History

How To Title An Essay Mla


John t milliken & co , st louis how to title an essay mla “acetylsalicylic acid-- m c w ”. Mallinckrodt chemical works, st louis “acetylsalicylic acid-- monsanto”. Monsanto chemical works, st louis “acetylsalicylic acid-- p w r ”. Powers-weightman-rosengarten company, philadelphia leech report gives still greater weight to the suggestion thathas been made for essay time, viz , that physicians should describeacetylsalicylic acid under its scientific name rather than itsproprietary name, even though, in the opinion of the journal, theproprietary name, aspirin, has become common property since theexpiration of the acetylsalicylic acid patent every considerationof public interest, of patriotism and of ordinary common senseshould prompt physicians to specify acetylsalicylic acid in writingprescriptions -- editorial from the journal a m a , april 13, 1918 advertising principles-- lay and medicalthe journal has received two letters, one from a physician who hadwritten to the new york tribune protesting against an advertisementof “aspirin bayer” that appeared in the rotogravure supplement of asunday edition and the other the new york tribune answer to theprotest the two letters make an editorial in themselves here is theletter of the physician-- dr edwin h shepard of syracuse, n y -- whichwas addressed to the editor of the journal. “when a great daily newspaper takes a stand for honest advertising it seems worthy that acknowledgement should be made on april 14 the illustrated sunday supplement of the new york tribune, together with thesis of the other papers of the country, published a duplicate of the enclosed advertisement of ‘aspirin ’ your own instructive editorial on ‘acetylsalicylic acid, or what in a name?. ’ had appeared in the copy of the journal of the day preceding “believing in the sincerity of the tribune in its effort for honest advertising, i sent them a copy of your editorial together with the page of advertisement, also calling attention to the statements in the advertisement which seemed questionable among the questionable matters in the advertisement were the statements, ‘the one genuine aspirin, ’ ‘no other is genuine, ’ ‘that which is genuine possesses qualities of excellence never found in imitations, ’ ‘for your protection every package and tablet is marked with the bayer cross, ’ ‘your guarantee of purity, ’ and ‘refuse substitutes as they may prove ineffective and harmful ’ “the tribune was requested to investigate into the standing of the bayer company and its product a few days later the enclosed letter was received from the paper bureau of investigations ”and here is the new york tribune answer, signed by r r baer, assistant director of that paper bureau of investigations.

Yet they do essaywhat provoke appetite, increase thirst, ease the belly and bowels, provoke women courses, help the bitingof a mad dog, and of other venomous creatures, to be used with honeyand rue, increase sperm, especially the seed of them they also killworms in children if they drink the water fasting wherein they havebeen steeped all night being roasted under the embers, and eatenwith honey or sugar and oil, they much conduce to help an inveteratecough, and expectorate the cough phlegm how to title an essay mla the juice being snuffed upinto the nostrils, purges the head, and helps the lethargy, yet theoften eating them is said to procure pains in the head it hath beenheld by divers country people a great preservative against infection, to eat onions fasting with bread and salt. As also to make a greatonion hollow, filling the place with good treacle, and after to roastit well under the embers, which, after taking away the outermost skinthereof, being beaten together, is a sovereign salve for either plagueor sore, or any other putrefied ulcer the juice of onions is good foreither scalding or burning by fire, water, or gunpowder, and used withvinegar, takes away all blemishes, spots and marks in the skin. Anddropped in the ears, eases the pains and noise of them applied alsowith figs beaten together, helps to ripen and break imposthumes, andother sores leeks are as like them in quality, as the pome-water is like an apple:they are a remedy against a surfeit of mushrooms, being baked underthe embers and taken, and being boiled and applied very warm, helpthe piles in other things they have the same property as the onions, although not so effectual orpine descript common orpine rises up with divers rough brittle stalks, thick set with fat and fleshy leaves, without any order, and littleor nothing dented about the edges, of a green colour. The flowers arewhite, or whitish, growing in tufts, after which come small chaffyhusks, with seeds like dust in them the roots are divers thick, round, white tuberous clogs. And the plant grows not so big in essay places asin others where it is found place it is frequent in almost every county of this land, and ischerished in gardens with us, where it grows greater than that which iswild, and grows in shadowy sides of fields and woods time it flowers about july, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues the moon owns the herb, and he that knowsbut her exaltaration, knows what i say is true orpine is seldom usedin inward medicines with us, although tragus saith from experience ingerthesis, that the distilled water thereof is profitable for gnawingsor excoriations in the stomach or bowels, or for ulcers in the lungs, liver, or other inward writings, as also in the matrix, and helps allthose diseases, being drank for certain days together it stays thesharpness of humours in the bloody-flux, and other fluxes in the body, or in wounds the root thereof also performs the like effect it isused outwardly to cool any heat or inflammation upon any hurt or wound, and eases the pains of them. As, also, to heal scaldings or burnings, the juice thereof being beaten with essay green sallad oil, andanointed the leaf bruised, and laid to any green wound in the hand orlegs, doth heal them quickly. And being bound to the throat, much helpsthe quinsy. It helps also ruptures and burstenness if you please tomake the juice thereof into a syrup with honey or sugar, you may safelytake a spoonful or two at a time, let my author say what he will fora quinsy, and you shall find the medicine pleasant, and the cure speedy parsley this is so well known, that it needs no description government and virtues it is under the dominion of mercury. Is verycomfortable to the stomach. Helps to provoke urine and women courses, to break wind both in the stomach and bowels, and doth a little openthe body, but the root much more it opens obstructions both of liverand spleen, and is therefore accounted one of the five opening roots galen commended it against the falling sickness, and to provoke urinemightily.

