two methods were used to determine the mercury. a1 4535 gm of powdered syphilodol was treated with 10 c c of a 50 percent sodium sulphid solution the solution was then transferred withwashings about 20 c c to a cathode cup, previously weighed with itscontained mercury the mercury compound was electrolyzed by a currentof about 8 volts and 3 amperes, using a rotating anode the solution and essay sulphur suspension was removed by siphon, pouring in wateruntil the amperage of the current was close to zero u s p , ix, p 587 the increased weight in mercury was 0 1612 gm ii to serve as a check on the foregoing method, mercury was alsodetermined in the following method, which also allowed systematic testsfor silver, antimony and arsenic b 1 1023 gm of the sample wasplaced in an erlenmeyer flask, 50 c c of water, 50 c c of sodiumhydroxid solution 10 per cent and 20 c c of formaldehyd solution, u s p , added the solution was boiled for ten minutes and maintainedat temperature of steam bath for two hours this reduces the mercurysalt to mercury and any silver salt to silver. Antimony would probablybe likewise reduced the precipitated mercury was transferred bywater, and concentrated nitric acid added the nitric acid solutionis boiled to oxidize all mercurous nitrate to mercuric nitrate asmall white precipitate was obtained at this point which seemed to beinsoluble in aqua regia calcium sulphate the filtrate from thisprecipitate, which was washed well, was tested with one or two dropsof dilute hydrochloric acid and a faint precipitate formed.

Tube 2, how to use a quote in an essay 1:100. Tube 3, 1:1, 000. Tube 4, 1:10, 000, and tube 5, 1:100, 000 one series was inoculated with typhoid bacillus all tubes were incubated for three days at 37 c chlorlyptus inhibited the growth of typhoid bacillus when added to the bouillon in the proportions of 1:10 the growth of anthrax bacillus was inhibited by chlorlyptus when it was added in the proportions of 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1, 000, as shown in the accompanying table the table was not submitted -- ed in one instance the growth was markedly inhibited by chlorlyptus when added in the proportion of 1:10, 000 experiment 3 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on typhoid bacillus -- bouillon cultures of typhoid bacillus forty-eight hours old, and a suspension of forty-eight-hour agar cultures of typhoid bacillus in sterile salt solution were used for the experiment chlorlyptus was added in the proportion of 1:1, 000. 1:1, 500. 1:100. 2 per cent. 3 per cent. 4 per cent. 5 per cent and 10 per cent , respectively inoculations were made in trypsinized peptone bouillon after the addition of chlorlyptus at different intervals, namely. At once, after five minutes, after ten minutes, after fifteen minutes, after thirty minutes, after one hour and after two hours, and tubes incubated at 37 c for forty-eight hours result. Growth was shown in all tubes except those in which chlorlyptus was added in the proportion of 10 per cent and after the action of the antiseptic for two hours or longer experiment 4 -- inhibitory action of chlorlyptus in the growth of typhoid bacillus -- chlorlyptus was added to sterile bouillon in the proportion of 1:100, 1:1, 000, 1:10, 000 and 1:100, 000, and incubated for forty-eight hours at 37 c to eliminate any possible contamination of the bouillon during the manipulations all tubes were found sterile and inoculated with typhoid bacillus result.

The german pharmacopeia“about 135 c ;” the french pharmacopeia at 135 c. New and nonofficialremedies, 1917, 134 to 136 c the bayer company, in the patent trialat chicago a number of years ago, gave among the “four infallibletests” a melting point of “about 135 c ” several men have carefullydetermined the melting point in recent years emery and wright202 in1912 found that “aspirin, bayer” melted at 130 5 to 131 c in france, françois203 has determined the melting point of pure acetylsalicylicacid, which, according to his method, is 132 c when various samplesof acetylsalicylic acid were examined in this laboratory, it wasfound that the melting point of none was as high as that describedin new and nonofficial remedies or the british, french, or germanpharmacopeias when taken according to the general method of the u s pharmacopeia, vol 9, p 596 on critical observation, it may beseen that the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid is preceded andaccompanied by decomposition if the sample in the melting tube