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That thou mayest findit in my aforesaid judgment of diseases secondly, consider what writing of the body is afflicted by the disease, and whether it lies in the flesh, or blood, or bones, or ventricles thirdly, consider by what planet the afflicted writing of the body isgoverned. That my judgment of diseases will inform you also fourthly, you may oppose diseases by herbs of the planet, oppositeto the planet that causes them. As diseases of jupiter by herbs ofmercury, and the contrary. Diseases of the luminaries by the herbsof saturn, and the contrary. Diseases of mars by herbs of venus, and the contrary fifthly, there is a way to cure diseases essaytimes by sympathy, andso every planet cures his own disease. As the sun and moon bytheir herbs cure the eyes, saturn the spleen, jupiter the liver, mars the gall and diseases of choler, and venus diseases in theinstruments of generation nich culpeper from my house in spitalfields, next door to the red lion, september 5, 1653 to his dearest consortmrs alice culpeper my dearest, the works that i have published to the world though envied by essayilliterate physicians have merited such just applause, that thoumayest be confident in proceeding to publish anything i leave thee, especially this master-piece. Assuring my friends and countrymen, thatthey will receive as much benefit by this, as by my dispensatory, and that incomparable piece called, semiotica uranica enlarged, andenglish physician these are the choicest secrets, which i have had thesis years locked upin my own breast i gained them by my constant practice, and by them imaintained a continual reputation in the world, and i doubt not but theworld will honour thee for divulging them. And my fame shall continueand increase thereby, though the period of my life and studies be athand, and i must now bid all things under the sun farewell farewell, my dear wife and child. Farewell, arts and sciences, which i so dearlyloved.

Chlorlyptus exp 11 10% for 1 hour 10% for 1/2 hour 5% for 2 hours eucalyptus oil no data no data phenol no data no data staphylococci in human blood serum. Chlorlyptus exp 12 5% in 1 hour 1% in 1 hour eucalyptus oil no data no data phenol 5% almost at once 1% in 1 hour -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- infection experiments in vivodr rivas reports two series of experiments, in each of which threeguinea-pigs received staphylococcus suspensions in the peritoneum one guinea-pig in each series was left untreated. The others receivedinjections of chlorlyptus into the peritoneum at various intervals the following results were obtained. Chlorlyptus results exp 19, no 1 none survived exp 20, no 1 none died exp 19, no 2 at once died exp 19, no 3 after 24 hours survived exp 20, no 2 after 18 hours died exp 20, no 3 after 24 hours died -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- this shows mortalities of. 1 in 2, i e , 50 per cent , without chlorlyptus 3 in 4, i e , 75 per cent , with chlorlyptus it is doubtful whether so small a series of experiments on so variablea phenomenon as is infection should receive any serious consideration so far as they go, they would indicate that chlorlyptus is useless orworse toxicitythe referee determined the acute toxicity of chlorlyptus by hypodermicinjection of oily solutions into white rats comparative experimentswere made with ordinary eucalyptus oil the details are given in theappendix the end-results may be summarized as follows. Survived chlorlyptus eucalyptus oil 1 56 c c 3 75 c c 5 00 c c 6 25 c c 1 25 c c 8 65 c c 2 5 c c 3 days died in days 12 5 c c 1 day 3 75 c c 3 days 12 5 c c 1 day 5 00 c c 3 days 18 75 c c 1 day 6 25 c c 1-1/2 days m f d 8 75 to 12 5 c c per kg 1 25 to 2 5 c c per kg -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- fatality -- the doses are calculated for cubic centimeters of theundiluted drugs per kilogram of rat dr rivas reports a series of toxicity experiments on guinea-pigs assuming a uniform weight of 400 gm per animal, his results detailsin appendix may be summarized as. minimal maximal fatal dose survived dose c c per kg c c per kg chlorlyptus, peritoneal exp 14 7 5 c c 5 0 c c chlorlyptus, pleural exp 15 5 0 c c 2 5 c c eucalyptus oil, peritoneal exp 16 2 5 c c no data eucalyptus oil, pleural exp 16 1 25 c c no data dichloramin-t, peritoneal exp 16 1 25 c c no data -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the comparative toxicity in the various series is thereforeapproximately as follows. Chlorlyptus. Eucalyptus referee, rats, hypodermic 1/5. 1 rivas guinea-pig, peritoneal 1/3. 1 rivas guinea-pig, pleural 1/4. 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- evidently, the toxicity of chlorlyptus is about one-fourth of that ofeucalyptus oil the difference is considerable, but not fundamental moreover, the symptoms of chlorlyptus resemble the characteristics ofeucalyptus oil according to the tabulation of barker and rowntree, 136 the mean fataldose of eucalyptus oil for man, in the twenty-nine clinical paperreported in the literature, is about 20 c c if the toxicity ratio ofthe two substances were the same as for the rat experiments a ratherhazardous assumption, the fatal dose of chlorlyptus for man would beabout 80 c c 136 barker and rowntree bull johns hopkins hospital 29:215, 221oct 1918 obtained the following results with eucalyptus oil:cat, hypodermic. Survived 3 c c per kg. Killed by 5 5 c c per kg cat, intraperitoneal.