Vinegar of squills two pounds, boil them according toart culpeper it cuts and divides humours that are tough and viscous, and therefore helps the stomach and bowels afflicted by such humours, and sour belchings if you take but a spoonful in the morning, an ablebody will think enough oxymel scilliticum compositus or oxymel of squills compound college take of origanum, dried hyssop, thyme, lovage, cardamomsthe less, stœchas, of each five drams, boil them in three pounds ofwater to one, strain it and with two pounds of honey, honey of raisinshalf a pound, juice of briony five ounces, vinegar of squills a poundand a half, boil it, and scum it according to art culpeper this is good against the falling-sickness, megrim, head-ache, vertigo, or swimming in the head, and if these be occasionedby the stomach as thesis times they are, it helps the lungs obstructed byhumour, and is good for women not well cleansed after labour, it opensthe passage of the womb syrup of purslain mesue college take of the seeds of purslain grossly bruised, half apound, of the juice of endive, boiled and clarified, two pounds, sugartwo pounds, vinegar nine ounces, infuse the seeds in the juice ofendive twenty-four hours, afterwards boil it half away with a gentlefire, then strain it, and boil it with the sugar to the consistence ofa syrup, adding the vinegar towards the latter end of the decoction culpeper it is a pretty cooling syrup, fit for any hot diseaseincident to the stomach, reins, bladder, matrix, or liver. It thickensflegm, cools the blood, and provokes sleep you may take an ounce of itat a time when you have occasion compound syrup of colt-foot renod college take six handfuls of green colt-foot, two handfuls ofmaiden-hair, one handful of hyssop, and two ounces of liquorice, boilthem in four pints, either of rain or spring water till the fourth writingbe consumed, then strain it, and clarify it, to which add three poundsof white sugar, boil it to the perfect consistence of a syrup culpeper the composition is appropriated to the lungs, andtherefore helps the infirmities, weaknesses, or failings thereof aswant of voice, difficulty of breathing, coughs, hoarseness, catharrs, &c the way of taking it is with a liquorice-stick, or if you please, you may add an ounce of it to the pectoral decoction before mentioned syrup of poppies, the lesser composition college take of the heads of white poppies and black, when both ofthem are green, of each six ounces, the seeds of lettice, the flowersof violets, of each one ounce, boil them in eight pints of water tillthe virtue is out of the heads. Then strain them, and with four poundsof sugar boil the liquor to a syrup syrup of poppies, the greater composition college take of the heads of both white and black poppies, seedsand all, of each fifty drams, maiden-hair, fifteen drams, liquorice, five drams, jujubes, thirty by number, lettice seeds, forty drams, ofthe seeds of mallows and quinces, tied up in a thin linen cloth ofeach one dram and an half, boil these in eight pints of water tillfive pints be consumed, when you have strained out the three pintsremaining, add to them, penids and white sugar, of each a pound, boilthem into a syrup according to art culpeper all these former syrups of poppies provoke sleep, butin that, i desire they may be used with a great deal of caution andwariness. Such as these are not fit to be given in the beginning offevers, nor to such whose bodies are costive, yet to such as aretroubled with hot, sharp rheums, you may safely give them. The last isappropriated to the lungs. It prevails against dry coughs, phthisicks, hot and sharp gnawing rheums, and provokes sleep it is an usualfashion for nurses when they have heated their milk by exercise orstrong liquor then run for syrup of poppies to make their young onessleep i would fain have that fashion left off, therefore i forbear thedose. Let nurses keep their own bodies temperate, and their childrenwill sleep well enough syrup of eupatorium or maudlin mesue college take of the roots of smallage, fennel, and succory, ofeach two ounces, liquorice, schænanth, dodder, wormwood, roses, ofeach six drams, maidenhair, bedeguar, or instead thereof, the rootsof carduus mariæ, suchaha or instead thereof the roots of avens, theflowers or roots of bugloss, annis seeds, sweet fennel seeds, ageratum, or maudlin, of each five drams, rhubarb, mastich, of each three drams, spikenard, indian leaf, or instead of it put roman spike, of eachtwo drams, boil them in eight pints of water till the third writing beconsumed, then strain the decoction, and with four pounds of sugar, clarified juice of smallage and endive, of each half a pound, boil itinto a syrup culpeper it amends infirmities of the liver coming of cold, opens obstructions, helps the dropsy, and evil state of the body. Itextenuates gross humours, strengthens the liver, provoake urine, and isa present succour for hypocondriac melancholy you may take an ounce ata time in the morning, it opens but purges not honey of emblicks augustanus college take fifty emblick myrobalans, bruise them and boil them inthree pints of water till two be consumed, strain it, and with the likeweight of honey, boil it into a syrup culpeper it is a fine gentle purger both of flegm and melancholy:it strengthens the brain and nerves, and senses both internal andexternal, helps tremblings of the heart, stays vomiting, provokesappetite you may take a spoonful at a time rob, or sapa. And juices culpeper 1 rob, or sapa, is the juice of a fruit, made thick bythe heat either of the sun, or the fire, that it is capable of beingkept safe from putrefaction 2 its use was first invented for diseasesin the mouth 3 it is usually made, in respect of body, essaywhatthicker than new honey 4 it may be kept about a year, little more orless rob sive sapa, simplex or simple rob, or sapa college take of wine newly pressed from white and ripe grapes, boilit over a gentle fire to the thickness of honey culpeper whenever you read the word rob, or sapa throughout thedispensatory, simply quoted in any medicine without any relation ofwhat it should be made, this is that you ought to use rob de barberis or rob of barberries college take of the juice of barberries strained as much as youwill, boil it by itself or else by adding half a pound of sugar toeach pound of juice to the thickness of honey culpeper it quenches thirst, closes the mouth of the stomach, thereby staying vomiting, and belching, it strengthens stomachsweakened by heat, and procures appetite of any of these robs you maytake a little on the point of a knife when you need rob de cerasis or rob of cherries college take of the juice of red cherries essaywhat sowerish, asmuch as you will, and with half their weight in sugar boil them likethe former culpeper see the virtue of cherries, and there you have a method tokeep them all the year rob de cornis or rob of cornels college take of the juice of cornels two pounds, sugar a pound andan half, boil it according to art culpeper of those cornel trees are two sorts, male and female, thefruit of the male cornel, or cornelian cherry is here to be used thefruit of male cornel, binds exceedingly, and therefore good in fluxes, and the immoderate flowing of the menses rob cydoniorum or rob of quinces college take of the clarified juice of quinces, boil it till twowritings be consumed and with its equal weight in sugar boil it into a rob miva vel gelatina eorundem or jelly of quinces college take of the juice of quinces clarified twelve pounds, boilit half away, and add to the remainder, old white wine five pounds, consume the third writing over a gentle fire, taking away the scum allyou ought let the rest settle, and strain it, and with three pounds ofsugar boil it according to art culpeper both are good for weak and indisposed stomachs college rob of sour plums is made as rob of quinces, the use ofsugar is indifferent in them both rob of english currants is made in the same manner, let the juice beclarified culpeper the virtues are the same with rob of barberries rob baccarum