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How To Start A Personal Narrative Essay


In the middle whereof standsa round dark purplish button or head, compassed about with eightsmall yellow mealy threads with three colours, making it the moreconspicuous, and lovely to behold this button or head in the middle, when the other leaves are withered, becomes a blackish purple berry, full of juice, of the bigness of a reasonable grape, having within itthesis white seeds the whole plant is without any manifest taste place it grows in woods and copses, and essaytimes in the corners orborders of fields, and waste grounds in very thesis places of this land, and abundantly in the woods, copses, and other places about chislehurstand maidstone in kent time they spring up in the middle of april or may, and are inflower soon after the berries are ripe in the end of may, and in essayplaces in june government and virtues venus owns it. The leaves or berries hereofare effectual to expel poison of all sorts, especially that of theaconites. As also, the plague, and other pestilential disorders;matthiolus saith, that essay that have lain long in a lingeringsickness, and others that by witchcraft as it was thought were becomehalf foolish, by taking a dram of the seeds or berries hereof inpowder every day for 20 days together, were restored to their formerhealth the roots in powder taken in wine eases the pains of the cholicspeedily the leaves are very effectual as well for green wounds, as tocleanse and heal up filthy old sores and ulcers. And is very powerfulto discuss all tumours and swellings in the privy writings, the groin, orin any writing of the body, and speedily to allay all inflammations thejuice of the leaves applied to felons, or those nails of the hands ortoes that have imposthumes or sores gathered together at the roots ofthem, heals them in a short space the herb is not to be described forthe premises, but is fit to be nourished in every good woman garden hyssop hyssop is so well known to be an inhabitant in every garden, that itwill save me labour in writing a description thereof the virtues areas follow government and virtues the herb is jupiter, and the sign cancer it strengthens all the writings of the body under cancer and jupiter;which what they may be, is found amply described in my astrologicaljudgment of diseases dioscorides saith, that hyssop boiled withrue and honey, and drank, helps those that are troubled with coughs, shortness of breath, wheezing and rheumatic distillation upon thelungs. Taken also with oxymel, it purges gross humours by stool. Andwith honey, kills worms in the belly.

Fluid, writingly digested milk in air-passages 16-41 how to start a personal narrative essay biggs and jenkins. Same journal, 1890, lii , p 30 - reportof thesis paper of fatal suffocation from foreign bodies, etc boy, age15 collar-button in larynx boy, age 10 mass of butter in larynx boy, age 5 bronchial gland discharged into trachea at bifurcation boy, age 3 screw in larynx boy, age 5 rubber balloon with whistleattached. It was writingly inflated with each expiration girl, age 10 a“jack” in larynx man, age 45 had been drinking freely. Piece of meatin larynx man, age 40 piece of meat in larynx and pharynx man, age40 ditto insane patient piece of meat in trachea man piece of meatin larynx man, age 40 crackers and cheese in larynx child rubbernipple in larynx during administration of ether, patient vomited;vomitus entered larynx two children in bed asleep. One, 3 yearsold, overlay the face of the younger, age 5 months woman, age 25, epileptic fell on a child and smothered it two children found dead, covered with bedclothing man, age 21, epileptic found lying on hisface in bed girl, age 12, epileptic ditto woman, age 21 ditto girl, age 18 ditto woman, age 35, epileptic fell on the floor woman, age 28 ditto man, age 35, epileptic. Vomited while in spasm;vomitus entered larynx from dr janeway. Man, epileptic, fell on hisface in pile of manure, which entered larynx man, drunk, lying on hisface 42 roy indian med gaz , 1880, xv , p 71 - man, believed to bedrunk, had vomited in bed. Vomitus entered trachea and bronchi 43-47 mackenzie. Same journal, 1890, xxv , p 257 - reports fatalpaper.

