History

How To Start A History Essay


it is worthmentioning in this connection that mr sinclair in his latest bookdevotes a few pages to a eulogy of dr abrams and his methods thismaterial has not only been reproduced by dr abrams in his “houseorgan” physico-clinical medicine but how to start a history essay is reprinted in leaflet form andis being distributed by essay of the individuals who are exploiting theabrams methods such reprints have been sent to this office by bothlaymen and physicians mr sinclair’ letterto the editor -- a few weeks ago you published an article dealingwith the discoveries or claims of dr albert abrams of san francisco i happen to be attending dr abrams’ clinic at the time and havediscussed this article with him at essay length dr abrams follows thepolicy of ignoring attacks on his work, taking the view that in thelong run, the man who cures disease makes his way in the world in spiteof all opposition however, it is easy to see that he has been deeplyhurt by this attack on his reputation, and as one of his friends andmost ardent admirers i am taking the liberty of addressing a letter toyou i do not know if the rules of your publication permit interventionin medical affairs by a mere layman permit me to introduce myselfas a layman who for essay twenty years tried faithfully to be curedof various diseases by thesis doctors of the best reputation in thesiswritings of the world, and failed. And who, therefore, was compelled, asa matter of self-protection, to look into the question of health forhimself i have read so thesis different kinds of books on health andmade so thesis experiments of my own that nowadays when i meet with agroup of physicians i find that before long they come to accept me asone of themselves you may not go that far, but at least you may be sogenerous as to allow me to tell you a little of what i have seen duringthe time i have spent in the clinic of dr albert abrams i observe that in the course of your two page article dealing with thissubject, you nowhere have anything to charge against dr abrams, nordo you show that you have investigated his work you consider that allyou have to do is to quote dr abrams’ own words as to what he can do, and that these words refute themselves italics our -- ed also youquote dr abrams’ schedules of prices, and imply that his motives aremercenary i will take up these two questions one at a time what dr abrams can dofirst, as to what dr abrams can do. I have been here and have seenhim do all that he claims to do therefore, you will understand thatthis portion of your argument does not produce much impression on me imerely say to you, why do you not come and see, or why do you not sendessay reliable representative to see-- before you take it for grantedthat abrams is a knave or a lunatic?. this man is not merely a colleagueof yours. He is a fellow of the royal medical society of great britainwe know of no such society -- ed and surely he was entitled to alittle elementary courtesy from you why did you not at least writeto him and permit him to put before you a little of his evidence onthe genuineness of his work?. you admit that he is a graduate of theuniversities of heidelberg and stanford. Dr abrams is not a graduateof “stanford ”-- ed you admit that he was graduated from heidelberg atthe age of twenty it happens that this was the youngest and remainsthe youngest age at which any man has taken a doctor degree at thatuniversity in a hundred years if you had inquired further you mighthave learned that ten years ago abrams was one of the most respectedphysicians in san francisco what has he done since to forfeit thehonors of a lifetime?. all that he has done is to shut himself up in hislaboratory and make the most revolutionary discoveries of this or anyother age. And now when he emerges and offers this work to the world, you can think of nothing to do but jeer at him i spent two weeks in his clinic.

The white is most in use, and is goodfor the fits of the mother. Both of them externally used, take awayfreckles, sunburning, and morphew from the face, and cleanse filthyulcers. It is but a churlish purge, but being let alone, can do no harm buglossi of bugloss. Its virtues are the same with borrage, and theroots of either seldom used bulbus vomitorius a vomiting root. I never read of it elswhere bythis general name calami aromatici of aromatical reed, or sweet garden flag. Itprovokes urine, strengthens the lungs, helps bruises, resists poison, &c being taken inwardly in powder, the quantity of half a dram at atime you may mix it with syrup of violets, if your body be feverish capparum capper roots are hot and dry in the second degree, cuttingand cleansing. They provoke menses, help malignant ulcers, ease thetoothache, assuage swelling, and help the rickets see oil of cappers cariophillatæ, &c of avens, or herb bennet the roots are dry, andessaything hot, of a cleansing quality, they keep garments from beingmoth-eaten see the leaves caulium of colewort i know nothing the roots are good for, but onlyto bear the herbs and flowers centaurii majoris of centaury the greater the roots help such asare bursten, such as spit blood, shrinking of sinews, shortness ofwind, coughs, convulsions, cramps. Half a dram in powder being takeninwardly, either in muskadel, or in a decoction of the same roots theyare either not at all, or very scarce in england, our centaury is thesmall centaury cepœ of onions are hot and dry according to galen in thefourth degree. They cause dryness, and are extremely hurtful forcholeric people, they breed but little nourishment, and that little isnaught. They are bad meat, yet good physic for phlegmatic people, theyare opening, and provoke urine and the menses, if cold be the causeobstructing.