isheated from the original room temperature of the bath to 120 c , thetemperature of melting will be lower than if the bath is first heatedto 120 c and the melting-point tube then placed in the bath 204thus the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, like so thesis organiccompounds which decompose and do not melt sharply, is unsatisfactoryand cannot be taken as an “infallible test” of purity, especially whendetermined by different operators who do not give their method indetail after making a large number of melting-point determinationsof acetylsalicylic acid, alone and in parallel with other operators, it was decided to use the method described in the u s pharmacopeiamodified by first heating the bath to 120 c before attaching themelting-point tube to the thermometer 201 for reference to older literature see beilstein, ii, 1496 889 202 “the melting temperature of aspirin and salicylic acid mixtures, ”proc assoc off agr chem , 1912. Bureau of chemistry, dewritingmentof agriculture, bull 162 203 “assay of aspirin, ” j pharm chem , 15 117, no 7, 213 204 similar observations were made by emery and wright, who state:“an accurate determination of the melting temperature in this way therate of heating was such as to give a rise in temperature of about 1°per minute is rendered difficult by the fact that ‘aspirin’ decomposeson heating, as evidenced in the depression of the melting temperatureof the pure substance of about 1° for every five minutes’ heating justbelow its melting temperature ”the melting point of purified acetylsalicylic acid was found to be131 5 to 132 5 c corr 205 with the exception of one specimen, which was obviously impure, the various specimens examined meltedbetween 128 and 133 c as may be seen in the accompanying table itwould appear that this range of melting points would be more acceptableand reliable than the melting points described in various standards 205 isolated crystals attached to the walls of the melting-pointtube, awriting from the bulk acetylsalicylic acid, melted at a lowertemperature presence or absence of free salicylic acidit is generally conceded that the presence of salicylic acid in amountsmore than traces is deleterious furthermore, the amount of salicylicacid is a good index of the purity of the acetylsalicylic acid, becausethe test is so delicate that, under favorable conditions, mere tracesmay be determined and, as a rule, the better the product, the less theamount of free salicylic acid the tests appearing in various pharmacopeias for salicylic acid asan impurity in acetylsalicylic acid do not give concordant results, different workers interpreting the results differently, nor are theydetailed in such a manner as to yield maximum delicacy after experimentation, it was decided to establish a “limit” test ofapproximately 0 1 per cent free salicylic acid, when carried outaccording to the following method. 0 1 gm of the substance was placed in a dry colorimeter tube and 1 c c of alcohol, 206 previously distilled over naoh, was added after the acetylsalicylic acid had dissolved, 48 c c of water and 1 c c of fresh 0 1 per cent ferric chloride fecl₃ 6h₂o solution were added at the same time a control was run by treating 1 c c of a “standard” salicylate solution the same as above 207 if within two minutes the color given by acetylsalicylic acid is not more intense than the color given by the “standard, ” the presence of not more than 0 1 per cent free salicylic acid is proved 208 206 an excess of alcohol destroys or lessens the color when only a very minute amount of salicylic acid is present 207 the control should be made each time as standing in the air changes its tinctorial power 208 the presence of pure acetylsalicylic acid does not seem to affect the iron fe salicylic acid coloration the small amount of acetic acid was added to the sodium salicylate control solution 1 to stimulate an acidity approximating the acidity of the acetylsalicylic acid, and 2 since acetylsalicylic acid gives by hydrolysis both acetic acid and salicylic acid, it was thought advisable to add acetic acid to the standard if there is any free acetic acid in a sample of acetylsalicylic acid containing salicylic acid which i believe is generally the case when salicylic acid is present then it would modify the color given by the same amount of salicylic acid alone for this reason it was thought to be more comparable to have the standard contain a slight amount of acetic acid the solutions used were prepared as follows. Redistilled