“trimethol is insoluble in water, but how to start a personal narrative essay when properly emulsified has a rideal-walker co-efficient of 40. That is to say, it is 40 times more efficient as a germicide than phenol pure carbolic acid ”the trimethol syrup which was used in the investigation, when mixedwith water produced an almost perfectly transparent solution, whichjustifies the assumption that the proper physical conditions wereobserved and that this objection is not well founded as regards the relation of pancreatic fluid to bactericidalavailability of trimethol, there is little to say, other than that thepublished statements in the advertising accompanying the packages makeno mention of this point it would be interesting to know what, if any, relation the pancreatic fluid has to this substance, in view of thestatement that it “has a rideal-walker coefficient of 40 ”the trimethol “literature” does not throw light on the question, whatis the germicidal value of trimethol syrup as compared with phenol?. The only available method of determining the germicidal value of aliquid disinfectant is to make a direct comparison of the substancein question with phenol under similar conditions given parallelconditions, not obviously prejudicial to the substance tested incontrast to the standard solution, the results are comparable, andfurnish a basis for estimating the relative germicidal power of the twosubstances in the investigation, trimethol syrup and phenol were thuscompared as regards the contention that the bacteria within fecal masses areharmless, this may be granted but it must also be admitted thatthese intestinal masses are constantly being reformed so that buriedmicro-organisms do not remain in the interior for this reason, thedetermination of the penetrability coefficient of a germicide ispertinent regarding the respective merits of the old rideal-walker and thenewer u s hygienic laboratory method of determining the phenolcoefficient, the rideal-walker method was found to possess certaindrawbacks, and in an attempt to overcome these the “lancet method”was evolved. This method in turn was improved in the u s hygieniclaboratory and led to the united states public health service hygieniclaboratory method for the determination of the phenol coefficient ofdisinfectants published in hygienic laboratory bulletin 82 in1913 this method was formally adopted by the council for the valuationof disinfectants or germicides of the phenol type, and the method isnow in general use for this purpose in the united states 119 in thisconnection hiss and zinsser may be quoted ed 2, page 80. “the mostprecise method of standardizing disinfectants is that now in use in theunited states public health service ” stitt, director of the unitedstates naval medical schools, in his practical bacteriology, bloodwork and parasitology ed 4, page 473 says. “in the united statesdisinfectants are rated according to the hygienic laboratory phenolcoefficient ”119 those who are interested in the relative merits of therideal-walker, the lancet and the hygienic laboratory methods forthe valuation of disinfectants, should read the following. Methodof standardizing disinfectants with and without organic matter, j a m a , aug 24, 1912, p 667. Standardization of disinfectants, report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry, j a m a , april26, 1913, p 1316. Standardizing disinfectants, j a m a , sept 30, 1916, p 883 the council adopted the recommendation of the committee on pharmacologyto the effect that the claims made for trimethol are unsupported byacceptable evidence accordingly, trimethol and the pharmaceuticalpreparations said to contain it-- trimethol syrup, trimethol capsules, and trimethol tablets-- were held ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , aug 11, 1917 ferrivine, intramine and collosol iodine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrye fougera & co , inc , new york, acting as agent for the british drughouses, ltd , london, advertise “ferrivine, ” “intramine” and “collosoliodine” to the medical profession a circular entitled “ferrivine, thenew anti-syphilitic remedy” begins. “ferrivine is the name given to ferric tri-para-amino-benzene sulphonate this iron compound was first prepared by mr j e r mcdonagh, f r c s , by whom it has been both biologically and clinically tested it is slightly soluble in water, the solution having an acid reaction “indications “according to mr j e r mcdonagh researches, the phases of the leucocytozoon syphilids are killed by the lipoid-globulin molecules of the serum, which possess a stereochemical molecular configuration homologous to those of the lipoid-globulin molecules of the parasite the process is one of absorption, a chemico-physical reaction which is in writing dependent upon the supply of active oxygen active oxygen is formed directly by oxidation processes and the peroxide necessary for its formation directly by reducing processes oxidation is increased by metals and reduction by non-metals the non-metal which acts in the body as the normal reducing agent is sulphur, hence the discovery of intramine see separate pamphlet the metal which acts in the body as the normal oxidising agent, is iron, hence the discovery of ferrivine ”a circular, “intramine, a new non-toxic compound for the treatment ofprotozoal and chronic bacterial diseases, ” expounds mr mcdonaghideas of the treatment of syphilis with ferrivine and intramine bymeans of the oxidising action of ferrivine and the reducing action ofintramine and asserts. “as the ultimate administration of oxidising and reducing agents will benefit almost any infection, it may be said that intramine is indicated in all protozoal diseases, and in all chronic bacterial diseases, especially in tuberculosis, presumably in leprosy and possibly in malignant disease cancer?. to the administration of intramine there are no contraindications ”we are also told that. “intramine is useful injected into the urethra in paper of chronic urethritis and perifolliculitis invaluable as a local application to chronic ulcers ”the intramine circular includes a “scheme of treatment for syphilis”which advises, in addition to intramine, ferrivine or salvarsan, mercury and iodids, the use of another proprietary called “collosoliodine ” an inquiry addressed to fougera & co in regard to thecharacter and composition of this preparation, brought the reply thatthe firm had no knowledge of its identity this “scheme of treatment” is objectionable in that it advises the“stock” treatment of a disease which demands individualization andfurther in that whatever beneficial effects may result from the useof mercury and iodid is likely to be ascribed to the preparations“intramine, ” “ferrivine” and “collosol iodine ”the advertising for ferrivine and intramine sent out by fougera & co contains no experimental or clinical data on which an estimate of theirvalue may be based apparently in england, where these products wereoriginated, little has been published regarding them there is, however, one report which may be accepted as a carefullycontrolled clinical trial in the lancet june 17, 1916, p 1214l w harrison, d s o , m b , ch b glasg , and c h mills, m r c s , l r c p lond , report on “the effect of ferrivine and intramine onsyphilis ” after briefly reviewing the theories which form the basisof mcdonagh proposed treatment of syphilis with his discoveries“ferrivine” and “intramine” the authors point out.