The examination mustbe both practical and scientific, but of sufficient how to start a history essay severity to testthe candidate fitness to practise medicine, surgery, and obstetrics when desired, the said examination may be conducted in the presenceof the dean of any medical school or the president of any medicalsociety of the state after examination the board must grant a licenseto practise medicine, surgery, and obstetrics. Seven members mustconsent the board may revoke or refuse a license for unprofessional, dishonorable, or immoral conduct, chronic or persistent inebriety, thepractice of criminal abortion, or for publicly advertising specialability to treat or cure diseases which, in the opinion of the board, it is impossible to cure in complaints for violating the provisionsof this section, the accused shall be furnished with a copy of thecomplaint, and given a hearing before the board in person or byattorney appeal lies from refusal or revocation to the appointingpower 3 the person receiving a license must file it, or a certified copy, withthe register of deeds where he resides on removal into another countyhe must procure from said register a certified copy of his license andfile it with the register of deeds in the county to which he shallremove 4 exceptions - the act does not apply to commissioned surgeons of theunited states army or navy, to physicians or surgeons in actualconsultation from other states or territories, or to actual medicalstudents practising medicine under the direct supervision of apreceptor 5 penalty - practising without a license or contrary to the act is amisdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $50 to $200, or imprisonmentin a county jail from ten to sixty days, or both definition - any person is regarded as practising who appends theletters “m d ” or “m b ” to his name, or who for a fee prescribes, directs, or recommends for the use of any person any drug or medicineor other agency for the treatment, cure, or relief of any wound, fracture or bodily injury, infirmity, or disease 6 former law - the former law is repealed only so far as it isinconsistent with the foregoing act 7 the former law prohibited persons from practising medicine in any ofits branches unless graduates of a medical college or unless they wereshown by examination to be qualified and had been actually engaged inpractising for at least ten years compiled laws of dakota, s 205 fee - to the treasurer of the board, for examination, $20 act 1890, c 93, s 3 ohio qualification - no person who is not a graduate of a reputable schoolof medicine in the united states or a foreign country, or who cannotproduce a certificate of qualification from a state or county medicalsociety and is not a person of good moral character, can lawfullypractise or attempt to practise medicine in any of its dewritingments orprescribe medicine for reward or compensation. Except a person who hasbeen continuously engaged in the practice of medicine for ten years ormore the law allowed persons in continuous practice for five yearsor more, two years to comply with its provisions in case a person isa graduate of a school of medicine in any state or foreign country inwhich any condition or restriction is imposed by law upon the practiceof medicine by graduates of medical schools in ohio, he is subject tothe same restrictions or conditions a person violating this sectionis not entitled to any compensation for services smith & benedictrevised statutes of 1890, s 4, 403 penalty - whoever prescribes or practises or attempts to practisemedicine in any of its dewritingments, or performs or attempts to performa surgical operation without having attended two full courses ofinstruction and graduated at a school of medicine either in this or aforeign country, or who cannot produce a certificate of qualificationfrom a state or county medical society, except a person who has beencontinuously engaged in the practice of medicine for ten years or more, is punishable with a fine of from $50 to $100 and for a subsequentoffence with imprisonment for thirty days persons in continuouspractice for five years or more were allowed two years to comply withthis act 6, 992 oklahoma qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine in anydewritingment unless he be a graduate of a medical college, or unless uponexamination before a board composed of the superintendent of publichealth and two other physicians to be selected by the territorial boardof health, he be found proficient in the practice of medicine andsurgery, and shall be found upon proof to have been actually engagedin the practice of medicine not less than five years no person shallpractise medicine unless he be of good moral character, and is not anhabitual drunkard a person possessing these qualifications shall, on presentation of hisdiploma, or proof thereof by affidavit if it be lost or destroyed, and the affidavit of two reputable citizens from the county where heresides that the applicant possesses the qualifications of a physician, as prescribed herein, to the superintendent of public health, receivefrom him a license, which shall be recorded in the office of theregister of deeds in the county where such physician resides offence - to practise without complying with this law, or to violateany of its provisions, is a misdemeanor definition - a person is regarded as practising medicine who professespublicly to be a physician and to prescribe for the sick, or whoappends to his name m d exceptions - the law does not prohibit students from prescribing underthe supervision of preceptors, nor prohibit gratuitous services in caseof emergency, nor apply to commissioned surgeons in the united statesarmy and navy cancellation of license - the district court has power on complaint ofa member of the territorial board of health, or the county board ofhealth where he