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Thestone in the kidneys or bladder, the gravel, and all other pains of thebladder and reins, by taking the roots in powder, or a decoction ofthem in white how to start an argument essay wine, with a little honey the roots made into powder, and mixed with honey in the form of an electuary, doth much help themwhose stomachs are swollen, dissolving and breaking the wind which wasthe cause thereof. And is also very effectual for all the diseases ofthe lungs, as shortness of breath, wheezing, hoarseness of the throat, and the cough. And to expectorate tough phlegm, or any other writingsthereabout the fig-tree to give a description of a tree so well known to every body that keepit in his garden, were needless they prosper very well in our englishgardens, yet are fitter for medicine than for any other profit which isgotten by the fruit of them government and virtues the tree is under the dominion of jupiter the milk that issues out from the leaves or branches where they arebroken off, being dropped upon warts, takes them away the decoctionof the leaves is excellently good to wash sore heads with. And thereis scarcely a better remedy for the leprosy than it is it clears theface also of morphew, and the body of white scurf, scabs, and runningsores if it be dropped into old fretting ulcers, it cleanses out themoisture, and brings up the flesh. Because you cannot have the leavesgreen all the year, you may make an ointment of them whilst you can adecoction of the leaves being drank inwardly, or rather a syrup madeof them, dissolves congealed blood caused by bruises or falls, andhelps the bloody flux the ashes of the wood made into an ointment withhog grease, helps kibes and chilblains the juice being put into anhollow tooth, eases pain. As also pain and noise in the ears, beingdropped into them. And deafness an ointment made of the juice andhog grease, is an excellent remedy for the bitten of mad dogs, orother venomous beasts as most are a syrup made of the leaves, or greenfruit, is excellently good for coughs, hoarseness, or shortness ofbreath, and all diseases of the breast and lungs.

Most of them showed none the amount of hydrochloric acidpresent was insignificant the reports of the two referees were referred to the manufacturers, whoagain protested vehemently against these findings, this time on theground that the specimens were old the manufacturers also cited thework of three chemists to disprove the findings of the referees, anddemanded that the council reexamine lactopeptine, making use of freshspecimens the council refused for the following reasons:1 so long as the packages of lactopeptine are not dated, the activityof specimens known to be fresh is of no practical importance theactivity of the actual market supply is the only question of interestto the profession the only fair test is that made on specimensrepresentative of the product sold to the ultimate consumer 2 the evidence presented by the manufacturers did not warranta reexamination, since the work of two of the chemists citedsubstantially corroborates the results obtained by the councilreferees from the fresher specimens the figures for tryptic activityobtained by the third chemist cited by the manufacturers could not beaccepted by the council, since it was at variance with all other knownresults of investigations of lactopeptine 3 as stated at the outset, whatever the tryptic activity of themixture, it is therapeutically useless a demonstration of trypticactivity in a mixture containing both pepsin and pancreatin is ofmerely theoretical interest such activity, of course, cannot be expected, even on theoreticalgrounds, in liquid mixtures like elixir lactopeptine the council therefore again declared lactopeptine powder and tabletsand elixir lactopeptine ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies andauthorized publication of the following statement w a puckner, secretary the council reportlactopeptine powder new york pharmacal association, yonkers, n y was examined by the council in 1907 at that time it was claimed tocontain “ the five active agents of digestion-- pepsin, diastase veg ptyalin, pancreatin, lactic acid and hydrochloric acid-- combined in the proper proportion to insure the best results ”the examination showed that the preparation was essentially “a weaksaccharated pepsin, ” containing but small amounts of pepsin, nohydrochloric acid, or mere traces only, and no diastase or pancreatin the journal, march 16, 1907 in 1913, the product was reexamined, because the claims, as to bothcomposition and therapeutic value, were still being made sampleswere tested both of the american product, and of a british productfrom john morgan richards & sons, london the original findings wereconfirmed and the results were published in the journal, aug 2, 1913, p 358 nearly four months later november 24 the new yorkpharmacal association wrote to the council, objecting to the findingsand maintaining that lactopeptine possesses pancreatic activity andcontains “in