alcohol was treated with a small amount of sodium hydroxide for twenty-four hours, then again distilled the color standard was made by dissolving 0 116 gm of dried sodium salicylate in water, adding 1 minim of glacial acetic acid, and making up to 1, 000 c c each c c represents 0 1 mg of salicylic acid 209 209 this standard is essaywhat similar to the one proposed by t w thoburn and paul j hanzlik, j biol chem , 23, 175 the ferric chloride solution was made by diluting 1 c c ferric chloride fecl₃ 6h₂o test solution u s p with 99 c c of water the diluted solution must be freshly prepared each day with one exception, all of the commercial specimens examined respondedsatisfactorily to the above test showing less than 1 writing salicylicacid in 1, 000 writings acetylsalicylic acid the individual results aregiven in the accompanying table melting point and salicylic acid determinations melting point free salicylic acid brand corrected colorimetrically acetylsalicylic acid, 130 0-131 0° colored, but showing p w r 1 less than 0 1 per cent acetylsalicylic acid, 130 0-131 0° no color millikin2 acetylsalicylic acid, 129 0-130 0° no color millikin2 5-grain capsules acetylsalicylic acid, 128 0-129 0° a colored, but showing less millikin, 1 than 0 1 per cent a 5-grain capsules3 125 5-126 5° b considerably more than 0 1 per cent b acetylsalicylic acid, 131 0-132 0° no color squibb2 acetylsalicylic acid 131 0-132 0° no color aspirin, 1 monsanto acetylsalicylic acid, 130 5-131 5° colored, but showing less m c w 1 than 0 1 per cent acetylsalicylic acid, 131 5-132 5° colored, but showing less m c w 1 than 0 1 per cent acetylsalicylic acid, 131 0-132 0° colored, but showing less m c w 1 than 0 1 per cent aspirin, bayer1 before patent 131 5-132 5° no color expired aspirin, bayer1 4 after patent 128 5-129 5° colored, but showing less expired than 0 1 per cent aspirin, bayer1 4 after patent 129 5-130 5° colored, but showing less expired than 0 1 per cent aspirin, lehn 130 5-131 5° 0 1 per cent and fink2 aspirin, lehn 130 5-131 5° colored, but showing less and fink2 than 0 1 per cent aspirin, lehn 131 0-132 0° colored, but showing less and fink1 than 0 1 per cent 1 obtained on the open market 2 obtained from manufacturer 3 one-third of the capsules a contained a white powder. Two-thirds of the capsules b contained a pink powder having strong odor of acetic acid and not complying with the tests 4 not described in “new and nonofficial remedies, 1917”. The other products are other testsnew and nonofficial remedies, 1917, requires that acetylsalicylic acidshall form a clear solution with warm sodium carbonate solution. Thatsulfates, chlorides and heavy metals shall be absent. That 0 5 gm shall leave no weighable ash all the brands reported in this papercomplied with these requirements so far there has been no satisfactory quantitative estimation ofacetylsalicylic acid true, various methods have been proposed, but they are objectionable it was thought that hydrolysis ofacetylsalicylic acid and then titrating the solution by comparing thecolor formed by ferric chloride with that of a standard control mightyield interesting results, providing that the conditions were alike for this purpose 1 gm of acetylsalicylic acid was dissolved in 10 c c of alcohol and diluted to 1, 000 c c the solution was then heated at98 to 100 c for two hours, allowing the alcohol to evaporate, thenallowed to stand at room temperature 22 c for twenty-two hours after adding water sufficient to make 1, 000 c c , it was comparedcolorimetrically for salicylic acid strength the amount of hydrolysisvaried so with different samples under the same conditions, that itwas realized that an approximate assay by this method was unreliable if the assay were made under more exact conditions, quantitativecomparisons might be possible in one experiment, after sixty days thehydrolysis of the acetylsalicylic acid was 61 per cent , which is inrough agreement with the work of tsaklatos and horsh 210210 apoth ztg , 1915, p 247. Bull soc chem , 17 1915, 401 “studies of the decomposition of aspirin determined by titrametricmethods and by conductivity measurements indicate that the reaction isexceedingly complex, ” t and h chem abs , 10, 591 discussionawriting from the proposed revision of the standards for the meltingpoint and limit of salicylic acid in acetylsalicylic acid, theexamination shows that there is no appreciable difference between thevarious brands of acetylsalicylic acid examined, all of them with oneexception