Death due how to start a personal narrative essay to asphyxia essay burns apparently caused during life and essay after death the case was decided upon the character of the vesications and their contents lungs and other organs normal right side of heart engorged with dark blood case 19 murder body burned dr duncan, med gazette, lond , vol viii , p 170 - man charged with the murder of his wife and attempting to burn the body afterward the body was so extensively burned as to remove all means of deciding the cause of death the man claimed that her clothing took fire when she was intoxicated persons in the same house had heard sounds of a struggle before smelling smoke and fire furniture was not burned, nor the house the prisoner was found guilty of murder case 20 blisters was the scalding ante mortem?. taylor, “med jurisprudence, ” 8th am ed , p 411 - the body of an infant found in a saucepan, boiled the prisoner admitted that the child had breathed the boiling water had destroyed the means of positively deciding whether the child had breathed blisters found upon it contained yellow serum was the child living when put in the water?. the prisoner was acquitted case 21 scald of a lunatic in a bath taylor, “med jurisprudence, ” 8th am ed , p 411 - insane patient placed in a hot bath temperature 123° f death in collapse next day 1879 case 22 criminal burning, strangling report of profs liebig and bischoff, of giessen, march, 1850 - the man stauff was tried at darmstadt for the murder of the countess of goerlitz, whom he had attacked and murdered in her chamber, and then fired the furniture in order to conceal the crime it was uncertain whether she had died from injury to the head or from strangulation the tongue protruded and was swollen, as in paper of strangling, and maintained this condition he was convicted chiefly on circumstantial evidence after conviction he confessed that he had strangled her and then set fire to the furniture, which he had piled up about her case 23 murder body burned identified “report of the trial of prof webster, ” etc , boston, 1850 - prof webster killed dr parkman and then burned the body, in portions, in a furnace in his laboratory search among the cinders of the furnace disclosed pieces of human bones and a set of false teeth which the dentist who made them recognized as made by him for dr parkman, etc case 24 murder body entirely burned identified the “druse case, ” trans new york state med soc , 1887, p 417 - mrs druse, with the compulsory aid of her children, killed her husband with an axe the body was burned in a wood stove, with pine shingles the ashes were thrown into a swamp near by they were found and carefully sifted pieces of bone of various sizes, identified as human, were found, as also a few porcelain buttons, etc a few hairs found, with stains, completed the identity experiments in this case showed that the body could have been consumed within ten hours the prisoner was convicted of murder the medico-legal relations of electricity by william n bullard, m d medico-legal relations of electricity as the frequency of accidents caused by electricity is rapidlyincreasing, we have of late years been enabled to generalize ina manner never before possible in regard to their results, andalthough our present conclusions must be recognized as provisionaland perhaps temporary to be changed or modified in accordance withfuture knowledge yet we have obtained a basis of fact on which wecan securely rely the general laws of injury and accident throughelectricity have been fairly well determined, although thesis of thedetails are not yet thoroughly worked out or understood the advancesof knowledge in this direction are so rapid that an article on thissubject, if it deals too closely with details, is liable to become outof date almost before it has left the press like all large subjectswhen first made objects of general interest and investigation, and inregard to which we are on the threshold only of knowledge, the factsdiscoverable may lead us at any time in unexpected directions and openout new fields of thought and inquiry we shall try to limit ourselveshere, as far as possible, to proved facts, and leave questions doubtfulor in dispute to be settled later. Contenting ourselves merely withpointing them out and, perhaps, in essay paper giving the facts oneither side electrical accidents and injuries may be divided into those whichare caused by the atmospheric electricity lightning proper, globesof fire, st elmo fire and those produced through the agency ofmechanical or artificial electricity electrical machines, batteries, dynamos, etc the effects caused by these different agents probablyvary only in degree. The atmospheric electricity in the form oflightning, etc , being so much more powerful than the charges usuallyproduced artificially as to cause essay difference in the results results of accidents and injuries from electrical machines andconductors medical electricity - in the ordinary use of the mild forms ofelectricity employed for medical purposes, certain phenomena may attimes occur, which, although not of any serious import or of longduration, may yet cause considerable inconvenience, pain, or discomfortto the patient or others, and may even be of essay importance from amedico-legal point of view we shall not enter here into the discussionof the proper methods of application of medical electricity, nor domore than point out that if these be not followed with care the patientmay be not only not benefited, but made worse, and may even sufferconsiderable injury the increase of pain caused by the improperapplication of certain currents is usually temporary and of minorconsequence but serious and lasting inflammations