resides, to cancel any license issued to a person topractise medicine, where such license was fraudulently obtained, orwhere the person to whom it was issued has been guilty of violating anyprovision of this act fee - to superintendent of board of health, for license, $2 comp stats , 1893, s 352 oregon qualification - every person practising medicine and surgery in anyof their dewritingments must possess the qualifications required by theact if a graduate of medicine he must present his diploma to the boardof examiners for verification as to its genuineness if found genuineand the person named therein be the person claiming and presentingthe same, the board issues its certificate, which is conclusive ifnot a graduate, he must submit to an examination as the board shallrequire, and if the examination be satisfactory the board issues itscertificate, and the lawful holder is entitled to all the rights andprivileges mentioned in the act act february 28th, 1889, s 1 the governor appoints three persons from among the most competentphysicians of the state, residents of the state for seven years and ofat least five years’ practical experience in their profession, to bethe board of examiners 2 the board must issue certificates to all who furnish satisfactoryproof of having received a diploma or license from a legally charteredmedical institution in good standing of whatever school of medicine, and they are not permitted to make discrimination against holders of ageneral license or diploma under any school or system of medicine ingood standing 3, as amended february 21st, 1891 the verification of a diploma consists in an affidavit of the holderand applicant that he is the person therein named, taken before anyperson authorized to administer oaths, attested under the hand andofficial seal of the official, if he have a seal. Graduates may presenttheir diplomas and affidavits by letter or proxy the act allowspersons taking advantage of section 13 ninety days after its passage inwhich to procure a certificate 4, as amended february 21st, 1891 all examinations of persons not graduates or licentiates must be madedirectly by the board, and certificates authorize the person named topractise medicine and surgery 5 the holder of a certificate must have it recorded in the office ofthe county clerk of the county in which he resides, and the recordmust be indorsed thereon on removal to another county to practise hemust procure an indorsement to that effect on the certificate from theclerk, and have the certificate recorded in the office of the clerk ofthe county to which he removes 6 the examinations may be wholly or writingly in writing and must be of anelementary and practical character, but sufficiently strict to test thequalifications of the candidate as a practitioner 8 the board may refuse a certificate to an individual guilty ofunprofessional or dishonorable conduct, and may revoke for like causes, after giving the accused an opportunity to be heard in his defencebefore the board 9 definition, exceptions - any person is regarded as practising medicinewho professes publicly to be a physician and to prescribe for thesick, or appends to his name the letters “m d ;” but the act doesnot prohibit students from prescribing under the supervision of apreceptor, nor gratuitous services in paper of emergency, nor does itapply to commissioned surgeons of the united states army, navy, andmarine hospital service 10 itinerant vender - any itinerant vender of any drug, nostrum, medicine, ointment, or appliance of any kind intended for the treatment ofdisease or injury, who shall publicly profess to cure or treatdiseases, injuries, deformities, or ailments by any drug, nostrum, medicine, or other appliance, shall pay a license to the secretary ofthe state of $100 per month violation of this section is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of notmore than $500 or imprisonment in a county jail for not more than sixmonths, or both such licenses to any firm or company do not permit thetransaction of business in different places at the same time s 11, as amended february 21st, 1891 penalty - practising medicine or surgery without complying with theact is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $50 to $500 orimprisonment in a county jail from thirty days to three hundred andsixty-five days, or both, for each offence filing or attempting tofile as his own the certificate of another, or a forged affidavit oridentification, is a felony punishable the same as forgery in thesecond degree 12 former practitioners - persons practising in the state at the time ofthe passage of the act were allowed sixty days afterward to register13 fees - to the secretary of the board, for examining a genuine diploma, $1 to the secretary of the board, for examining a fraudulent diploma, or adiploma not owned by the possessor, $20 4 to the county clerk, for recording certificate, usual fee s 6 to board of examiners, for examination, $10 8 to the secretary of the state, from itinerant vender, for license, $100per month 11, as amended february 21st, 1891 pennsylvania present law - the following is the law at present in effect. For thenew law which goes into effect hereafter, see below qualification - the standard of a practitioner of medicine, surgery, orobstetrics consists of a good moral character, a thorough elementaryeducation, a comprehensive knowledge of human anatomy, humanphysiology, pathology, chemistry, materia medica, obstetrics, andpractice of medicine and surgery and public hygiene act march 24th, 1877, s 1 it is unlawful for any person to announce himself as a practitionerof medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or to practise as such, who hasnot received in a regular manner a diploma from a chartered medicalschool, duly authorized to confer upon its alumni the degree of doctorof medicine the act