acetylsalicylic acid, millikin, 5-grain capsules, purchasedon the open market complying with the tests described in this paper the journal of the american medical association, in past years, hasprotested repeatedly against the monopoly given to the bayer companyfor their “aspirin, ” contending that acetylsalicylic acid aspirinwas not new, and that “aspirin, bayer” was simply a good brand ofacetylsalicylic acid which could be bought in foreign countries atmuch lower prices than here although the patent in the united stateshas expired, “aspirin, bayer” is still being retailed at higher pricesthan other products which are now enjoying the privilege of americanmanufacture mr paul bakewell, 211 in an opinion answering the warning circular ofthe bayer co in reference to the use of the word “aspirin” by firmsother than bayer, argues very ably that acetylsalicylic acid, beforethe patent was granted, meant the impure substance which was not usedtherapeutically, while “aspirin” was designated as the improved product a new article of manufacture, the writingicular acetylsalicylic acid madeunder the hoffman patent and “is the substance now known in pharmacyas aspirin” statement made by an officer of the farbenfabriken ofelberfeld co in u s circuit court, 1909 the products reportedin this paper are with the one exception the same as described inthe hoffman patent, and, in the sense of mr bakewell argument, are“aspirin ” however, it would seem better if the name acetylsalicylicacid, instead of aspirin, were used, especially by physicians intheir prescriptions because 1 it is a generic, scientific name. 2“aspirin, bayer” is sold at higher prices than other products, whereaschemically equivalent products sold under the descriptive name may bepurchased at a lower price finally, the manufacture of acetylsalicylicacid in this country is another example of the fact that americanchemists can produce the drug synthetics, and at the same time makeproducts as good as, if not better than, those of german origin 211 “in the matter of aspirin answer to the warning circular of thebayer co of june 1, 1917, ” by mr paul bakewell, monsanto chemicalworks i express my appreciation to dr w a puckner for his kindinterest -- from the journal of industrial and engineering chemistry, april, 1918 the standardization of commercial bismuth tribromphenate william rabak, ph g , sc b this work was begun in view of a request received by the council onpharmacy and chemistry from the medical section of the council ofnational defense for a report on the quality of bismuth tribromphenate, offered to the government by a certain firm in submitting a specimen of its product, “bismuth tribromphenolate, ”the firm claimed that “it is of high character, matching exactly thegerman product formerly imported into this country, ” and expressed thebelief that it would be found to conform to the standards for thispreparation in new and nonofficial remedies later a second specimenwas received from the same company, with the request that this besubstituted for that first received it was explained that the firsthad been taken from an experimental lot, and that the second, takenfrom the regular factory output, was identical with the first exceptthat it was free from odor because of the more thorough washing towhich it had been subjected accordingly, the examination which isreported below refers to the second specimen only new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, defines bismuth tribromphenate asbasis bismuth tribromphenate having the formula bi c₆h₂br₃o₂oh bi₂o₃, and it is required to yield not less than 49 5 per cent of bismuthoxid the chemical formula requires 46 2 per cent bismuth, or 51 6per cent bismuth oxid, bi₂o₃, and 49 2 per cent tribromphenate, c₆h₂br₃ oh it describes it as a “fine, yellow, nearly odorless andtasteless powder, neutral in reaction, ” and “only slightly soluble inwater, alcohol, chloroform, liquid petrolatum and vegetable oils ” itis required to yield tribromphenol to which a melting point of 95 c is assigned when decomposed by alkali and the alkali tribromphenatedecomposed by acid, the separated tribromphenol purified and dried as the new and nonofficial remedies description appeared looselydrawn-- it had been based on information furnished for the productxeroform when this, because of patent protection, was the only bismuthtribromphenate on the market-- it was decided to include in theexamination also specimens of the two brands of bismuth tribromphenateincluded in new and