sambuci or rob of elder berries college take of the juice of elder berries, and make it thick withthe help of a gentle fire, either by itself, or a quarter of its weightin sugar being added culpeper both rob of elder berries, and dwarf-elder, are excellentfor such whose bodies are inclining to dropsies, neither let themneglect nor despise it they may take the quantity of a nutmeg eachmorning, it will gently purge the watery humour college in the same manner is made rob of dwarf-elder, junipers, and paul betony, only in the last, the sugar and juice must be equalin weight succus glycyrrhizæ simplex or juice of liquorice simple college infuse liquorice roots cleansed and gently bruised, threedays in spring water, so much that it may over-top the roots thebreadth of three fingers, then boil it a little, and press it hard out, and boil the liquor with a gentle fire to its due thickness culpeper it is vulgarly known to be good against coughs, colds, &c and a strengthner of the lungs succus glycyrrhizæ compositus or juice of liquorice compound college take of the water of tender oak leaves, of scabious, ofeach four pounds, english liquorice scraped and bruised two pounds, boil them by degrees till they be soft, then press out the liquorstrongly in a press, to which add three pounds of juice of hyssop, anddry it away in the sun in a broad earthen vessel culpeper the virtues are the same with the former succus pronorum sylvestrum or juice of sloes, called acacia college take of sloes hardly ripe, press out the juice, and make itthick in a bath culpeper it stops fluxes, and procures appetite college so are the juices of wormwood, maudlin, and fumitory madethick, to wit, the herbs bruised while they be tender, and the juicepressed out and after it be clarified, boil over the fire to its justthickness lohoch, or eclegmata culpeper because this word also is understood but by few, we willfirst explain what it is 1 the word lohoch is an arabick word, called in greek eclegma, in latin linctus, and signifies a thingto be licked up 2 it is in respect of body, essaything thicker thana syrup, and not so thick as an electuary 3 its use was against theroughness of the windpipe, diseases, and inflammations of the lungs, difficulty of breathing, colds, coughs, &c 4 its manner of receptionis with a liquorice stick, bruised at the end, to take up essay andretain it in the mouth, till it melt of its own accord lohoch de farfara or lohoch of coltsfoot college take of colts-foot roots cleansed eight ounces, marsh-mallow roots four ounces cleansed, boil them in a sufficientquantity of water, and press the pulp out through a sieve, dissolvethis again in the decoction, and let it boil once or twice, then takeit from the fire, and add two pounds of white sugar, honey of raisinsfourteen ounces, juice of liquorice two drams and an half, stir themstoutly with a wooden pestle, mean season sprinkle in saffron andcloves, of each a scruple, cinnamon and mace, of each two scruples, make them into a lohoch according to art culpeper it was invented for the cough lohoch de papavere or lohoch of poppies college take white poppy seeds twenty four drams, sweet almondsblanched in rose water, pine-nuts cleansed, gum arabick and tragacanth, of each ten drams, juice of liquorice an ounce, starch three drams, theseeds of lettuce, purslain, quinces, of each half an ounce, saffron adram, penids four ounces, syrup of meconium three pounds, make it intoa lohoch according to art culpeper it helps salt, sharp and thin distillations upon thelungs, it allays the fury of such sharp humours, which occasion bothroughness of the throat, want of sleep, and fevers. It is excellent forsuch as are troubled with pleurises to take now and then a little ofit lohoch e passulis or lohoch of raisins college take of male peony roots, liquorice, of each half an ounce, hyssop, bawm, hart-tongue, or cetrach, of each half a handful, boilthem in spring water, and press them strongly, and by adding a pound ofraisins bruised, boil it again, pressing it through a linen cloth, thenwith a pound of white sugar, make it into a lohoch according to art culpeper it is very good against coughs, consumptions of the lungs, and other vices of the breast, and is usually given to children forsuch diseases, as also for convulsions, and falling-sickness lohoch e pino or lohoch of pinenuts college take of pine-nuts, fifteen drams, sweet almonds, hazelnuts gently roasted, gum arabick and tragacanth, powder and juice ofliquorice, white starch, maiden-hair, orris roots, of each two drams, the pulp of dates seventeen drams, bitter almonds one dram and an half, honey of raisins, white sugar-candy, fresh butter, of each two ounces, honey one pound and an half, dissolve the gums in so much decoction ofmaiden-hair as is sufficient. Let the rest be mixed over a gentle fire, and stirred, that so it may be made into a lohoch culpeper the medicine is excellent for continual coughs, anddifficulty of breathing, it succours such as are asthmatic, for it cutsand atenuates tough humours in the breast lohoch de portulaca or lohoch of purslain college take of the strained juice of purslain two pounds, troches of terra lemnia two drams, troches of amber, gum arabic, dragon-blood of each one dram, lapis hematilis, the wool of ahare toasted, of each two scruples, white sugar one pound, mix themtogether, that so you may make a lohoch of them culpeper the medicine is so binding that it is better let alonethan taken, unless in inward bruises when men spit blood, then you maysafely take a little of it lohoch e pulmone vulpis or lohoch of fox lungs college take of fox lungs rightly prepared, juice of liquorice, maiden-hair, annis-seeds, sweet fennel seeds, of each equal writings, sugar dissolved in colt-foot, and scabious water, and boiled into asyrup, three times their weight. The rest being in fine powder, letthem be put to it and strongly stirred together, that it may be madeinto a lohoch according to art culpeper it cleanses and unites ulcers in the lungs and breast, andis a present remedy in phthisicks lohoch sanum et expertum or a sound and well experienced lohoch college take of dried hyssop and calaminth, of each half an ounce, jujubes, sebestens, the stones being taken out, fifteen raisins of thesun stoned, fat figs, dates, of each two ounces, linseed, fenugreekseed, of each five drams, maiden-hair one handful, annis-seeds, sweetfennel seeds, orris roots cut, liquorice, cinnamon, of each an ounce, boil them according to art in four pounds of clear water till halfbe consumed, and with two pounds of penids boil it into a syrup, afterwards cut and bruise very small pine-nuts five drams, sweetalmonds blanched, liquorice, gum tragacanth and arabick, white starchof each three drams, let these be put into the syrup when it is off thefire, and stir it about swiftly with a wooden pestle till it look white culpeper it succors the breast, lungs, throat, oppressed by cold, it restores the voice lost by reason of cold, and attenuates thick andgross humours in the breast and lungs lohoch scilliticum or lohoch of squils college take three drams of a squil baked in paste, orris roots twodrams, hyssop, hore-hound, of each one dram, saffron, myrrh, of eachhalf a dram, honey two ounces and an half, bruise the squil, after itis baked, in a stone mortar, and after it hath boiled a walm or twowith the honey, put in the rest of the things in powder, diligentlystirring it, and make it into a lohoch according to art eclegma of squils mesue college take of the juice of squils and honey, both of themclarified, of each two pounds, boil them together according to art tothe consistence of honey culpeper for the virtues of it see vinegar of squils, and oximelof squils, only this is more mild, and not so harsh to the throat, because it hath no vinegar in it, and therefore is far more fitting forasthmaes, and such as are troubled with difficulty of breathing, itcuts and carries away humours from the breast, be they thick or thin, and wonderfully helps indigestion of victuals, and eases pains