loose chemical combination” hydrochloric acid inaccordance with the custom of the council, the work was sent back forreview to the referee a, whose conclusions were then tested by asecond referee b, a physiologic chemist, not a member of the council, selected because of his special knowledge of the subject in december, 1913, referee a made a large number of new tests todetermine proteolytic and amylolytic power his results show thatthe ferment activity of the preparation is so low as to merit norecognition in practical use the tests also show that the amount oflactic acid or “loosely combined hcl” or both present is too small tohave any appreciable physiologic activity and therefore to be of anytherapeutic value nine samples of lactopeptine purchased in the open market in december, 1913, and january, 1914, were examined by referee b early in 1914 hisstudies show absence of amylase in all samples. Presence of pepsin, giving weak reactions even when compared with those of old pepsinpreparations. Complete absence of trypsin in seven out of nine samples, tryptic reaction being obtained in two samples, in one of which thereaction, “slight at best and of no practical import, ” was obtainedonly after treatment for twelve hours or more the presence of tryptic activity in two out of the nine samples maybe due to the fresher condition of these specimens, as indicatedby the serial numbers the evidence shows that it is a commercialimpossibility to market mixtures of pepsin, pancreatin and lactic acidso that they can display any material tryptic activity it should be reaffirmed that mixtures combining peptic and pancreaticactivities are not feasible, because pepsin cannot act except in thepresence of acid, and pancreatin is destroyed by acid and by pepticactivity furthermore, in conditions in which pancreatin is calledfor, pepsin is not, and vice versa. Therefore the administration ofmixtures of pepsin and pancreatin would be unjustified, even if bothconstituents could be expected to exert activity the foregoing observations apply to lactopeptine in powder and tabletform while mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are unscientific andunjustified, theoretically the two substances may coexist in a solidpreparation, and the activity of such a preparation is consequently aproper subject of investigation theoretically as well as practically, however, pepsin and pancreatin cannot exist together in solution theclaims made for elixir lactopeptine and all other liquid preparationssold as mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are therefore impossible the council has previously taken action the journal, feb 2, 1907, p 434 refusing to approve for inclusion with new and nonofficialremedies such preparations, calling the attention of the medicalprofession and of manufacturers to their worthlessness, and requestingthe american pharmaceutical association to instruct its committee onthe national formulary to omit from the next edition of that work aliquid preparation of pepsin and pancreatin recognized under the titleof “elixir digestivum compositum ”it is recommended that the council reaffirm this previous action, and that lactopeptine and elixir lactopeptine be declared ineligiblefor new and nonofficial remedies because of conflict with rule 10 “no article will be admitted which, because of its unscientificcomposition, is useless or inimical to the best interests of the publicor of the medical profession” manufacturers’ protest and council answerthe foregoing was submitted, together with the findings of the tworeferees, to the manufacturers they protested again, alleging that. Age of specimensfirst -- the specimens of lactopeptine examined by the second refereewere old the dates of manufacture corresponding to the several batchnumbers are supplied by the manufacturers as follows. 2275 powder september, 1908 2301 powder june, 1909 2312 powder december, 1909 2348 powder october, 1911 2352 powder december, 1911 2364 powder july, 1912 2374 powder march, 1913 2383 powder october, 1913 1638 tablets october, 1911the manufacturers assert that they do not understand how specimens ofthese ages could have been purchased on the open market in 1913 and1914, inasmuch as their agents are and long have been instructed totake up from the druggist all lots of lactopeptine which, as indicatedby the batch numbers, have attained “any appreciable age ” the age ofthe specimens, the manufacturers declare, deprives the table in thesecond referee report of “all significance or interest ”as previously stated, however, the specimens of lactopeptine examinedwere purchased on the open market in various localities in unbrokenpackages, in december, 1913, and january, 1914 they thus representstock used in filling physicians’ prescriptions or sold to thepublic neither the referees nor any one connected with the councilhad any means of knowing the age of the specimens until the dates ofmanufacture were furnished by the new york pharmacal association thefirst tests of the second referee were made in february, 