does not apply to a resident practitioner who hasbeen in continuous practice in the commonwealth for not less than fiveyears prior to its passage 2 before any person can lawfully engage in the practice of medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or who has not a diploma as provided in sec 2, he must make an affidavit under oath, or affirm before the prothonotaryof the county in which he intends to practise, setting forth the timeof continuous practice and the place or places where such practice waspursued in the commonwealth, and it shall be entered of record s 3 transient practitioner - any person attempting to practise medicineor surgery for a valuable consideration by opening a transient officewithin the commonwealth, or by handbill or other form of written orprinted advertisement, assigning such transient office or other placeto persons seeking medical or surgical advice, or prescribing oritinerating from place to place or from house to house and proposing tocure any person sick or afflicted, by the use of any medicine, means, or agency whatsoever, for a valuable consideration, shall before beingallowed to practise in this manner appear before the clerk of thecourt of quarter sessions of the county where he desires to practiseand furnish satisfactory evidence to such clerk that this act has beencomplied with, and shall take out a license for one year and pay $50therefor 4 penalty - to violate this act is a misdemeanor punishable with a fineof from $200 to $400 for each offence 5 qualification - every person who shall practise medicine or surgery, or any of their branches, for gain, or shall receive or accept for hisservices any fee or reward directly or indirectly, shall be a graduateof a legally chartered medical college or university having authorityto confer the degree of doctor of medicine except as provided insec 5, and shall present to the prothonotary of the county in whichhe resides or sojourns his medical diploma as well as a true copyof the same, including any indorsements thereon, and make affidavitbefore him that the diploma and indorsements are genuine. Thereuponthe prothonotary shall enter in the register the name in full of thepractitioner, his place of nativity, place of residence, the name ofthe college or university that has conferred the degree of doctor ofmedicine, the year when it was conferred, and in like manner any otherdegree or degrees that the practitioner may desire to place on record;to all of which the practitioner shall make affidavit before theprothonotary and the prothonotary shall place the copy of the diplomaand indorsements on file act june 8th, 1881, s 2 any person whose medical diploma has been destroyed or lost shallpresent to the prothonotary of the county in which he resides orsojourns a duly certified copy of his diploma, but if the same isnot obtainable a statement of this fact, with the names of theprofessors whose lectures he attended and the branches of study uponwhich each professor lectured, to all of which the practitioner shallmake affidavit before the prothonotary. After which the practitionershall be allowed to register and the prothonotary shall place suchcertificate or statement on file 3 any person desiring to commence the practice of medicine or surgery, having a medical diploma issued by any college, university, society, or association in another state or foreign country, shall lay the samebefore the faculty of one of the medical colleges or universities ofthis commonwealth for inspection, and the faculty being satisfiedas to the qualifications of the applicant and the genuineness of thediploma shall direct the dean of the faculty to indorse the same, afterwhich such person shall be allowed to register as required by sec 24 the act extends the privilege of continuing to practise to those whohave been in the continuous practice of medicine or surgery in thecommonwealth since 1871, but such a person must make affidavit to awritten statement of the facts before the prothonotary of the countyin which he resides. And the prothonotary shall enter in the registerthe name in full of the practitioner, his place of nativity, place ofresidence, the time of continuous practice in the commonwealth, and theplace or places where such practice was pursued, to all of which thepractitioner shall make affidavit, and the prothonotary shall place thecertificate or statement on file in his office 5 penalty - presenting to the faculty of an institution for indorsementor to the prothonotary a diploma which has been obtained by fraud, or in whole or in writing a forgery, or making an affidavit to a falsestatement, or practising without conforming with the act, or otherwiseviolating or neglecting to comply with the act, is a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of $100 or imprisonment in the county jail fornot more than one year, or both, for each offence 7 exception - the act does not prevent any physician or surgeon, legallyqualified to practise medicine or surgery in the state where heresides, from practising in the commonwealth, but a person opening anoffice or appointing a place to meet patients or receive calls is asojourner and must conform to its requirements 8 fees - to the prothonotary, for affidavit of continuous practice, $2 act march 24th, 1877, s 3 to county treasurer, for transient license, $50 to clerk of the court of quarter sessions, for issuing transientlicense, $5 4 to the prothonotary, for registration, $1 act june 8th, 1881, s 6 new law - the following law has been enacted whose practicalapplication does not begin until march 1st, 1894:medical council - the law provides for a medical council of the state act of may 18th, 1893, s 1 the council is to supervise the examinations conducted by the stateboards of medical examiners for licenses to practise medicine andsurgery, and issue licenses to applicants