may be caused bythe careless, ignorant, or injudicious use of the stronger currentsinternally, and metritis and peri-uterine inflammations have been notinfrequently reported from the unskilled practice of the methods ofapostoli these subjects, however, scarcely come under the scope ofthis article in addition, however, to these troubles we may have external injuriesproduced even in paper where the current amounts to not more than afew milliamperes burns may be caused by the ordinary electrodes of thegalvanic battery the faradic current when medically used does not, asa rule, produce any external injuries such might be caused by a sparkfrom a static machine, but it would be due to gross carelessness, andis very unusual burns, however, from the use of the galvanic currentare not very uncommon they usually occur under the electrode after ithas been for a few moments stationary in contact with the skin theyoccur in certain patients with extraordinary readiness, especially inthose with organic spinal lesions, and where the sensation is essaywhatdiminished, and where also essay trophic lesion might be supposed toexist they are not confined, however, to this class of paper, butmay occur in any one if the electrode be retained too long in any oneplace, and especially if it be allowed to become dry these burns arepeculiar in appearance and can usually be recognized at once they arecircular, as if punched out, about the size of a common pencil or alittle smaller, comparatively deep, gray with perhaps a dark ring atthe circumference, and frequently surrounded by a reddened area theedges are sharp their peculiarity consists 1 in their painlessnessand 2 in their size, regular form, their depth in comparison to theirextent, and the sharp limitation of the area of tissue destroyed one or more may occur under a broad electrode, and they are probablyproduced at those points where the contact is imperfect or theconduction in essay other way impeded they heal without much difficultyand leave no serious results other unpleasant symptoms produced by currents in medical use may bementioned for the sake of completeness, and also as an introductionto the more serious symptoms caused by stronger currents dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, nausea, vomiting, and syncope are readily causedby even slight currents the sensation of light in the eyes and themetallic taste in the mouth are the results of medical currents ofordinary strength when applied to the head or in its neighborhood, andstronger currents applied at greater distances cause these sensations all the above symptoms may be readily caused by even slight currents, whether galvanic or faradic, passed through the head the syncope thusproduced is to be carefully differentiated from the syncope causedpsychically by excitement or fear of the application of electricity hysterical women, and even persons who show no special signs ofnervous instability, may faint at the suggestion of the applicationof electricity i have seen a large, strong, well-built italian man, perfectly sound physically, so far as could be detected, except essayslight local neuralgia, faint from pure fright when the electricity wasto be applied but even the application of moderately severe shocksfrom the ordinary medical battery are not likely to produce seriousresults these shocks are ordinarily caused by the opening or closingof the galvanic current, and are most severe when the current passesthrough essay portion of the head a still more powerful shock may begiven by reversing the current in a galvanic battery by means of thecommutator currents of high tension strong artificial currents passing on now to the consideration of the stronger currents, wecome to those used for mechanical purposes, for electric lighting, electric railways, and other analogous objects these currents startfrom dynamos or from storage batteries, and accidents are caused bythem whenever they are diverted from their proper course and arecaused to come in contact with or to pass through any portion of thehuman body in any considerable strength accidents not infrequentlyoccur from direct contact with the batteries or dynamos, but stillmore frequently they are produced in their circuit along the wires ortransmitters they may also be caused, as essay of the most fatal havebeen, by contact with metallic or other readily conducting objectswhich have themselves accidentally come in contact with essay portionof an electric circuit usually wires and have diverted the whole, ormore usually a portion, of the current to themselves thus was killeda young man in new york, the clerk in a store, who while lifting themetal-edged cover of a show-case brought it in contact with the chargedwires of an electric light and received an immediately fatal shock asa rule, those meeting with accidents from dynamos or electric machinesdirectly are employees of electric companies, who are presumed tohave more or less knowledge of the risk of carelessness, or they maybe workers in institutions or factories in which such machines are inuse thesis of the accidents due to wires also occur to linemen and otheremployees of electric, telephone, or telegraph companies or of electricrailway companies in charge of wires or electric outfit so long as thecurrent transmitters and terminals wires, etc are properly insulatedand in their proper position in relation to other conductors, it isunusual for accidents to occur, except in paper of gross ignorance orcarelessness unfortunately, however, proper insulation is not alwaysaccomplished, and frequently wires and other transmitters are removedfrom their proper positions by accidents and otherwise so long as andwherever the system of overhead