1914, onspecimens 2374 and 2383, which were then, it would appear, about oneyear old and four months old, respectively the council has repeatedlyurged that pharmaceutical substances which are subject to deteriorationshould be dated by the manufacturer, and a similar suggestion hasbeen made by the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingment ofagriculture concerning mixtures containing enzymes notwithstandingthe instructions which the new york pharmacal association claims tohave given its agents, the market supply of lactopeptine in december, 1913, and january, 1914, was not composed of new stock, and untilthe manufacturers adopt the practice of dating packages, there canbe no assurance that it will be fresh in this connection, it is ofinterest to note that the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingmentof agriculture has issued a warning that it will judge such products bythe degree of their activity when they reach the consumer, i e , asthey are found on the market reports of other chemistssecond -- the new york pharmacal association cites the work of severalchemists, who have examined lactopeptine and report the presence oftryptic activity dr s r benedict in december, 1913, reported tothe council “distinct” tryptic activity digestion in twelve hours bylactopeptine of 4 2 times its weight of fibrin containing 50 per cent moisture in specimens examined by him these specimens were numbered2382, and were therefore probably manufactured in october, 1913;compare the dates furnished by the manufacturer for the specimens usedby the second referee no tests against other preparations possessingtryptic activity are reported, and dr benedict expressly disclaimsany opinion as to the therapeutic value of the preparation 27 dr p b hawk, whose report was submitted by the manufacturers, found inlactopeptine by fermi method one-fifth tryptic activity of that ofmerck pancreatin, and by grützner method an activity of 18 percent of the pancreatin a test for the production of tryptophan wasreported positive the new york pharmacal association also submitteda report from dr a w balch, who found pepsin, rennin, trypsin, steapsin, amylopsin and lactic acid present in lactopeptine. Alsoan amount of combined hydrochloric acid in 1 gm the equivalent of1 05 c c tenth normal solution or 0 00383 gm hydrochloric acid hereports digestion in twenty-four hours by lactopeptine of 25 times itsown weight of fibrin “an active extract of pancreas reacted exactlylike the lactopeptine solution ” the serial numbers of the specimenstested by hawk and balch are not given, but no doubt they were fresh 27 dr benedict personal communication to a member of the councilis as follows:“in the report of the council upon lactopeptine which you sent to me, i find the following statement. ‘careful examination failed to showthe presence of either diastase or pancreatin ’ in this connectioni will cite to you the following experiment carried out by myself:a package containing a 1-ounce bottle of lactopeptine powder withseal unbroken was purchased in the open market and opened in thislaboratory the label bore the special number 6 2382 two hundredmilligrams of this product was dissolved in 50 c c of a 0 25 per cent solution of sodium carbonate in water this solution was divided intotwo portions of 25 c c each one of these portions was boiled at once, and after cooling was added to 1 gm of moist fibrin contained in aflask the other portion unboiled was also added to 1 gm of moistfibrin contained in a flask both flasks after addition of 5 c c of toluene to each were stoppered and placed in an incubator at 37degrees, and left there for twelve hours examination of the two flasksat the end of this period showed that the one to which the unboiledsolution of lactopeptine powder had been added contained much lesssolid protein than did the other although this fact was obvious tothe naked eye, the exact extent of digestion in the two flasks wasdetermined by heating both to boiling, acidifying with acetic acid, diluting to definite volume, filtering and determining the nitrogen inthe filtrate by kjeldahl method subtracting the trace of nitrogencontained in the filtrate of the control flask, the results showedthat 42 per cent of the original fibrin present had been dissolvedby the unboiled lactopeptine solution this can be ascribed only totryptic activity under the conditions of this experiment furthermore, this is not simply a ‘trace’ of activity, but is at least sufficientlymarked to warrant a statement that this sample showed a distincttryptic activity inasmuch as i have obtained exactly similar resultswith two other samples of lactopeptine powder these being the onlyones i have examined, i am inclined to question the correctness ofthe council statement regarding the absence of trypsin from thispreparation as noted above, a fresh preparation was used -- ed “may i again add that i am making no statement regarding therapeuticvalue of preparation, and that i have no opinion upon that matter oneway or the other?.