who shall have presentedsatisfactory and properly certified copies of licenses from the stateboards of medical examiners or state boards of health of other states, or who shall have successfully passed the examination of one of thestate boards established by this act 5 medical boards - from and after march 1st, 1894, there are to be threeseparate boards of medical examiners, one representing the medicalsociety of the state, one representing the homœopathic medical societyof the state, and one representing the eclectic medical society ofthe state each board is to consist of seven members appointed bythe governor from the full lists of the members of the said medicalsocieties, and is to be composed exclusively of members of the samemedical society each appointee must be a registered physician in goodstanding, and shall have practised medicine or surgery under the lawsof the state for not less than ten years prior to his appointment the governor is to fill vacancies and may remove a member for continualneglect of duties or on the recommendation of the medical society withwhich he may be in affiliation, for unprofessional or dishonorableconduct 6 examinations - for the purpose of examining applicants each board isto hold two or more stated or special meetings in each year after duepublic notice a majority constitutes a quorum, but the examination maybe conducted by a committee of one or more members authorized by theboard 9 the boards not less than one week prior to each examination mustsubmit to the council questions for thorough examination in anatomy, physiology, hygiene, chemistry, surgery, obstetrics, pathology, diagnosis, therapeutics, practice of medicine, and materia medica. Andthe council must select therefrom the questions for each examination, and such questions for each examination shall be the same for allcandidates, except that in the dewritingments of therapeutics, practice ofmedicine, and materia medica the questions shall be in harmony with theteachings of the school selected by the candidate 10 the examinations are to be in writing under rules prescribed by thecouncil after an examination the board must act on it withoutunnecessary delay and transmit to the council an official report ofits action stating the examination average of each candidate in eachbranch, the general average, and the result, and whether successfulor unsuccessful the report must embrace all the examination papers, questions, and answers, which shall be kept for reference andinspection for not less than five years 11 qualification - the council must forthwith issue to each applicantreturned as having successfully passed said examination, and adjudgedby the council to be duly qualified, a license to practise medicine andsurgery the council must require the same standard of qualificationsfrom all candidates except in therapeutics, practice of medicine, andmateria medica, in which the standard shall be determined by the boardsrespectively before the license is issued, it must be recorded in abook in the office of the council, and the number of the book and pagecontaining the record noted on the face of the license. The recordsshall have the same weight as evidence as that given to conveyance ofland 12 on and after july 1st, 1894, any person not theretofore authorized topractise medicine and surgery in the state may deliver to the secretaryof the council a written application for a license with satisfactoryproof that the applicant is more than twenty-one years of age, is ofgood moral character, has obtained a competent common-school education, and has received a diploma conferring the degree of medicine fromessay legally incorporated medical college of the united states, ora diploma or license conferring the full right to practise all thebranches of medicine and surgery in essay foreign country applicantswho have received their degree in medicine after july 1st, 1894, musthave pursued the study of medicine for at least three years, includingthree regular courses of lectures in different years in essay legallyincorporated medical college or colleges prior to the granting of saiddiploma or foreign license such proof shall be made, if required, upon affidavit, and if the council is satisfied with the same it shallissue to the applicant an order for examination before such one of theboards of examiners as the applicant may select in case of failure atthe examination the candidate, after the expiration of six months andwithin two years, shall have the privilege of a second examination bythe same board without additional fee applicants examined and licensedby state boards of medical examiners or state boards of health of otherstates, on filing in the office of the medical council a copy of saidlicense certified by the affidavit of the president and secretary ofsuch board, showing also that the standard of acquirements adopted bysaid board is substantially the same as is provided by secs 11, 12, and 13 of this act, shall without further examination receive a licenseconferring on the holder all the rights and privileges provided bysecs 14 and 15 13 from and after march 1st, 1894, no person shall enter upon the practiceof medicine or surgery unless he has complied with this act and shallhave exhibited to the prothonotary of the court of common pleas ofthe county in which he desires to practise a license duly granted, which shall entitle him to be duly registered in the office of suchprothonotary penalty - violating the provisions of this act shall be a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of not more than $500 for each offence s 14 exceptions - the act does not interfere with or punish commissionedmedical officers serving in the army or navy of the united states, or its marine hospital service, while so commissioned, or medicalexaminers of relief dewritingments of railroad companies, while soemployed, or