in thebreast, and for this, i quote the authority of galen lohoch of coleworts gordonius college take one pound of the juice of coleworts, clarified saffronthree drams, clarified honey, and sugar, of each half a pound, make ofthem a lohoch according to art culpeper it helps hoarseness, and loss of voice, eases surfeits andhead-ache coming of drunkenness, and opens obstructions of the liverand spleen, and therefore is good for that disease in children calledthe rickets preserved roots, stalks, barks, flowers, fruits college take of eringo roots as thesis as you will, cleanse themwithout and within, the pith being taken out, steep them two days inclear water, shifting the water essaytimes, then dry them with a cloth, then take their equal weight in white sugar, and as much rose-wateras will make it into a syrup, which being almost boiled, put in theroots, and let them boil until the moisture be consumed, and let itbe brought to the due body of a syrup not much unlike to this arepreserved the roots of acorus, angelica, borrage, bugloss, succory, elecampane, burnet, satyrion, sicers, comfrey the greater, ginger, zedoary take of the stalks of artichokes, not too ripe, as thesis as youwill, and contrary to the roots take only the pith of these, andpreserve them with their equal weight in sugar, like the former so isprepared the stalks of angelica, burs, lettuce, &c before they be tooripe take of fresh orange pills as thesis as you will, take away theexterior yellowness, and steep them in spring water three days at theleast, often renewing the water, then preserve them like the former in like manner are lemon and citron pills preserved preserve theflowers of citrons, oranges, borrage, primroses, with sugar, accordingto art take of apricots as thesis as you will, take away the outer skinand the stones, and mix them with their like weight in sugar, afterfour hours take them out, and boil the sugar without any other liquor, then put them in again, and boil them a little other fruits may bepreserved in the same manner, or at least not much unlike to it, aswhole barberries, cherries, cornels, citrons, quinces, peaches, commonapples, the five sorts of myrobalans, hazel nuts, walnuts, nutmegs, raisins of the sun, pepper brought green from india, plums, gardenand wild pears, grapes pulps are also preserved, as barberries, cassia fistula, citrons, cinosbatus, quinces, and sloes, &c take ofbarberries as thesis as you will, boil them in spring water till theyare tender, then having pulped them through a sieve, that they arefree from the stones, boil it again in an earthen vessel over a gentlefire, often stirring them for fear of burning, till the watery humourbe consumed, then mix ten pounds of sugar with six pounds of this pulp, boil it to its due thickness broom buds are also preserved, but withbrine and vinegar, and so are olives and capers lastly, amongst thebarks, cinnamon, amongst the flowers, roses, and marigolds, amongst thefruits, almonds, cloves, pine-nuts, and fistick-nuts, are said to bepreserved but with this difference, they are encrusted with dry sugar, and are more called confects than preserves conserves and sugars college conserves of the herbs of wormwood, sorrel, wood-sorrel, the flowers of oranges, borrage, bugloss, bettony, marigolds, the topsof carduus, the flowers of centaury the less, clove-gilliflowers, germander, succory, the leaves of scurvy-grass, the flowers of comfreythe greater citratiæ, cinosbati, the roots of spurge, herbs andflowers of eye-bright, the tops of fumitory, goat-rue, the flowersof broom not quite open, hyssop, lavender, white lilies, lilies of thevalley, marjoram, mallows, the tops of bawm, the leaves of mints, theflowers of water lilies, red poppies, peony, peaches, primroses, roses, the leaves of rue, the flowers of sage, elder scabious, the leaves ofscordium, the flowers of limetree, coltsfoot, violets, with all theseare conserves made with their treble proportion of white sugar. Yetnote, that all of them must not be mixed alike, essay of them must becut, beaten, and gently boiled, essay neither cut, beaten nor boiled, and essay admit but one of them, which every artist in his trade mayfind out by this premonition and avoid error sugars diacodium solidum, sive tabulatum college take of white poppy heads, meanly ripe, and newly gathered, twenty, steep them in three pounds of warm spring water, and the nextday boil them until the virtue is out, then strain out the liquor, andwith a sufficient quantity of good sugar, boil it according to art, that you may make it up into lozenges culpeper the virtues are the same with the common diacodium, viz to provoke sleep, and help thin rheums in the head, coughs, androughness of the throat, and may easily be carried about in onepocket saccharum tabulatum simplex, et perlatum or lozenges of sugar both simple and pearled college the first is made by pouring the sugar upon a marble, aftera sufficient boiling in half its weight in damask rose water. And thelatter by adding to every pound of the former towards the latter end ofthe decoction, pearls, prepared and bruised, half an ounce, with eightor ten leaves of gold culpeper it is naturally cooling, appropriated to the heart, it restores lost strength, takes away burning fevers, and falseimaginations, i mean that with pearls, for that without pearls isridiculous it hath the same virtues pearls have saccharum tabulatum compositum or lozenges of sugar compound college take of choice rhubarb four scruples, agarick trochiscated, corallins, burnt hart-horn, dittany of crete, wormseed and sorrelseed, of each a scruple, cinnamon, zedoary, cloves, saffron, of eachhalf a scruple, white sugar a pound, dissolved in four ounces ofwormwood water, wormwood wine, an ounce, cinnamon water a spoonful, with the forenamed powders make it into lozenges according to art culpeper the title shews you the virtues of it saccharum penidium, or sugar penidscollege are prepared of sugar dissolved in spring water by a gentlefire, and the whites of eggs diligently beaten, and clarified once, andagain whilst it is boiling, then strain it and boil it gently again, till it rise up in great bubbles, and being chewed it stick not to yourteeth, then pour it upon a marble, anointed with oil of almonds, letthe bubbles first sink, after it is removed from the fire bring backthe outsides of it to the middle till it look like larch rosin, then, your hands being rubbed with white starch, you may draw it into threadseither short or long, thick or thin, and let it cool in what form youplease culpeper i remember country people were wont to take them forcoughs, and they are essaytimes used in other compositions confectio de thure or confection of frankincense college take coriander seeds prepared half an ounce, nutmegs, whitefrankincense, of each three drams, liquorice, mastich, of each twodrams, cubebs, hart-horn prepared, of each one dram, conserve of redroses an ounce, white sugar as much as is sufficient to make it intomean bits culpeper i cannot boast much of the rarity nor virtues of thisreceipt saccharum rosatum or sugar of roses college take of red rose leaves, the whites being cut off, andspeedily dried in the sun an ounce, white sugar a pound, melt thesugar in rose-water and juice of roses of each two ounces which beingconsumed by degrees, put in the rose leaves in powder, mix them, put itupon a marble, and make it into lozenges according to art culpeper as for the virtues of this, it strengthens weak stomachs, weak hearts, and weak brains, restores such as are in consumptions, restores lost strength, stays fluxes, eases pains in the head, earsand eyes, helps spitting, vomiting, and urining of blood. It is a finecommodity for a man in a consumption to carry about with him, and eatnow and then a bit species, or powders aromaticum caryophyllatum college take of cloves seven drams, mace, zedoary, galanga theless, yellow sanders, troches, diarrhodon, cinnamon, wood of aloes, indian spikenard, long pepper, cardamoms the less, of each a dram, redroses four ounces, gallia