nonofficial remedies, namely, bismuthtribromphenate-merck merck and company and xeroform-heyden theheyden chemical works the merck specimen had been received by thecouncil from merck and company in 1915, while the heyden preparationwas obtained direct from the firm chicago branch in april, 1918 atthis time bismuth tribromphenate-merck could not be obtained from thechicago wholesale houses all three specimens were nearly odorless two of the specimens theresearch council specimen and merck products were of a lemon-yellowcolor, while the heyden preparation was of a grayish color bismuth determinationfour methods for the determination of the bismuth content of thespecimens were tried. A direct ignition to bismuth oxid -- this method was abandonedbecause of the tendency to ignite suddenly during the incineration andthe consequent loss of material b the method of the japanese pharmacopeia, third revised edition, translated by the pharmaceutical society of japan -- the methodconsists in treatment of the product with nitric acid, evaporation andsubsequent heating to bismuth oxid this method also was abandonedbecause of tendency toward sudden ignition with loss of material c the method of kollo apotheker zeitung, 1910, p 99 -- themethod consists in decomposition of the product by heating on waterbath with normal sodium hydroxid solution, with formation of solublesodium tribromphenate and insoluble bismuth hydroxid the bismuthhydroxid is collected on a filter, washed with hot water until a fewdrops of the filtrate no longer turn litmus paper blue, dried andheated to constant weight and weighed as bismuth oxid d a m a method reports a m a chem lab , 1911, p 18 -- this method consists in dissolving the product in hot, stronghydrochloric acid, diluting, filtering and precipitating by saturationwith hydrogen sulphid the bismuth sulphid obtained is dissolved innitric acid and from the solution obtained the bismuth is precipitatedby addition of an excess of ammonium hydroxid and ammonium carbonate the precipitate is collected and converted to bismuth oxid by heat the following tabulation shows the results obtained by methods “c” and“d”:table 1 -- bismuth content of bismuth tribromphenate gm of gm of per cent method salt bi₂o₃ of bi₂o₃ no 1 research council spec c 2 1312 1 1754 55 1 no 1 research council spec d 0 5151 0 2772 50 03 no 2 merck & company c 2 0287 1 2543 61 8 no 2 merck & company d 0 5064 0 2634 52 01 no 3 heyden chem works c 2 0472 1 6020 78 2 no 3 heyden chem works d 0 5227 0 3546 67 8it is seen from the tabulation that the results obtained by the kollomethod method c are higher than those by the sulphid method methodd and that duplicate determinations show a rather wide variation theresults by the sulphid method are essaywhat lower than those by thekollo method, but duplicates agree fairly well in view of the factthat the kollo method will give excessive results if impurities suchas talcum, etc , are present and in consideration of the satisfactoryresults obtained in previous work with the sulphid method, the figuresobtained by this method are taken as indicative of the bismuth contentof the specimens examined calculating the per cent of bismuth oxidobtained to bismuth bi, the following values are obtained. Bismuth tribromphenolate, research council specimen. Bismuth, 44 8 per cent bismuth tribromphenate-merck, merck & co. Bismuth, 46 6 per cent xeroform, heyden chemical works. Bismuth, 60 7 per cent total tribromphenolthe content of tribromphenate radical, c₆h₂br₃o-, was determined bythe method of kollo apotheker zeitung, 1910, p 99 it consists intitrating the filtrate of the bismuth oxid determination of kollo, described under “c” bismuth determinations, with normal hydrochloricacid, using phenolphthalein as an indicator the cubic centimetersof normal alkali consumed multiplied by the theoretical factor 0 331gives the weight of tribromphenol combined and free contained in thespecimen the following results were obtained:table 2 -- determination of total tribromphenol in bismuth tribromphenate gm tribromphenol gm of calculated from per cent salt theoretical of total taken factor tribromphenol no 1 research council spec 1 7817 1 0592 59 44 no 2 merck & co 0 9743 0 5627 57 75 no 3 heyden chem works 2 0440 0 4303 21 04 uncombined tribromphenolthe definite chemical formula given in new and nonofficial remediesfor bismuth tribromphenate and the statement that it is “only slightlysoluble in alcohol ” requires the absence of uncombinedtribromphenol, but no method