any one while actually serving as a member of the residentmedical staff of any legally incorporated hospital, or any legallyqualified and registered dentist exclusively engaged in the practiceof dentistry, nor interfere with or prevent the dispensing and saleof medicine or medical appliances by apothecaries or pharmacists, nor interfere with the manufacture of artificial eyes, limbs, ororthopædical instruments or trusses of any kind for sic fittingsuch instruments on persons in need thereof, or any lawfully qualifiedphysicians and surgeons residing in other states or countries meetingregistered physicians of this state in consultation, or any physicianor surgeon residing on the border of a neighboring state and dulyauthorized under the laws thereof to practise medicine and surgerytherein, whose practice extends into the limits of this state, providedsuch practitioner shall not open an office or appoint a place tomeet patients or receive calls within the limits of pennsylvania, orphysicians duly registered in one county of this state called toattend paper in another, but not residing or opening an office therein the act does not prohibit the practice of medicine and surgery by anypractitioner who shall have been duly registered before march 1st, 1894, according to the act of june 8th, 1881, and one such registrationshall be sufficient warrant to practise medicine and surgery in anycounty 15 former laws - all acts or writings of acts inconsistent with this arerepealed 17 fees - to the secretary of the council, upon application for a license, $25 to the secretary of the county, upon application for a license bylicensees in other states, $15 13 to the prothonotary, upon exhibition of a license, for registry, $114 rhode island registration - every physician must cause his name and residence tobe recorded in the town clerk office of the town where he resides public statutes, 1882, c 85, s 12 penalty - wilful neglect or refusal to perform this duty is punishablewith a fine not exceeding $20 11 south carolina qualification - all physicians engaging in the practice of medicineor surgery, before doing so, must submit their diplomas to a boardconsisting of three reputable physicians in each county the boardis appointed by the governor on the recommendation of the medicalsocieties of the counties, and where no medical society exists, upon the recommendation of the senator and members of the house ofrepresentatives for such counties act of 1890, c 454, s 1 the said board must examine said diploma, when submitted, and if theholder is a bona fide holder, and if the college issuing said diplomais a reputable medical college, and if he also submits a certificate ofgood moral character, the board must certify to the fact, and upon suchcertificate the diploma shall be registered by the clerk of the courtof the county in which the applicant resides 2 exception - the act does not apply to physicians and surgeons alreadyregistered under former laws 4 south dakota prohibition - it is unlawful for any person to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics in any of their dewritingments without havingreceived a license to practise medicine from the board of health, andhaving it recorded in the office of the register of deeds in the countywhere such person resides act february 16th, 1893, s 1 exceptions - the act does not affect those in the lawful practice ofmedicine, surgery, or obstetrics in this state at the time of itspassage 2 nor does it prohibit students from prescribing under the supervisionof a preceptor, nor prohibit gratuitous services in case of emergency, nor apply to commissioned surgeons in the united states army and navy3 penalty - violation of the act or practising without the license is amisdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $25 to $100 or imprisonmentin the county jail not more than thirty days or both 4 qualification - the state board of health is constituted a board ofpublic examiners ex-officio to examine and license physicians topractise medicine any person who is a graduate of a lawful medicalcollege, who has attended three full courses of medical lectures ofsix months each, no two full courses within the same year, and who isof good moral character, and is not an habitual drunkard, shall, uponproof of such facts to the superintendent of the state board of health, as the board shall require, receive from said superintendent a license;which shall be recorded as above the requirement of three courses oflectures does not apply to those who had graduated prior to the passageof the act 5 cancellation of license - the state board of health, upon complaintmade to it on oath by one responsible person, has power to cancel anylicense that may have been fraudulently obtained or when the person towhom such license was issued is an habitual drunkard, or is guilty ofimmoral practices or gross unprofessional conduct such license shallnot be cancelled except after a hearing before such board of health, at which a majority of such board shall be present, and of which theperson holding the license to be cancelled shall have had at leastten days’ notice, and only upon due proof of the facts stated in thecomplaint an appeal may be taken to the circuit court of the countyin which the person whose license is cancelled lives by any personaggrieved, in the same manner as now provided by law in case of appealfrom the decisions of the county commissioners 6 fee - to the superintendent of the state board of health, for alicense, $5 5 tennessee qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine in any of itsdewritingments, except dentistry, unless he possesses the qualificationsrequired by the act if a graduate in medicine, he must present hisdiploma to the state board of medical examiners for verification asto its genuineness if found genuine and from a legally