Let the litharge, being beaten intopowder, be boiled in a sufficient quantity of water. Then add thepitch, which being melted, add the wax and ammoniacum, afterwards letthe sagapenum, opopanax, and galbanum be put in. Then the styrax andfeces being mixed with the turpentine, last of all the colophonia, mastich, frankincense, bdellium, alum, myrrh, and fenugreek in powder:let them be made into a plaster culpeper it strengthens the stomach, and helps digestion emplastrum nigrum august called in high dutch stichstaster college take of colophonia, rozin, ship pitch, white wax, romanvitriol, ceruss, olibanum, myrrh, of each eight ounces, oil of rosesseven ounces, oil of juniper berries three ounces, oil of eggs twoounces, oil of spick one ounce, white vitriol, red coral, mummy, ofeach two ounces, earth of lemnos, mastich, dragon blood, of each oneounce, the fat of an heron one ounce, the fat of pimullus three ounces, load stone prepared, two ounces, earthworms prepared, camphire, of eachone ounce. Make them into a plaster according to art culpeper it is very good in green wounds and shootings a key to galen method of physic the general use of physic i shall desire thee, whoever thou art, that intendest the noble thoughtoo much abused study of physic, to mind heedfully these followingrules. Which being well understood, shew thee the key of galen andhippocrates their method of physic. He that useth their method, andis not heedful of these rules, may soon cure one disease, and causeanother more desperate that thou mayest understand what i intend, it is to discover in ageneral way of the manifest virtues of medicines i say of the manifest virtues, and qualities, viz such as areobvious to the senses, especially to the taste and smell. For it hathbeen the practice of most physicians, in these latter ages as well asours, to say, when they cannot give, nor are minded to study a reason, why an herb, plant, &c hath such an operation, or produces such aneffect in the body of man. It doth it by an hidden quality, for theynot minding the whole creation, as one united body, not knowing whatbelongs to astral influence, not regarding that excellent harmonythe only wise god hath made in a composition of contraries in theknowledge of which consists the whole ground and foundation of physicare totally led astray by tradition it is the manifest qualities of medicines that here i am to speak to, and you may be pleased to behold it in this order section 1 of the temperature of medicines section 2 of the appropriation of medicines section 3 of the properties of medicines section i of the temperature of medicines herbs, plants, and other medicines manifestly operate, either by heat, coldness, dryness, or moisture, for the world being composed of sothesis qualities, they and only they can be found in the world, and themixtures of them one with another but that they may appear as clear as the sun when he is upon themeridian, i shall treat of them severally, and in this order 1 of medicines temperate 2 of medicines hot 3 of medicines cold 4 of medicines moist 5 of medicines dry of medicines temperate if the world be composed of extremes, then it acts by extremes, foras the man is, so is his work. Therefore it is impossible that anymedicine can be temperate, but may be reduced to heat, cold, dryness, or moisture, and must operate, i mean such as operate by manifestquality by one of these, because there is no other to operate by, andthat there should be such a temperate mixture, so exquisitely of thesequalities in any medicine, that one of them should not manifestly excelthe other, i doubt it is a system too rare to find thus then i conclude the matter to be, those medicines are calledtemperate not because they have excess of temperature at all in themwhich can neither be said, to heat nor cool so much as will amount tothe first degree of excess, for daily experience witnesses that theybeing added to medicines, change not their qualities, they make themneither hotter nor colder their use they are used in such diseases where there is no manifestdistemper of the first qualities, viz heat and cold, for example;in obstruction of the bowels, where cold medicines might make theobstruction greater, and hot medicines cause a fever in fevers of flegm, where the cause is cold and moist, and the effecthot and dry. In such, use temperate medicines which may neitherencrease the fever by their heat, nor condensate