for its detection or determination isprovided in the u s patent 516, 358 expired march 13, 1911, issued to brunorichard seifert, assignor to dr f von heyden, for “phenol bismuthcompound” the freedom from uncombined tribromphenol was provided for bythe direction to wash with alcohol the product obtained in the swiss pharmacopeia the permissible content of uncombinedtribromphenol is limited thus. “if 0 5 gm be shaken with 5 c c of alcohol and 1 c c of the filtrate be diluted with 15 c c of water, neither a turbidity nor a flocculent precipitate should appear ”when this test was applied to the three specimens under examination, the merck and heyden specimens complied, while the research councilspecimen did not comply, with this requirement method 1 -- about 1 gm of bismuth tribromphenate was placed in aflask, 20 c c of 95 per cent alcohol added and shaken for fifteenminutes, after which it was filtered by suction through a gooch filterinto an erlenmeyer flask the flask was rinsed with 10 c c of alcoholand finally the filter was washed with 10 c c of alcohol, 25 c c of tenth-normal sodium hydroxid solution were added to the alcoholicfiltrate which was nearly but not perfectly clear containing thetribromphenol, and the residual alkali titrated with tenth-normalhydrochloric acid the number of cubic centimeters of tenth-normal alkali consumedmultiplied by 0 331 gave the weight of tribromphenol table 3 table 3 -- determination of free tribromphenol gm tribromphenol calculated from per cent gm of theoretical free salt taken factor tribromphenol research council spec 2 3351 0 3806 16 31 merck & co 0 7980 0 0364 4 56 heyden chemical works 1 9460 0 0132 0 68method 2 -- about 2 gm of bismuth tribromphenate were placed in aglass stoppered erlenmeyer flask, 100 c c of alcohol were measured inand shaken during one-half hour and allowed to stand over night fiftyc c of the supernatant liquid were then removed by means of a pipet, a slight excess of tenth-normal sodium hydroxid added and the residualalkali titrated with tenth-normal hcl table 4 gives results obtained table 4 -- per cent of tribromphenol by method 2 gm tribromphenol calculated from per cent gm of theoretical free salt taken factor tribromphenol research council spec 2 0712 0 3905 18 85 merck & co 1 9417 0 0760 3 92 heyden chemical works 2 0440 0 0198 0 97table 5 gives a comparison of the results obtained by the two methods table 5 -- comparison of results by methods 1 and 2 method 1 method 2 research council spec 16 31 18 85 merck & co 4 56 3 92 heyden chemical works 0 68 0 97the results obtained in method 1 the percolation method apparentlyare reliable and, as the method is the more simple, may be givenpreference combined tribromphenol tribromphenatethe amount of tribromphenol existing in the specimen in combination wascalculated by subtracting from the per cent of total tribromphenoldetermined, the per cent of free tribromphenol found by method 1 the figures obtained are given in table 6 table 6 -- the tribromphenate content of bismuth tribromphenate per cent of combined tribromphenol research council specimen 43 13 merck & co 53 19 heyden chemical works 20 36 summaryfrom the foregoing the specimens examined contain the percentagesshown in table 7 of bismuth bi, combined tribromphenate and freetribromphenol table 7 -- percentages of bismuth and of combined tribromphenate andfree tribromphenol per cent per cent per cent combined free bismuth tribromphenate tribromphenol research council specimen 44 8 43 13 16 31 merck & co 46 6 53 19 4 56 heyden chemical works 60 7 20 36 0 68this examination shows:1 the bismuth tribromphenolate submitted to the council ofnational defense, does not correspond to the description of bismuthtribromphenate in new and nonofficial remedies 2 as now supplied, xeroform-heyden does not meet the requirements forbismuth tribromphenate, nor does its composition correspond to that ofthe product formerly supplied 3 the description in new and nonofficial remedies of bismuthtribromphenate should provide an upper, as well as a lower, limitfor the bismuth content. It should provide tests for the absenceof adulterants, and also set a limit of permissible uncombinedtribromphenol report to council of national defensethe results of this examination with reference to the researchcouncil specimen having been submitted to the council on pharmacy andchemistry, this body advised the medical section of the council ofnational defense as follows:1 the specimen of “bismuth tribromphenolate” sent