charteredallopathic, homœopathic, or eclectic medical college in good standingwith the school of medicine in which said college is classed, of whichthe state board of medical examiners shall be the judge, and the personnamed therein be the person claiming and presenting it, the board mustissue a certificate to that effect, conclusive as to the rights of thelawful holder to practise medicine act of 1889, c 178, s 1 persons in actual practice at the time of the passage of the act wereallowed till july 1st, 1891, to comply with the provisions of the actrespecting them 2, as amended act 1891, c 109, s 1 a person wishing to enter upon the practice of medicine must presentto the board of medical examiners a diploma from essay medical collegein good standing as provided by sec 1, or shall present himself tothe said board for examination upon anatomy, physiology, chemistry, pathology, surgery, obstetrics, and therapeutics if the diploma befound genuine, or if the applicant for examination be found worthy andcompetent, the board shall issue a certificate which shall entitlethe lawful holder to all the privileges of this act 3, asamended act 1891, c 109, s 2 the governor appoints six graduate physicians as a state board ofmedical examiners. The three schools allopathic, homœopathic, andeclectic must be represented on the board. Five constitute a quorumand a majority of those present are necessary to reject an applicant, but such rejection shall not bar a re-examination after the lapse ofthree months. Provided the members representing each school shall havethe right to examine all applicants of that school, and the boardshall issue the certificate to applicants who are recommended by themember or members of the board who belong to said school after suchexamination 4 to prevent delay and inconvenience two members of the board may granta temporary license to any applicant if the applicant has not beenrefused a license by the board within six months, which shall be inforce till the next regular meeting of the board 5 the members of the board shall not be members of the state board ofhealth, nor any medical faculty 6 the regular meeting of the board shall be once in each year at suchtime and place as the board may decide, but the president of the boardmay call a special meeting when demanded by public necessity s 7 every person holding a certificate must have it recorded in the officeof the county court clerk where he resides, and the date of record mustbe indorsed thereon until such record is made the holder shall notexercise any of the rights and privileges conferred a person removingto another county to practise shall record his certificate in likemanner in the county to which he removes practitioners may go fromone county to another on professional business, without being requiredto register, if they have done so in the county in which they reside9 itinerant physician or vender - it is unlawful for an itinerantphysician or vender of any drug, nostrum, ointment, or appliance of anykind intended for the treatment of disease or injury to sell or applythe same, or by writing, printing, or other method to profess to cureor treat disease or deformity by any drug, nostrum, manipulation, orother expedient a violation of this section is punishable with a fine of $100 to $400, but this section does not apply to merchants and druggists, and thisact does not apply to veterinary surgeons and stock doctors s 13, as amended act 1891, c 109, s 3 penalty, exception - to practise medicine or surgery without acertificate is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $10 to $25 to file or attempt to file as his own the diploma or certificate ofanother or a forged affidavit of identification is a felony punishablesame as forgery the act does not apply to women who pursue theavocation of midwife 14, as amended act 1891, c 109, s 4 fees - to the county court clerk, for recording certificate, the usualfee 9 to the board of examiners, for issuing a certificate, $1 to the board of examiners, for examination of non-graduate, $10 if applicant fails to pass a satisfactory examination, and nocertificate or license is issued to him, $5 only is retained for a certificate of temporary license, $1, which is to be credited tothe applicant when he applies for a permanent license 12, asamended act 1891, c 109, s 2 texas constitutional provision - the legislature may pass laws prescribingthe qualifications of practitioners of medicine, but no preferenceshall ever be given by law to any schools of medicine const 1876, art xiv , s 31 in writing boards of examiners - a board of medical examiners for each judicialdistrict is appointed by the judge of the district court r s , art 3, 625 each board is composed of not less than three practising physiciansof known ability, graduates of essay medical college recognized by theamerican medical association, residents of the district from which theyare appointed art 3, 626 the boards are required to meet regularly semi-annually at essaycentral point in their districts to conduct examinations and grantcertificates, and after at least one month public notice of the timeand place of meeting by publication in at least one newspaper publishedin the district art 3, 629 qualification - the board is required to examine thoroughly allapplicants for a certificate of qualification to practise medicine inany of its branches or dewritingments, whether furnished with medicaldiplomas or not, upon anatomy, physiology, pathological anatomy andpathology, surgery, obstetrics, and chemistry. But no preference shallbe given to any school of medicine art 3, 632 when the board is satisfied as to the qualifications of an applicant, they are required to grant a certificate, which entitles him topractise medicine in any county when it has been recorded art 3, 633 any two members of the board may grant a certificate, and any