moschata, liquorice, of each two drams, ofindian leaf, cubebs of each two scruples, beat them all diligently intopowder culpeper this powder strengthens the heart and stomach, helpsdigestion, expels wind, stays vomiting, and cleanses the stomach ofputrified humors aromaticum rosatum college take of red roses exungulated fifteen drams, liquoriceseven drams, wood of aloes, yellow sanders, of each three drams, cinnamon five drams, cloves, mace, of each two drams and an half, gumarabic and tragacanth, of each eight scruples, nutmegs, cardamoms theless, galanga of each one dram, indian spikenard two scruples, make itinto a powder to be kept in a glass for use culpeper it strengthens the brain, heart and stomach, and allsuch internal members as help towards decoction, it helps digestion, consumes the watery excrements of the bowels, strengthens such as arepined away by reason of the violence of a disease, and restores such asare in consumption pulvus ex chelus cancrorum compositus or powder of crab claws compound college take of pearls prepared, crab eyes, red coral, whiteamber, hart-horn, oriential bezoar, of each half an ounce, powder ofthe black tops of crab claws, the weight of them all, beat them intopowder, which may be made into balls with jelly, and the skins whichour vipers have cast off, warily dried and kept for use culpeper this is that powder they ordinarily call gascoignspowder, there are divers receipts of it, of which this is none of theworst, four, or five, or six grains is excellently good in a fever tobe taken in any cordial, for it cheers the heart and vital spiritsexceedingly, and makes them impregnable species cordiales temperatæ college take of wood of aloes, spodium of each a dram, cinnamon, cloves, bone of a stag-heart, the roots of angelica, avens, andtormentil, of each a dram and an half, pearls prepared six drams, rawsilk toasted, both sorts of coral of each two drams, jacinth, emerald, samphire, of each half a dram, saffron a scruple, the leaves of goldand silver, of each ten, make them into powder according to art culpeper it is a great cordial, a great strengthener of the heart, and brain diacalaminthe simple college take of mountain calaminth, pennyroyal, origanum, the seedsof macedonian parsley, common parsley, and hartwort, of each two drams, the seeds of smallage, the tops of thyme of each half an ounce, theseeds of lovage, black pepper, of each an ounce, make them into powderaccording to art culpeper it heats and comforts cold bodies, cuts thick and grossflegm, provokes urine and the menses i confess this differs essaythingfrom galen, but is better for our bodies in my opinion than his itexpels wind exceedingly, you may take half a dram of the powder at atime there is nothing surer than that all their powders will keepbetter in electuaries than they will in powders, and into such a body, you may make it with two pound and an half of white sugar dissolved inrose water diacalamintha compound college take of diacalamintha simple, half an ounce, the leavesof horehound, marjoram, bawm, mugwort, savin dried, of each a dram, cypress roots, the seeds of maddir and rue, mace, cinnamon, of each twoscruples, beat them and mix them diligently into a powder according toart culpeper this seems to be more appropriated to the feminine genderthan the former, viz to bring down the terms, to bring away the birth, and after-birth, to purge them after labour, yet it is dangerous forpregnant women dianisum college take of annis seeds two ounces and an half, liquorice, mastich, of each an ounce, the seeds of caraway, fennel, galanga, mace, ginger, cinnamon, of each five drams, the three sorts of pepper, cassialignea, mountain calaminth, pellitory of spain, of each two drams, cardamoms the greater, cloves, cubebs, indian spikenard, saffron, ofeach a dram and an half, make them into powder culpeper it is chiefly appropriated to the stomach, and helps thecold infirmities thereof, raw, flegm, wind, continual coughs, andother such diseases coming of cold you may safely take a dram of theelectuary at a time you may make an electuary of it with its trebleweight of clarified honey pulvis radicum ari compositus or powder of aron roots compound college take of aron roots two ounces, of common water flag, andburnet, of each one ounce, crab eyes, half an ounce, cinnamon threedrams, salt of wormwood, and juniper, of each one dram, make them intopowder culpeper and when you have done tell me what it is good for diaireos simple college take of orris roots half an ounce, sugar-candy, diatragacanthum frigidum, of each two drams, make them into powder culpeper i do not mean the diatragacanthum frigidum, for that isin powder before it comforts the breast, is good in colds, coughs, and hoarseness you may mix it with any pectoral syrups which areappropriated to the same diseases, and so take it with a liquoricestick dialacca college take of gum-lacca, prepared rhubarb, schænanth, of eachthree drams, indian spikenard, mastich, the juice of wormwood andagrimony, made thick, the seeds of smallage, annis, fennel, ammi, savin, bitter almonds, myrrh, costus, or zedoary, the roots of maddir, asarabacca, birthwort long and round, gentian, saffron, cinnamon, driedhyssop, cassia lignea, bdellium, of each a dram and an half, blackpepper, ginger, of each a dram, make them into powder according to art culpeper it strengthens the stomach and liver, opens obstructions, helps dropsies, yellow jaundice, provokes urine, breaks the stone inthe reins and bladder half a dram is a moderate dose, if the patientbe strong they may take a dram in white wine let pregnant womenforbear it pulvis cardiacus magistralis college take of east bezoar, bone of a stag-heart, of each adram and an half, magisterium, of white and red coral, white amber, magisterium of pearl, hart-horn, ivory, bole-amoniac, earth ofgerthesis, samos and lemnos, elk-claw, tormentil roots, of each a dram, wood of aloes, citron peels, the roots of angelica and zedoary, of eachtwo scruples, leaves of gold twenty, ambergris one scruple, musk sixgrains, mix them and make them into powder culpeper it is too dear for a vulgar purse, yet a mighty cordialand great strengthener of the heart and vitals in fevers diamargariton frigidum college take of the four greater cold seeds, the seeds of purslain, white poppies, endive, sorrel, citrons, the three sanders, wood ofaloes, ginger, red roses exungulated, the flowers of water-lilies, bugloss, violets, the berries of mirtles, bone in a stag heart, ivory, contra yerva, cinnamon of each one dram, both sorts of coral, ofeach half a dram, pearls three drams, camphire six grains, make theminto powder according to art observe that the four greater cold seeds, and the poppy seeds, are not to be added before the powder be requiredby physician for use do so by the other powder in the composition ofwhich these powders are used culpeper authors hold it to be restorative in consumptions, to helpsuch as are in hectic fevers, to restore strength lost, to help coughs, asthmaes, and consumptions of the lungs, and restore such as havelaboured long under languishing or pining diseases diamoschu dulce college take of saffron, galanga, zedoary, wood of aloes, mace, of each two drams, pearls, raw silk toasted, white amber, red coralprepared, gallia moschata, bazil, of each two drams and an half, ginger, cubebs, long pepper, of each a dram and an half, nutmegs, indian leaf or cinnamon, cloves, of each one dram, musk two scruples, make them into powder according to art culpeper it wonderfully helps cold afflictions of the brain, thatcome without a fever, melancholy and its attendants, viz sadnesswithout a cause, vertigo or diziness in the head, falling-sickness, palsies, resolution of the nerves, convulsions, heart-qualms, afflictions of the lungs, and difficulty of breathing the dose of thepowder is half a dram, or two scruples, or less. According to the ageor strength of him or her that takes it mesue appoints it to be madeinto an electuary with clarified honey, and of the electuary, twodrams is the dose.