to the councilof national defense complies with the new and nonofficial remediesdescription for bismuth tribromphenate, except that it containsconsiderable amounts approximately 16 per cent of alcohol-soluble, uncombined tribromphenol revision of n n r standardsthe results of the examination of the three specimens were sentto the heyden chemical works and to merck and co in each casedisclosing the identity of the writingicular firm product, askingaid in the standardization of the product after merck and co hadsubmitted valuable advice for a revision of the essaywhat loosely drawnstandards for bismuth tribromphenate in n n r , 1918, the inquirywhether the following proposed revision of the description of bismuthtribromphenate in new and nonofficial remedies was acceptable, wassubmitted to both firms:bismuth tribromphenate -- bismuthi tribromphenas -- bismuthtribromphenol -- xeroform -- a basic bismuth tribromphenate of variablecomposition an amorphous, yellow, nearly odorless and tasteless powder, neutral to moistened litmus paper it is only slightly soluble in water, alcohol, chloroform, liquid petrolatum and vegetable oils alkalies and strong acids decompose it it is stable at temperatures below 120 c when about 1 gm of the salt is boiled with 10 c c of sodium hydroxide test solution, the liquid filtered, and the filtrate acidulated with sulphuric acid, the white curdy precipitate produced, when washed and dried, melts at 90 to 95 c tribromphenol the contents of the filter dissolve completely in dilute hydrochloric acid insoluble inert material boil 1 gm of bismuth tribromphenate with 20 c c of a mixture of equal writings of acetic acid and distilled water, cool the solution and filter free the filtrate from bismuth by the addition of hydrogen sulphide, boil the mixture and again filter the latter filtrate leaves not more than 0 005 gm of residue on evaporation and gentle ignition alkalies and alkali earths shake for one minute in a separatory funnel, 2 gm of bismuth tribromphenate, 20 c c of ether, and 20 c c of a mixture of equal volumes of hydrochloric acid and distilled water draw off the aqueous portion and concentrate to about 4 c c. Pour it into 100 c c distilled water, filter, evaporate the filtrate on the water bath to 30 c c , again filter and divide this filtrate into portions of 5 c c each mix one portion with an equal volume of dilute sulphuric acid.

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Any fees properly charged during the timein which a name was erased from the register are legally recoverable onproduction of the certificate of registration at time of suit ib no certificate is issued to any practitioner indebted to the college, nor until the annual fee for the certificate prescribed by the statuteand the by-laws of the college is paid ib if a practitioner omits to take out such certificate, he shall not beentitled thereto until he pays the certificate fee, and how to use a quote in an essay any other feesor dues which he owes the college ib after twelve months’ default in taking out such certificate, and twomonths’ notice of default by registered letter to the registeredaddress of the defaulter, if payment is not made, the registrar isrequired to erase his name and the provisions as to unregisteredpractitioners forthwith apply ib such practitioner may, unless otherwise disqualified, obtainre-registration and re-instatement to full privileges by applyingto the registrar and paying up the fees and dues and taking out hiscertificate ib neglect to register - those entitled to register and neglecting soto do are not entitled to any rights or privileges conferred byregistration, and are liable to all the penalties against unqualifiedor unregistered practitioners rev st , 1887, c 148, s 42 fraudulent registration - if a person procures registration by meansof false or fraudulent representations it is lawful for the registrar, on a receipt of sufficient evidence of such falsity or fraud, torepresent the matter to the council, and on the written order of thepresident, attested by the seal of the college, to erase his name fromthe register and publish the fact and cause of erasure in the ontariogazette. And after such notice such person ceases to be a member ofsaid college and to enjoy the privileges conferred by registrationwithout the express sanction of the council 44 1 offences and penalties - wilfully procuring or attempting to procureregistration by false or fraudulent representations is punishable witha penalty not