A dram of the powder of the herbtaken every morning, is a how to start an argument essay very good remedy to stop the terms black cresses descript it has long leaves, deeply cut and jagged on both sides, not much unlike wild mustard. The stalk small, very limber, though verytough. You may twist them round as you may a willow before they break the flowers are very small and yellow, after which comes small pods, which contains the seed place it is a common herb, grows usually by the way-side, andessaytimes upon mud walls about london, but it delights to grow mostamong stones and rubbish time it flowers in june and july, and the seed is ripe in augustand september government and virtues it is a plant of a hot and biting nature, under the dominion of mars the seed of black cresses strengthens thebrain exceedingly, being, in performing that office, little inferiorto mustard seed, if at all. They are excellently good to stay thoserheums which may fall down from the head upon the lungs. You may beatthe seed into powder, if you please, and make it up into an electuarywith honey. So you have an excellent remedy by you, not only for thepremises, but also for the cough, yellow jaundice and sciatica thisherb boiled into a poultice, is an excellent remedy for inflammations;both in women breast, and men testicles sciatica cresses descript these are of two kinds. The first rises up with a roundstalk about two feet high, spreads into divers branches, whose lowerleaves are essaywhat larger than the upper, yet all of them cut ortorn on the edges, essaywhat like the garden cresses, but smaller, theflowers are small and white, growing at the tops of branches, whereafterwards grow husks with small brownish seeds therein very strong andsharp in taste, more than the cresses of the garden. The root is long, white, and woody the other has the lower leaves whole essaywhat long and broad, not tornat all, but only essaywhat deeply dented about the edges towards theends. But those that grow up higher are smaller the flowers and seedsare like the former, and so is the root likewise, and both root andseeds as sharp as it place they grow in the way-sides in untilled places, and by thesides of old walls time they flower in the end of june, and their seed is ripe in july government and virtues it is a saturnine plant the leaves, butespecially the root, taken fresh in summer-time, beaten or made intoa poultice or salve with old hog grease, and applied to the placespained with the sciatica, to continue thereon four hours if it be on aman, and two hours on a woman. The place afterwards bathed with wineand oil mixed together, and then wrapped with wool or skins, after theyhave sweat a little, will assuredly cure not only the same disease inhips, knuckle-bone, or other of the joints, as gout in the hands orfeet, but all other old griefs of the head, as inveterate rheums, and other writings of the body that are hard to be cured and if of theformer griefs any writings remain, the same medicine after twenty days, is to be applied again the same is also effectual in the diseases ofthe spleen. And applied to the skin, takes away the blemish thereof, whether they be scars, leprosy, scabs, or scurf, which although itulcerate the writing, yet that is to be helped afterwards with a salvemade of oil and wax esteem this as another secret water cresses descript our ordinary water cresses spread forth with thesis weak, hollow, sappy stalks, shooting out fibres at the joints and upwardslong winged leaves made of sundry broad sappy almost round leaves, ofa brownish colour the flowers are thesis and white standing on longfoot-stalks after which come small yellow seed, contained in small longpods like horns the whole plant abides green in the winter, and tastesessaywhat hot and sharp place they grow, for the most writing, in small standing waters, yetessaytimes in small rivulets of running water time they flower and seed in the beginning of summer government and virtues it is an herb under the dominion of themoon they are more powerful against the scurvy, and to cleanse theblood and humours, than brooklime is, and serve in all the other usesin which brooklime is available, as to break the stone, and provokeurine and woman courses the decoction thereof cleanses ulcers, bywashing them therewith the leaves bruised, or the juice, is good, tobe applied to the face or other writings troubled with freckles, pimples, spots, or the like, at night, and washed away in the morning the juicemixed with vinegar, and the fore writing of the head bathed therewith, isvery good for those that are dull and drowsy, or have the lethargy water-cress pottage is a good remedy to cleanse the blood in thespring, and help headaches, and consume the gross humours winter hasleft behind.