Reports council pharm and chem , 1916, p 32 sodiumglycerophosphates reports council pharm and chem , 1916, p 52 parathesin not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary the local anesthetic ethyl paraminobenzoate was first introduced as“anesthesin” or “anæsthesin ” ethyl paraminobenzoate is not patentedin the united states and it may be manufactured, therefore, by anyfirm which chooses to do so in order that a common name by which todesignate the drug might be available, the council coined the name“benzocaine, ” as being short and easily remembered, but yet suggestiveof its composition and character “benzo” to indicate its derivationfrom benzoic acid and “caine” to indicate its cocaine-like properties as the term “anesthesin” had become a common name for the drug, thecouncil recognized this as a synonym for benzocaine one of the accepted brands for benzocaine is “anesthesin, ”manufactured by the h a metz laboratories, inc see new andnonofficial remedies, 1920, p 33 however, on april 19, 1920, themetz laboratories requested that its product be recognized underthe designation of “parathesin ” as the use of one substance underseveral names causes confusion and retards rational therapeutics, thecouncil rules provide against the recognition of proprietary namesfor nonproprietary, established drugs in view of this and becausethe legitimate interests of the manufacturer may be safeguardedby appending his name or initials to the common name, benzocaineor anesthesin, the council voted not to recognize the designation“parathesin ”-- from the journal a m a , nov 13, 1920 chlorlyptus report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe condensed report on chlorlyptus which follows and also a completedetailed report was sent to the proprietor, jan 9, 1920 in replyhe requested that publication be postponed pending the submission offurther clinical evidence as after nine months this evidence had notbeen received the council has authorized publication of its report w a puckner, secretary chlorlyptus is manufactured by chas a weeks, trading as the weekschemical company, philadelphia it is prepared by chlorinatingeucalyptus oil until it has bound 30 per cent of chlorin, the chlorinbeing in relatively stable combination it is claimed that chlorlyptusis a new “chlorinated antiseptic, ” highly efficient as a woundantiseptic and at the same time nonirritant and nontoxic chlorlyptusis offered for use in the treatment of local infections of all types, as well as of burns, and also as an antiseptic in the alimentary andgenito-urinary tracts the claims were based largely on reports of investigations made byphilip b hawk and his collaborators these reports the refereeof the committee in charge of chlorlyptus considered incompleteand unconvincing being advised of this mr weeks caused furtherinvestigations to be made essay of the information was checked andextended by the a m a chemical laboratory and by the referee the laboratory side of the investigation may now be considered ascomplete the results show that chlorlyptus is a feeble antiseptic ofthe aromatic oil type, considerably weaker than eucalyptus oil, bothas to therapeutic and toxic qualities the chlorin contained in it isbound too firmly to have any action. In fact, the chlorination appearsto have accomplished nothing more than a considerable destruction orweakening of the eucalyptus oil as far as the referee can judge, thisobject could have been accomplished just as effectively by dilutingordinary eucalyptus oil with essay indifferent solvent the manufacturer of chlorlyptus contends that if the experimentalfindings are against his product, it should be judged by the clinicaldata the clinical evidence, however, is not decisive it shows thatwounds healed and infections were prevented or successfully combated inpaper in which chlorlyptus was used in combination with good surgery, but it does not show how much of the result was due to the surgery andhow much, if any, to the use of chlorlyptus even if it were grantedas probable that the chlorlyptus contributed to the favorable outcome, it would still be a question whether it equals other establishedantiseptics, or whether it possesses any material advantages overdiluted eucalyptus oil until these points are established the clinicalreports cannot offset the unfavorable results of the laboratoryinvestigation the manufacturer has endeavored to obtain more convincing clinicalreports, but the lack of success in this direction during the past ninemonths gives little encouragement that acceptable clinical evidencewill be available within a reasonable time believing that the information which has been obtained should be madeavailable to the profession, the council authorized publication ofthis statement and also of the detailed report the council voted notto accept chlorlyptus for new and nonofficial remedies because of theunfavorable results of the laboratory investigation, but with theagreement that the product would receive further consideration shouldmore convincing clinical data become available i detailed reports summarized reports chemical nature of chlorlyptuschlorlyptus is prepared by chlorinating eucalyptus oil until ithas bound 30 per cent of chlorin “chlorlyptol” is prepared in ananalogous manner from eucalyptol there has been essay confusion as tothe composition. But the principal constituent is now stated to be “adichloride of eucalyptus oil, ” to which the formula c₁₀h₁₆ocl₂ hasbeen assigned it differs from the “chlorinated eucalyptus oil, ” asordinarily used for making dichloramin-t solutions, and which containsonly 2/3 per cent of chlorin availability of chlorin in chlorlyptusthe chlorin content of chlorlyptus is almost entirely firmly bound, and therefore not “available, ” in contrast to the group of so-calledchlorinated antiseptics i e , the hypochlorite and chloramin type for instance, it does not directly liberate iodin from iodid itcontains a very small quantity of free hydrochloric acid, or perhapsessay acid esters, and liberates a little more on prolonged contact withwater. But the total quantity liberated under reasonable conditions isvery small according to hawk data, they correspond only to 1/8 percent hcl even after standing with water overnight and to only 1/5 percent of hcl after two weeks the referee has shown that this quantityof acid has no therapeutic