exceeding $100 knowingly aiding and assisting therein ispunishable with a penalty of from $20 to $50 for each offence s 44 2 practising without registration for hire, gain, or hope of reward ispunishable with a penalty of from $25 to $100 45 a person wilfully or falsely pretending to be a physician, doctor ofmedicine, surgeon or general practitioner, or assuming any title, addition, or description other than that he actually possesses and islegally entitled to, is punishable with a penalty of from $10 to $5046 a person taking or using a name, title, addition, or descriptionimplying or calculated to lead people to infer that he is recognized bylaw as a physician, surgeon, accoucheur, or licentiate in medicine, surgery, or midwifery is punishable by a penalty of from $25 to $10047 unregistered persons - no person is entitled to recover a charge formedical or surgical advice or attendance or the performance of anyoperation or any medicine prescribed or supplied unless he produces tothe court a certificate that he is registered. But this section doesnot extend to the sale of drugs or medicines by a licensed chemist ordruggist 48, as amended act 1891, c 26, s 2 no person shall be appointed as a medical officer, physician, orsurgeon in any branch of the public service, or in any hospitalor other charitable institution not supported wholly by voluntarycontribution, unless he be registered 49 no certificate required from any physician, surgeon, or medicalpractitioner is valid unless the signer be registered 50 costs - the justice of the peace having jurisdiction of a prosecutionmay award payment of costs in addition to the penalty, and in defaultof payment may commit to the common jail for a period not exceeding onemonth unless the penalty and costs are sooner paid 51 appeal - any person convicted who gives notice of appeal must givesatisfactory security for the amount of the penalty and the costs ofconviction and appeal 52 proof - in any trial under the act, the burden of proof as toregistration is on the person charged 53 where proof of registration is required, the production of a printed orother copy of the register certified under the hand of the registrarfor the time being is sufficient evidence of all persons who areregistered practitioners, and any certificate upon such copy purportingto be signed by any person in his capacity of registrar is primafacie evidence that such person is registrar without proof of hissignature or of his being registrar 54 limitations of prosecutions - prosecutions are limited to commencewithin one year from the date of the offence 55stay - the council may, by order signed by its president having theseal of the college appended, stay proceedings in any prosecution whendeemed expedient 56 prosecutor - any person may be prosecutor or complainant 572 qualification - schedule b referred to in the act is as follows:1 a license to practise physic, surgery, and midwifery, or either, within upper canada under the acts of upper canada, 59 g , iii , c 13, and 8 g , iv , c 3, respectively 2 a license or diploma granted under 2 vict , c 38, or under theconsolidated statutes for upper canada, c 40, or any act amending thesame 3 a license or authorization to practise physic, surgery, andmidwifery, or either, within lower canada, whether granted underordinance 28 g , iii , c 8, or act 10 and 11 vict , c 26, and actsamending the same, or under c 71 of the consolidated statutes forupper canada, or any act amending the same 4 a certificate of qualification to practise medicine, surgery, andmidwifery, or either, hereafter granted by any colleges or bodies namedor referred to in sec 6 5 a medical or surgical degree or diploma of any university or collegein her majesty dominions or of such other universities or colleges asthe council may determine 6 a certificate of registration under the imperial act 21 and 22vict , c 90, known as “the medical act, ” or any act amending the same 7 a commission or warrant as physician or surgeon in her majestymilitary service 8 certificates of qualification to practise medicine under any of theacts relating to homœopathy or the eclectic system of medicine fees - to registrar, for transfer under sec 9 2, $2 to registrar, for registration under sec 24, not more than $10, to befixed by the by-laws of council to registrar, for registration under sec 25, such fees as the councilmay by general by-law establish to registrar, for copies under sec 38, 5 cents a folio members are required to pay an annual fee to the college.