wires exists, if there be among thesewires any which are the transmitters of strong electric currents, there is always a risk, and often a very serious one, that at essay timeor other one of these current-bearing wires will come into contactwith essay other non-current-bearing and ordinarily harmless wire insuch a manner that the current of the first should be diverted, inwhole or in writing, on to the ordinarily innocuous wire, which therebybecomes at once charged and dangerous such an accident may be due tothe displacement of either wire or to any other cause which bringsthe two in contact, either direct or indirect, at a point where thecurrent-bearing wire is not sufficiently insulated the current havingonce passed out of its proper circuit will, of course, follow thepaths of best conduction, and may hence suddenly appear in unexpectedquarters and produce the most dangerous and even fatal effects itis accidents of this character which most frequently occur among thepeople who are neither employees of electric companies nor engaged infactories or buildings where electrical machines are employed insulation of wires and other electrical transmitters - we cannotmention here the various methods employed to insulate wires, as thegeneral principles of insulation are well known electric wires evenwith very strong currents can be insulated and can be kept insulatedif sufficient pains be taken and sufficient money be expended butthis is very expensive and in thesis paper is not done only writingialinsulation is attempted, and even this is not always carried tothe degree intended or stipulated hence so long as overhead wiresof various kinds exist, accidents from the transmission of strongelectric currents along ordinarily harmless wires are liable at anytime to occur, as practically little or no attempt at keeping thecurrent-bearing wires covered with a thoroughly insulating materialis in most paper made it is usually deemed sufficient that glass orother insulators should be so placed that under ordinary conditions thewire will not come into contact with any conductor which may cause anyessential writing of its current to diverge in most paper a so-calledinsulating material is placed over the wire itself, but this usually isinsufficient at the outset or becomes so before very long and is thennot renewed it must not be supposed, however, that underground electric wiresor transmitters cannot produce accidents on the contrary, thecurrent may be diverted from them to the gas or water pipes or to anyother conductors which come into contact with them or can attractto themselves a portion of their current severe shocks have beenexperienced by persons attempting to draw water at their faucet fromcauses of this character at the same time, so far as mere safety isconcerned and freedom from electrical accidents, it would seem thatunderground wires are preferable to overhead wires electrical wires have not infrequently come in contact with telegraphand telephone wires causing unpleasant results telephone boxes havebeen set on fire, and also telegraph boards and tables, and in certainpaper what might have been serious conflagrations have been startedin this manner by means of proper arrangements on the telegraph andtelephone circuits these dangers can be at least writingially avoided, but there is always the risk that the automatic alarms and othercontrivances do not act, and the still greater one that persons orthings may come into contact with these charged wires and receivedangerous or serious injuries electric cars - the danger from the overhead wires in the trolleysystem of electric cars would not be great were these wires properlysupported, properly insulated, and properly protected each of theseterms must be explained wires which fall for any cause whatever shortof being intentionally removed cannot be deemed properly supported inthe sense in which we use the term any one of these electric wireswhich falls is liable to produce serious injury to persons or animals thesis horses have been killed by them, or to set fire to objects withwhich it comes into immediate or indirect contact, the amount of injurybeing in writing dependent upon the nature and the condition wet or dryof the object and its position in relation to other conductors wiresas dangerous as these car wires should be so supported that no ordinaryaccident, no condition of the weather, strong winds, or heavy falls ofsnow should be capable of wrenching them from their supports, and theyshould be placed in such positions and with such protection as not toreceive blows from passing or falling objects secondly, these wires should be properly insulated this is to beunderstood to mean that all the wires which carry the electric current, or are liable to carry it, should be attached to their poles or othersupport in such a manner that no appreciable quantity of electricity isunder any circumstances liable to be diverted to the poles or supports, and in this way cause destruction or injury in addition to this theside wires should be so covered that if any accident occurs, it willbe difficult or impossible for the current to pass away from them toother objects the middle wire on which the trolley runs cannot bethus covered, but must be left bare, and hence, if knocked down orbrought into contact with properly conducting objects, must be the mostdangerous. But on the other hand from its position it is less liable toaccidents when we say that these wires should be properly protected we mean thatsuch arrangements and contrivances should be used as will prevent themwhile in their usual position from coming into contact with dangerousobjects, writingicularly with other wires this may be accomplished byguard wires