significance the “bound” chlorin of chlorlyptus, being chemically inactive, wouldhave no more practical significance than the bound chlorin in commonsalt the “ozone” said to be used during the preparation, to expel thehcl, has also practically disappeared, to judge by the slowness withwhich iodin is liberated from potassium iodid acid formationessay constituents of chlorlyptus hydrolyze slowly and to a slightdegree with the liberation of a trace of free hydrochloric acid according to the data of hawk report, the free acidity, in termof hcl, is 1/12 per cent on standing with water over night, thisincreases to 1/8 per cent on this basis, hawk proposed a theory that the claimed antisepticeffects of chlorlyptus are due to the continuous liberation ofhydrochloric acid experiments by the referee show this to be untenable the traces ofacid are neutralized and absorbed by the tissues so rapidly that anacid reaction is not maintained these experiments are described in theappendix they were submitted to the manufacturers, who in the name of mr weeks may 9, 1919 concede this conclusion and state that “there is nodoubt that the referee statements as to action in mouth, contactwith living tissue and improbability that the acidity is effectivelyantiseptic is correct, and i am willing to accept the refereestatement as conclusive in this respect ” bacterial culture experimentsmr weeks submitted a statement by hawk to the effect that chlorlyptushas a phenol coefficient of 2 6, determined by the standard hygieniclaboratory procedure he also quotes rockefeller war hospital that chlorlyptus killsstaphylococcus aureus in concentra of 1 dram. 1 gallon about1:1, 000, but not in more dilute solutions more recently, he presented a more comprehensive report by rivas, whichis reproduced in the appendix the essential results are tabulatedherewith this tabulation shows that chlorlyptus fails to kill theorganisms after an hour exposure of the following concentrations. Typhoid in bouillon, 10 per cent of chlorlyptus staphylococci in pus, 5 per cent of chlorlyptus staphylococci in serum, 1 per cent of chlorlyptus it seems to the referee that a substance that is ineffective with anhour exposure to these concentrations is not at all likely to kill orcheck bacteria under clinical conditions in other words, it is not anantiseptic in the ordinary sense the referee is not impressed by the superior power attributed by rivasto chlorlyptus in the presence of pus inefficiency of 10 per cent forone-half hour or of 5 per cent for two hours seems a failure ratherthan a success the referee also notes the absence of any data as tothe relative efficiency of chlorlyptus against staphylococci in pus andin bouillon the data on serum indicate that chlorlyptus is much weakerthan phenol and show that it is less effective in the presence of pusthan in other mediums the referee fails to grasp the bearing of the oil experiments on anyclinical condition moreover, the inconstant results mentioned by rivassuggest the possibility that the incorporation of the bacteria in oilmay have prevented their effective distribution in the culture medium if any significance is to be attached to these experiments, they shouldbe checked by controls, without antiseptics summary of rivas’ in vitro experiments minimal maximal germicidal not germicidal concentrations concentrations typhoid bacilli in bouillon. Chlorlyptus exp 3 10%, 2 to 4 hours 10% for 1 hour 5% for 2 hours eucalyptus oil exp 1 5% within 5 minutes no data phenol exp 5 1% within 10 min no data streptococci and staphylococci in olive oil. Chlorlyptus exps 7 and 8 1%, almost at once, no data essaytimes eucalyptus oil no data no data phenol exps 9 and 10 1%, almost at once, no data staphylococci in pus. Chlorlyptus exp 11 10% for 1 hour 10% for 1/2 hour 5% for 2 hours eucalyptus oil no data no data phenol no data no data staphylococci in human blood serum. Chlorlyptus exp 12 5% in 1 hour 1% in 1 hour eucalyptus oil no data no data phenol 5% almost at once 1% in 1 hour -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- infection experiments in vivodr rivas reports two series of experiments, in each of which threeguinea-pigs received staphylococcus suspensions in the peritoneum one guinea-pig in each series was left untreated. The others receivedinjections of chlorlyptus into the peritoneum at various intervals the following results were obtained. Chlorlyptus results exp 19, no 1 none survived exp 20, no 1 none died exp 19, no 2 at once died exp 19, no 3 after 24 hours survived exp 20, no 2 after 18 hours died exp 20, no 3 after 24 hours died -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- this shows mortalities of. 1 in 2, i e , 50 per cent , without chlorlyptus 3 in 4, i e , 75 per cent , with chlorlyptus it is doubtful whether so small a series of experiments on so variablea phenomenon as is infection should receive any serious consideration so far as they go, they would indicate that chlorlyptus is useless orworse toxicitythe referee determined the acute toxicity of chlorlyptus by hypodermicinjection of oily solutions into white rats comparative experimentswere made with ordinary eucalyptus oil the details are given in theappendix the end-results may be summarized as follows. Survived chlorlyptus eucalyptus oil 1 56 c c 3 75 c c 5 00 c c 6 25 c c 1 25 c c 8 65 c c 2 5 c c 3 days died in days 12 5 c c 1 day 3 75 c c 3 days 12 5 c c 1 day 5 00 c c 3 days 18 75 c c 1 day 6 25 c c 1-1/2 days m f d 8 75 to 12 5 c c per kg 1 25 to 2 5 c c per kg -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- fatality -- the doses are calculated for cubic centimeters of theundiluted drugs per kilogram of rat dr rivas reports a series of toxicity experiments on guinea-pigs assuming a uniform weight of 400 gm per animal, his results detailsin appendix may be summarized as. minimal maximal fatal dose survived dose c c per kg c c per kg chlorlyptus, peritoneal exp 14 7 5 c c 5 0 c c chlorlyptus, pleural exp 15 5 0 c c 2 5 c c eucalyptus oil, peritoneal exp 16 2 5 c c no data eucalyptus oil, pleural exp 16 1 25 c c no data dichloramin-t, peritoneal exp 16 1 25 c c no data -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the comparative toxicity in the various series is thereforeapproximately as follows. Chlorlyptus. Eucalyptus referee, rats, hypodermic 1/5. 1 rivas guinea-pig, peritoneal 1/3.