the flegm by theircoldness besides, because contraries are taken away by their contraries, and every like maintained by its like, they are of great use, topreserve the constitution of the body temperate, and the body itselfin strength and vigour, and may be used without danger, or fear ofdanger, by considering which writing of the body is weak, and using suchtemperate medicines as are appropriated to that writing of medicines hot the care of the ancient physicians was such that they did not labourto hide from, but imwriting to posterity, not only the temperature ofmedicines in general, but also their degrees in temperature, that sothe distempered writing may be brought to its temperature, and no further;for all things which are of a contrary temperature, conduce not tocure, but the strength of the contrariety must be observed, that so themedicine may be neither weaker nor stronger, than just to take awaythe distemper. For if the distemper be but meanly hot, and you applya medicine cold in the fourth degree, it is true, you may soon removethat distemper of heat, and bring another of cold twice as bad galen, de simp med facul lib 3 cap 12 then, secondly, not only the distemper itself, but also the writing ofthe body distempered must be heeded. For if the head be distempered byheat, and you give such medicines as cool the heart or liver, you willbring another disease, and not cure the former the degrees then of temperature are to be diligently heeded, whichantient physicians have concluded to be four in the qualities, viz heat and cold, of each we shall speak a word or two severally of medicines hot in the first degree those are said to be hot in the first degree, which induce a moderateand natural heat to the body, and to the writings thereof. Either cold bynature, or cooled by accident, by which natural heat is cherished whenweak, or restored when wanting effect 1 the first effect then of medicines hot in the first degree, is, by their sweat and temperate heat to reduce the body to itsnatural heat, as the fire doth the external writings in cold weather, unless the affliction of cold be so great that such mild medicines willnot serve the turn effect 2 the second effect is, the mitigation of pain arising fromsuch a distemper, and indeed this effect hath other medicines, essaythat are cold, and essay that are hotter than the first degree, theybeing rationally applied to the distemper these medicines the greekscall anodyna, and shall be spoken of in their proper places in thisplace let it suffice that medicines hot in the first degree, makethe offending humours thin, and expel them by sweat, or insensibletranspiration, and these of all others are most congruous or agreeableto the body of man, for there is no such equal temperature of heatand cold in a sound man, but heat exceeds, for we live by heat andmoisture, and not by cold medicines then which are hot in the first degree, are such as justcorrespond to the natural heat of our bodies. Such as are hotter orcolder, are more subject to do mischief, being administered by anunskilful hand, than these are, because of their contrariety to nature;whereas these are grateful to the body by their moderate heat effect 3 thirdly, these take away weariness, and help fevers, beingoutwardly applied, because they open the pores of the skin, and bytheir gentle heat prepare the humours, and take away those fuliginousvapours that are caused by fevers discommodities yet may discommodities arise by heedless givingeven of these, which i would have young students in physic to be verycareful in, lest they do more mischief than they are aware of, viz it is possible by too much use of them, to consume not only what isinimical in the body, but also the substance itself, and the strengthof the spirits, whence comes faintings, and essaytimes death. Besides, by applying them to the writings of the body they are not appropriatedto, or by not heeding well the complexion of the patient, or thenatural temper of the writing of the body afflicted, for the heart is hot, but the brain temperate effect 4 lastly, medicines hot in the first degree, cherish heat inthe internal writings, help concoction, breed good blood, and keep it goodin temper, being bred of medicines hot in the second degree these are essaything hotter than the natural temper of a man use their use for such whose stomachs are filled with moisture, because their faculty is too hot and dry.