A very small amountof mercury was indicated but not definitely established the liquid hadthe physical characteristics of water accompanying “syphilodol” advertising sent to physicians is a circularletter inviting the doctor to become a member in the “united statesbacteriological and research institute ” the “institute” seems to be ameans of suggesting that the physician have bacteriologic, pathologicand serologic examinations made on behalf of his patients in view ofthe fact that it is to the commercial interest of the french medicinalcompany to have as thesis users of “syphilodol” as possible, it wouldbe interesting to know what proportion of the wassermann tests arereported negative shorn of its mystery, syphilodol the “synthetic chemical product ofsilver, arsenic and antimony” is essentially mercurous iodid-- yellowiodid of mercury details of analysis syphilodol tabletsin france there has been on the market for essay time a syntheticcompound of silver, arsenic and antimony having the general structureof arsphenamin structurally, the formula as given by bonard, danyssand tournier is c₁₂h₁₂n₂as₂ 2agbrsbo h₂so₄₂-- dioxy diaminoarsenobensolstibicosilver sulphate as the advertising matter for“syphilodol” referred to the synthetic compound of silver, antimonyand arsenic, and also to its use in syphilis by fournier, the abovecompound was first suspected however, the general characteristicsof syphilodol tablets, such as writingial solubility in water, but notsoluble in sodium hydroxid, sodium bicarbonate or acids, threw doubt onthe hypothesis when a small amount of the powdered tablets was treatedwith water, a yellow residue could be filtered off. The filtrate waspink, opalescent, which on standing gave a clear pink solution, anda small yellow precipitate the residue, when allowed to remain insulphuric acid solution 20 per cent over night became red. Onboiling, the red precipitate with sulphuric acid, the precipitatevolatilized and could be condensed in a watch glass adding a pinch ofmanganese dioxid to the hot sulphuric acid mixture caused an evolutionof iodin fumes a small amount of powdered syphilodol tablets wasplaced in the sunlight. They turned from yellow to black all thesereactions are typical of mercurous iodid-- yellow iodid of mercury mercury, silver, arsenic, antimonyi mercury -- two methods were used to determine the mercury. a1 4535 gm of powdered syphilodol was treated with 10 c c of a 50 percent sodium sulphid solution the solution was then transferred withwashings about 20 c c to a cathode cup, previously weighed with itscontained mercury the mercury compound was electrolyzed by a currentof about 8 volts and 3 amperes, using a rotating anode the solution and essay sulphur suspension was removed by siphon, pouring in wateruntil the amperage of the current was close to zero u s p , ix, p 587 the increased weight in mercury was 0 1612 gm ii to serve as a check on the foregoing method, mercury was alsodetermined in the following method, which also allowed systematic testsfor silver, antimony and arsenic b 1 1023 gm of the sample wasplaced in an erlenmeyer flask, 50 c c of water, 50 c c of sodiumhydroxid solution 10 per cent and 20 c c of formaldehyd solution, u s p , added the solution was boiled for ten minutes and maintainedat temperature of steam bath for two hours this reduces the mercurysalt to mercury and any silver salt to silver. Antimony would probablybe likewise reduced the precipitated mercury was transferred bywater, and concentrated nitric acid added the nitric acid solutionis boiled to oxidize all mercurous nitrate to mercuric nitrate asmall white precipitate was obtained at this point which seemed to beinsoluble in aqua regia calcium sulphate the filtrate from thisprecipitate, which was washed well, was tested with one or two dropsof dilute hydrochloric acid and a faint precipitate formed.

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“in general, it would appearthat, if our legislators of recent years had been in league with thedistiller, they could not have served his purpose better ”whether or not edward h williams’ or henry smith williams’ conceptionof the alcohol problem is good, bad or indifferent, need not at thistime concern us the medical profession, however, has a right to asktwo questions. First, is the dr edward huntington williams who wrote“alcohol, hygiene and legislation” the “dr edward h williams” who wasemployed by the brewers to write propaganda favorable to the brewinginterests?. second, was the cloth-bound book, “alcohol, hygiene andlegislation, ” which was distributed by the williams brothers, paid for, wholly or in writing, by the united states brewers’ association?.