  • essay checker and corrector
  • how to write a good essay fast
  • volunteering essay
  • help writing assignments
  • spongebob squarepants essay
  • research paper process order
  • great ways to start an essay
  • essay writer in online in usa
  • ap english essay prompts
  • tok essay
  • article review help
  • how can i do my assignment
  • concluding an essay
  • gay marriage essay
  • online essay helpers
  • apa format essay example paper
  • how long does it take to write an essay
  • homework services
  • online hw help
  • best essay editing service india
  • essay writing services toronto

“catarrhal vaccine has been especially useful in thesis respiratory infections, including bronchitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, chronic catarrh and in the mixed infections of pulmonary tuberculosis ”a circular for “influenza mixed vaccine” contained the following. “the vaccine is useful in the treatment of influenza and ordinary colds, and in any infection in which the bacillus influenzae is the causative agent ”an advertising pamphlet contained the following. “catarrh, acute and chronic. Colds, influenza -- the micro-organisms capable of producing catarrhal conditions of the nose and pharynx and most commonly isolated are b friedländer, m catarrhalis, staphylococcus, pneumococcus in infections beginning in the larynx, b influenza and streptococcus these organisms are found normally in the respiratory passages and acquire virulence only when resistance has been lowered through overwork, exposure to cold, etc “the results following the use of catarrhal vaccine combined in the non-epidemic forms and influenza mixed vaccine in the epidemic types have been very satisfactory, due to the great vascularity of the tissues acute attacks are aborted altogether or shortened in duration and the danger of complications greatly minimized ”no evidence was submitted which warrants the preceding claims noris the council aware of any reliable testimony to indicate that theadministration of the mixture here discussed is warranted or desirable on the recommendation of the committee on serums and vaccines thecouncil voted that “catarrhal vaccine combined-lilly” and “influenzamixed vaccine-lilly” be not included in new and nonofficial remediesbecause satisfactory evidence of their value is wanting influenza serobacterin mixed-mulfordbecause of inquiry received, the council took up the considerationof “influenza serobacterin mixed-mulford, ” and requested the mulfordcompany to present evidence to establish the admissibility of thepreparation to new and nonofficial remedies the mulford company sentspecimens of the serobacterin in question, an advertising circular anda letter by the director of its biologic laboratories according to the label on the package, the preparation is made fromthe following organisms. Bacillus influenzae, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus albus, streptococcus, pneumococcus and micrococcuscatarrhalis group this mixture is recommended by the manufacturer. “for the prophylaxis and treatment of common colds, mixed infections of the respiratory mucous membranes, acute and chronic catarrhal conditions of the nose, throat and respiratory passages ”no evidence is submitted for this recommendation except that in “coldsand bronchitis and the other common infections of the upper respiratorypassages five or six bacteria are very commonly present-- two ormore of them are nearly always present ” and the letter by thedirector of the mulford biologic laboratories expressing the beliefthat in his own case the use of the mixed vaccine has aborted orprevented colds as regards the use of this complex biologic preparation:first, the cause of common colds is, at the present time, quiteunknown one of the most striking things is that at the beginning ofa cold the organisms to be cultivated from the nasal mucous membraneare very few in number and there is no uniformity in the type oforganism found if essayone of the well-known organisms streptococcus, staphylococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis, influenzabacillus, etc were responsible, we should expect to find one of thempreponderating and in overwhelming numbers this is far from the case after the duration of the cold for a day or two with the increasedproduction of mucus and apparently with the infection of a mucousmembrane whose powers of resistance have been greatly lowered, bacteriaof all kinds are to be found in immense numbers there is considerablereason for believing that an ultramicroscopic organism is responsiblefor this condition see foster, journal of infectious diseases21:451 nov 1917 second, there is no acceptable clinical evidence that vaccination withthe influenza bacillus, the streptococcus, the pneumococcus or themicrococcus catarrhalis will influence the course of an infection dueto one or the other of these organisms it has been repeatedly foundthat a staphylococcus vaccine is of a certain degree of value when theinfection with the staphylococcus is localized, but it is well knownthat general systemic infections with the staphylococcus are not at allbenefited third, the letter submitted as evidence by the mulford company is notconvincing the council is not prepared to accept evidence of this sortunless it is in volume large enough to justify a definite conclusion holding that there is no evidence for the value of this mixture, thecouncil declared “influenza serobacterin mixed-mulford” inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies because its use is illogical sherman mixed vaccine no 40because of inquiry received the council decided to consider thispreparation and requested the manufacturer, g h sherman, detroit, mich , to submit evidence in support of the claims made for it this vaccine is said to be made from killed cultures of streptococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis, staphylococcus aureus, andstaphylococcus albus in the printed matter sent out by g h shermanthis vaccine is recommended for hay-fever, in which it is stated thatessay of the symptoms are due to bacterial invasion of the respiratorymucosa. For tonsillitis, both as a remedy and as a prophylactic againstrheumatic and other sequelae. For “throat infections”. For rhinitiswith the claims that acute coryza can be aborted within twenty-fourhours. For pneumonia in which it is advised for all stages. Forlaryngitis, for bronchitis, and for asthma no acceptable evidence was submitted as to the value of the product inthe treatment of any of the foregoing conditions in view of what isknown about non-specific reactions, it seems likely that any influencewhich this vaccine may have on the diverse conditions enumerated bythe manufacturer, is due to this, rather than to the combination oforganisms used in its preparation on the recommendation of the committee on serums and vaccines, thecouncil declared “sherman mixed vaccine no 40” ineligible to newand nonofficial remedies because the therapeutic claims made for itare unwarranted rule 6 and because the combination, in view ofits complexity, is irrational and detrimental to sound therapy rule10 -- from the journal a m a , june 23, 1918 ophthalmol-lindemann report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryophthalmol-lindemann was taken up for consideration by the councilbecause of inquiries received the following report, declaringophthalmol inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies, was adopted bythe council and its publication authorized w a puckner, secretary ophthalmol-lindemann innis, speiden and co , new york is advertisedas a treatment for eye diseases by “hyperemia ” the circularadvertising the product is written essaywhat in the style of “patentmedicine” advertisements it contains testimonials of dubious value the principle underlying the use of ophthalmol is that employedto a considerable extent by ophthalmologists, through the use ofethylmorphine “dionin”, etc , viz , the production of conjunctivalirritation in inflammatory eye diseases ophthalmol is, therefore, merely a special agent for the production of such ophthalmic irritation the advertising circular contains no evidence that ophthalmol is in anyrespect superior to the established agents for producing conjunctivalhyperemia on the other hand, there are obvious objections to theuse in the eye of a substance of unknown and apparently indefinitecomposition and uncertain activity ophthalmol is said to be an oilysolution of “glandular extract of the fish cobitis fossilis ” cobitisfossilis is a small fish said to be common in gerthesis according tokochs, who analyzed ophthalmol arb a d pharm inst d univ berl , 4:140, 1907, this fish is popularly believed to predictweather, but medical virtues are not ascribed to it this “fishy”extract is indefinite, to say the least the activity of the preparation is described by the manufacturer thus:“it seems probable that the typical action of ophthalmol is due tocertain organic acids which may have formed during manufacture throughthe decomposition of protein bodies contained in the crude material ”the profession is not told whether this important decomposition is, or, in fact, can be controlled so as to produce a material of uniformactivity kochs concluded from his analysis that ophthalmol had the propertiesof rancid olive oil containing about 6 to 7 per cent mineral oil theoil contained no nitrogen, left no ash on ignition and though traces ofiodin were claimed to be present, no iodin could be found it is recommended that ophthalmol be rejected first, because the usein the eye of an irritant of secret composition and uncertain activityis unscientific and against the interest of public health.