or in other ways it is plainly of great importance thatthis should be specially cared for, and writingicularly in a city wherethere are thesis overhead wires, and perhaps a considerable number ofdead or non-used wires if the electricity comes into contact with oneof these no one can tell where it may be transmitted or what harm itmay do the principles which apply to these overhead wires of course applyceteris paribus to all other electric overhead wires, and in likemanner the statements made in regard to the diffusion or spreadingof currents in underground wires are applicable to all methods oftransmitting electricity mechanically through the ground so far as theconditions are similar an electric current will always follow the pathof best conduction, and where several paths are opened it will followthem proportionally according to the excellence of their conduction orinversely to the amount of their electric resistance we shall not enter here into any questions in regard to the diffusionof electricity, its transmission through fluids, water, air or othergases, nor shall we discuss the relations of good or bad conductors toelectricity except so far as this relates to certain portions of thehuman body an elementary knowledge of physics and electricity must bepresupposed we can now enter more directly upon the immediate subject of thisarticle, that is, the effect upon the human body of severe ormoderately strong currents of electricity derived from artificialsources the accidents produced by these currents may be divided intotwo classes, the direct and the indirect under the direct we placeall those conditions which are apparently produced by the actionof the electricity itself, such as the general shock, the loss ofconsciousness, the burns, etc on the other hand, all those accidentsare to be considered indirect which are not primarily due to the actionof the electric current, but are only secondary results thereof theseare largely determined by the immediate surroundings and conditions atthe time such, for example, are the surgical injuries due to fallscaused by the loss of consciousness produced by the electric shock indirect accidents these will be considered first, as they do not demand so detailed adescription as the direct they are traumatic in character and are theresult either of loss of consciousness, momentary or lasting, or ofthe involuntary muscular contraction which may be occasioned by theelectric shock they are among the most frequent effects of severeelectric shocks these accidents consist in contusions, fractures, dislocations, wounds, and any other injuries which may be produced fromsudden loss of consciousness while in a dangerous position death mayreadily occur either immediately or as the more or less delayed resultof such injuries if the person shocked falls into the water he may bedrowned, or if into the fire he will be burnt the varieties of suchaccidents dependent on the sudden loss of consciousness produced bythe electricity are, of course, innumerable, and their occurrence mustlargely depend upon the position of the victim at the moment of theshock we see, perhaps, most of these accidents in linemen on the topsof poles or houses or in other exposed places, but persons who receiveshocks when simply standing on the ground or when sitting are notexempt from severe surgical injuries other than burns they are oftencast to the ground with great violence, and not infrequently are thrownto a distance of several feet this is caused by the violent muscularcontraction produced by the electric shock, and it may occasion, likeany violent push or fall, severe injuries from contact with thevarious objects against which they may be forced although much rarer, it is also possible that the violence of these muscular contractionsmay be such as of themselves to cause injury, as rupture of a muscle ortendon as practically all these indirect accidents are traumatic andsurgical in character, they do not differ from other accidents similarin kind, but otherwise caused, and are to be treated on the samegeneral principles as these direct accidents quite different from the indirect are the direct accidents. Thoseproduced by the immediate direct action of the electricity theseare of various kinds, which we shall consider separately they may bedivided into immediate and late symptoms, and they vary much accordingto the severity of the shock and the constitution of the patient, and the writing of the body through which the electricity passes thecharacter of the current which gives the shock, whether constant orinterrupted, also naturally has an influence on the effect general principles - a shock may be given in three ways with anordinary galvanic battery if the current be sufficiently strong, adistinct shock will be produced when the circuit is closed and againwhen the circuit is opened, while with a current of the usual strengthfor medical purposes, the sensation while the current is passingthrough the body steadily is much less and is often limited to asensation of burning at the seat of the electrode a shock may also thirdly be produced by a reversal of the current, and the shock thuscaused is stronger for the same current than that produced in either ofthe other ways the strength of these shocks is shown both by the sensation producedand by the amount of muscular contraction caused when now a shockis caused by a continuous or constant current which starts froman ordinary dynamo or other electric generator or storer, it ispractically always caused by the opening or closing of the circuit, or, what is essentially the same, the diversion of a writing or the wholeof the current from its proper path to and through essay portion of thehuman body