Statinghour of day, day of week and month 2 when deceased was last seen living, or known to be alive 3 any circumstances that would lead to a suspicion of suicide ormurder 4 time after death at which the examination was made, if it can beascertained 5 the external appearance of the body. Whether the surface is livid orpallid 6 state of countenance 7 any marks of violence on the person, disarrangement of the dress, blood-stains, etc 8 presence or absence of warmth in the legs, abdomen, arms, armpits, or mouth 9 presence or absence of rigor mortis to give any value to this point it is necessary for the witness toobserve the nature of the substance upon which the body is lying;whether the body be clothed or naked, young or old, fat or emaciated these conditions materially influence the rapidity of cooling and theonset of rigor mortis 10 upon first opening the body the color of the muscles should benoted carbon monoxide poisoning causes them to be of a cherry-redcolor 11 the condition of the blood and its color 12 the state of the abdominal viscera, describing each one inthe order in which it is removed see p 370 if the stomach andintestines are inflamed the seat of the inflammation should be exactlyspecified. Also all evidences of softening, ulceration, effusion ofblood, corrosion, or perforation the presence of hardened fæces in therectum will bear evidence that no purging occurred immediately beforedeath 13 the state of the heart and lungs for special consideration of thelungs in paper of suspected infanticide, see vol ii. And of personsdrowned, see vol i , p 805 et seq 14 the state of the brain and spinal cord after a thorough consideration of the results of the examination, conclusions must be drawn from this examination.

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Paraffin175 m p by u s p method 47 2 c 97 5 gm asphalt from 3 to 5 drops olive oil 1 5 c c 172 sollmann, torald. Suggested formulas for paraffin films, thejournal a m a , april 7, 1917, p 1037 173 hull, a j. The treatment of burns by paraffin, brit med jour , jan 13, 1917, p 37. The treatment of burns by paraffin, therapeutics, the journal a m a , feb 3, 1917, p 373 174 the “soft paraffin” of the british pharmacopeia resemblespetrolatum, u s p , queries and minor notes, the journal a m a , april 28, 1917, p 1281 175 the paraffin used in this formula was supplied by the standardoil company of indiana. The melting point given by the manufacturers isfrom 120 to 122 f , which, according to the american standard of takingmelting points, gives higher results than the method described in thepharmacopeia illustration. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - | inception | | | | where the dry wax poultice has been used | | | | thermozine known in france as l’ambrine, has been | | used in the following parisian hospitals, with | | 92% of cures. | | | | hospital de la pitie, services of drs lion, darier | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - photographic reproduction from a booklet on “thermozine” showing thatit is identical with “ambrine ”about 10 c c of “asphalt varnish” b asphaltum176 is placed ina beaker and heated on the steam bath for one-half hour from 3 to 5drops, delivered from a 1 c c pipet, are then placed in a casserole, and 1 5 c c of olive oil added the mixture is heated and stirredfor a few minutes until perfect solution is effected to this is thenadded, with stirring, the paraffin, which has been previously melted when it is cooled, a brown solid is obtained 177 the physical factorsof this paraffin mixture are, melting point 45 4 c u s p method;plasticity, 28 5. Ductility, 29. It is very pliable and strong at38 c , and adheres exceedingly well to the skin, although it detacheseasily this mixture, which is easy to prepare, is inexpensive, thecost of the materials being approximately 10 cents a pound 176 the “asphalt varnish” used was obtained from remien & kuhnertcompany, chicago 177 while needless, a color resembling “ambrine” may be obtained bythe addition of coloring agents both hull and sollmann noticed that tarlike substances and meltedparaffin do not mix well this is noticeable in “ambrine, ” which cannotbe called an “elegant” preparation the difficulty may be overcome byfirst mixing hot olive oil and asphalt. The asphalt will then go intosolution it is interesting to note that the suggested formula as wellas others which were also prepared is not as plastic as the paraffinitself 178 this is also true of “ambrine ” on the other hand, themelting point of the paraffin is higher the important point, however, in compounding all paraffin preparations, is to select a proper gradeof paraffin as elaborated below 178 in a personal communication dr sollmann expressed the opinionthat the synthetic preparation is inferior to the paraffin used in theformula, basing the view on the greater plasticity of the paraffin for practical purposes, the paraffin will most probably serve as wellas the mixture, especially when it is held in place by bandages, but ibelieve that the mixture is more adhesive examination of paraffins and paraffin preparationsillustration.