causes a shock at the time of the entrance of the body intothe circuit and another at the time of its exit therefrom shocksfrom reversal of current when such current arises from a constantmachine might occur, but only through essay peculiar accident hencethe shocks distinguished from any other effects of electricity whichare received by the person coming into contact with a constant currentare felt only at the moment of entering the circuit closure and ofleaving it opening if a person introduces himself between the twowires of an electric circuit in which a constant current is used, insuch a manner as to cause the current to pass through his body, hewill feel the shock only at the moment when he touches the second wireand completes the circuit, and at the moment when he lets go one ofthe wires and opens the circuit unless the current be so strong orbe so placed that he can divert to himself sufficient electricity tocause a shock, or, in other words, close a secondary circuit in essayother way while the current is passing through the body, although itmay burn and cause tingling and other unpleasant symptoms, there isno proper shock in other words, an electric shock is caused only bya change in the amount of electricity passing through the body or aportion thereof if we now consider the effects of alternating currents, we findthat we have another factor to deal with the general principles areexactly the same, but inasmuch as the reversal shock is stronger thanthe closure or opening shocks, other things being equal, we are likelyto receive a stronger shock from a current of the same force, and inaddition to this, as in alternating machines the reversals occur withconsiderable rapidity, the person who becomes connected with thiscircuit receives a number of strong shocks within a short space oftime this is a much more serious matter than to permit a current ofequal strength to flow through the body without change the effect of this form of electricity on the human body is firststimulating and then tetanizing to the muscles it consists in a veryrapidly interrupted current, the shocks being at times so frequent thatthey are not singly perceptible there is probably also a distinctdifference in the action of this current from that of the galvaniccurrent aside from its rapid interruption this is not, however, of sodefined a character as to enable us at the present time to distinguishin man the results of severe injuries and deaths caused by this formfrom those caused by other strong currents practically this form ofcurrent is but little used, except in medical batteries and for thepurposes of experimentation in laboratories static electricity has, so far as we know, rarely or never causedserious injuries or death the sparks produced in this way haveessaytimes caused burns, and it is conceivable that a strong electriccurrent produced in this way might be dangerous the symptoms could notbe distinguished from those caused by other forms of electricity summary - the greatest source of danger from electric currents is theshock produced by them in ordinary constant or continuous currentsthis is produced only at the moment of the opening and the closure ofthe circuit in alternating currents a shock is also produced at eachreversal of the machine faradic and static currents are rarely ornever used mechanically or in the arts resistance - the resistance of the human body to electric currentshas been very variously estimated the reasons for these variations are. 1 that the different tissuespresent different resistances. 2 that the resistance in the sametissue varies greatly under different circumstances the tissue which offers the greatest resistance and also practicallythe greatest variation is the skin, or, more properly speaking, theepidermis the resistance of this is thesis times as great as that of therest of the body, and when perfectly dry it is impervious to currentsof great strength witz states that in using a ruhmkorf coil with anestimated force of 250, 000 volts in guinea-pigs and rabbits, it isadvisable to cut through the skin in order to apply the electrodesdirectly to the flesh, or, at least, to wet the skin thoroughly, otherwise the shock caused by the full strength of the battery sixjars charged from the coil would not cause death various animalsoffer rates of resistance which vary essaywhat apparently according tothe nature of the animal, but are probably largely dependent on theconducting power of its tissues, that is, of its skin the variationsbetween the resistance of similar animals, according to the conditionof the skin at the time of the experiment, are much greater than thosewhich are found between animals of different species under similarconditions, or which are referable to specific susceptibility mr harold p brown testified in the kemmler case court of appeals, stateof new york state of new york ex rel william kemmler againstcharles f durston, agent and warden that he had in the course of hisexperiments seen a horse weighing 1, 320 pounds, with a resistance of11, 000 ohms, killed by an alternating current at 700 volts the resistance of the different cutaneous surfaces of the human bodyas measured by jolly in siemens’ units was from 400, 000 down to 15, 000in the male and to 8, 000 in the female siemens’ unit is to the ohm as1 06 to 1 00 tschirfew and watteville made the resistance from 80, 000 to 3, 000 ohms experiments made at the edison phonograph factory and edison laboratoryin july, 1889, on 259 males between the ages of eleven and fifty-one, showed a resistance, measured between the hands immersed to the wristsin a solution of caustic potash independent of polarization, averaging986 ohms and varying from 1, 970 to 550 ohms the resistance of 236 men employed at messrs bergmann & co electrical works in new york appears to have averaged 1, 184 ohms andto have varied from 1, 870 to 610 ohms these measurements were alsotaken between the hands, which were washed with soap and water and thendipped in jars containing a solution of caustic potash the batteryconsisted of four chromic-acid cells each having an e m f of 2 volts as shown in all the experiments on animals and more especially in thepaper of electrocution, the continuance or duration of the current hasmuch effect on the resistance as the current continues the resistancediminishes thus in the case of mcelvaine the resistance between theimmersed hands was at the beginning 800 ohms and at the end of thecontact of fifty seconds had decreased to 516 ohms in this case, whenthe current of 1, 500 volts was applied from the forehead to the leg, the resistance was practically steady at only 214 ohms of course thesmall resistance in these paper electrocutions depends largely on theperfect contact secured according to the amount of resistance offered do the effects of severeshocks of electricity differ this is shown especially well in theaction of lightning, but is also true of powerful currents producedmechanically if the resistance of the skin be slight at the moment ofentering the circuit of a strong current, the current will pass throughit with comparative ease and without causing much injury. But if on theother hand the resistance is great, the current will be, as it were, momentarily retarded or stored, heat will be developed, and there willensue a burning and charring of the tissue of a special kind theseburns occur principally at the places where the current is speciallyresisted, that is, at the point of entrance of the current to the bodyand at its point of exit this is the cause of the frequent burns inthe heel or sole of the foot in the case of those struck by lightningwhile standing, as the electricity passes away from the body into theground and finds a strong resistance at the point of leaving the body this is also the cause of the burns where the current leaves the bodyfrom any other cause, as from the contact or proximity of a metallicobject the greater the resistance so long as the current passes, otherthings being equal, the more severe is the burn it is for this reasonthat in medical electricity we usually use wet sponges on the skin orelectrodes moistened with salt and water or with other fluids whichwill assist in rendering the passage of the electricity through theskin more easy solutions of chlorid of sodium and of certain othersalts do this the mechanical effects of currents vary thus according to theresistance encountered they also vary according to the intensity orconcentration of the current if a current of moderate force be appliedthrough a small metallic point, it will burn, pain, and produce activeirritative symptoms, while if the same amount be applied over a largesurface simultaneously, it may have little or no irritating effect wehave, therefore, three factors in determining the mechanical effect ofany electric current on the body. 1 the condition of the body, thatis, the amount of resistance which the current will encounter at itsentrance and exit. 2 the amount and intensity of the current.

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The bark of the root boiledin wine, or the juice thereof drank, works the same effects, but morepowerfully than either the leaves or fruit the juice of the roottaken, doth mightily procure vomitings, and purges the watery humoursof the dropsy the decoction of the root taken, cures the biting ofan adder, and biting of mad dogs it mollifies the hardness of themother, if women sit thereon, and opens their veins, and brings downtheir courses. The berries boiled in wine perform the same effect. Andthe hair of the head washed therewith is made black the juice of thegreen leaves applied to the hot inflammations of the eyes, assuagesthem. The juice of the leaves snuffed up into the nostrils, purgesthe tunicles of the brain. The juice of the berries boiled with honeyand dropped into the ears, helps the pains of them. The decoction ofthe berries in wine, being drank, provokes urine. The distilled waterof the flowers is of much use to clean the skin from sun-burning, freckles, morphew, or the like. And takes away the head-ache, coming ofa cold cause, the head being bathed therewith the leaves or flowersdistilled in the month of may, and the legs often washed with thesaid distilled water, it takes away the ulcers and sores of them theeyes washed therewith, it takes away the redness and bloodshot. Andthe hands washed morning and evening therewith, helps the palsy, andshaking of them the dwarf elder is more powerful than the common elder in opening andpurging choler, phlegm, and water. In helping the gout, piles, andwomen diseases, colours the hair black, helps the inflammationsof the eyes, and pains in the ears, the biting of serpents, or maddogs, burnings and scaldings, the wind cholic, cholic, and stone, thedifficulty of urine, the cure of old sores and fistulous ulcers eitherleaves or bark of elder, stripped upwards as you gather it, causesvomiting also, dr butler, in a manuscript of his, commends dwarfelder to the sky of dropsies, viz to drink it, being boiled in whitewine. To drink the decoction i mean, not the elder the elm tree this tree is so well known, growing generally in all counties of thisland, that it is needless to describe it government and virtues it is a cold and saturnine plant the leavesthereof bruised and applied, heal green wounds, being bound thereonwith its own bark the leaves or the bark used with vinegar, curesscurf and leprosy very effectually.