membermay grant a temporary certificate upon examination, which shall be inforce until the next regular meeting of the board art 3, 634 the certificate must, before the person to whom it was granted isentitled to practise, be recorded in the office of the clerk of thedistrict court of the county in which such practitioner resides orsojourns, and when recorded the clerk shall certify thereon underhis official seal the fact and date of record, and shall return thecertificate to its owner art 3, 635 exceptions - this title does not apply to those who have alreadyqualified under the act of may 16th, 1873, nor to those regularlyengaged in the general practice of medicine in the state in any branchor dewritingment for five consecutive years prior to january 1st, 1875, nor to females who follow the practice of midwifery strictly as such art 3, 637 penalty - no person except those named in art 3, 637 can lawfullypractise medicine in any of its branches or dewritingments without havingfirst obtained and recorded a certificate of qualification as aboveprovided a person so offending shall be punished as provided in thepenal code art 3, 638 if any person shall practise for pay or as a regular practitionermedicine in any of its branches or dewritingments, or offer or attemptto practise medicine without first having obtained a certificate ofprofessional qualification from essay authorized board of medicalexaminers, or without having a diploma from essay actual medical collegechartered by the legislature of the state, or its authority, in whichthe same is situated, he shall be punished by a fine of not less than$50, nor more than $500 penal code, art 396 each patient visited or prescribed for, or each day offer to practiseconstitutes a separate offence art 397 if any person shall engage in the practice of medicine in any of itsbranches or dewritingments for pay or as a registered practitioner, without having first filed for record, with the clerk of the districtcourt of the county in which he resides or sojourns, a certificatefrom essay authorized board of medical examiners or a diploma from essayactual medical college, he shall be punished as prescribed in art 396 art 398 fees - to the clerk of the district court, for recording certificate, $1 r s , art 3, 635 to the board of examiners, for examination, $15, whether certificate isgranted or not r s , art 3, 636 utah board of examiners - the governor appoints by and with the advice andconsent of the council a board of seven medical examiners from thevarious recognized schools of medicine. Appointees are required to begraduates of a legally chartered medical college in good standing act1892, c 72, s 1 qualification - the board has power to issue certificates to all whofurnish satisfactory proof of having received degrees or licensesfrom a chartered medical college in good and legal standing, and passexaminations before said board 2 graduates of respectable medical colleges at the time of the passage ofthe act engaged in actual practice in the territory shall be licensedon presenting their degree to the board, and producing satisfactoryevidence of identity 4 every person holding a certificate from said board must have itrecorded in the office of the recorder of the county in which heresides within three months from its date, and the date of record mustbe indorsed thereon until the certificate is recorded, the holdershall not exercise any of the privileges conferred a person removingto another county to practise must record his certificate in likemanner in the county to which he removes 5 examinations shall be wholly or writingly in writing 7 the board may refuse to issue certificates to individuals guilty ofunprofessional or dishonorable conduct, the nature of which shall bestated in writing, and it may revoke certificates for like causes to bestated in writing 8 definition - any person is regarded as practising medicine who treats, operates upon, or prescribes for any physical ailment of another for afee, or who holds himself out by means of signs, cards, advertisements, or otherwise as a physician or surgeon exceptions - the act does not prohibit service in case of emergencyor the administration of family remedies, and does not apply tocommissioned surgeons of the united states army in discharge of theirofficial duties, or to visiting physicians in actual consultation9 offence - practising medicine or surgery without a certificate orcontrary to this act is a misdemeanor 10 persons not graduates who had practised continuously for ten yearsin the territory prior to the taking effect of the act were allowedsix months in which to comply with its provisions concerning them practising without complying with these provisions, and practisingafter rejection of an application or the revocation of certificate, isa violation of the law 11 obstetricians - persons practising obstetrics were required withinthree months after the passage of the act to apply to the board for acertificate, and after passing a proper examination were entitled toone practising obstetrics without first obtaining a license or contraryto this act is a misdemeanor.

This is a question which may often be asked in paper of fatal injuries, and it is one which must be answered as definitely as we are able, forthe defence may rest on the assertion that the wound or injury was postmortem and not ante mortem what are the means we have to enable us toanswer the above question?. the most important factor is the conditionof the blood and the changes that it undergoes after death for essayhours after death the body retains its animal heat as long as this isretained rigor mortis does not set in and the blood is more or lessfluid this period varies, but on the average it does not last longerthan eight or ten hours before this time, however, the blood has begunto undergo certain changes these changes result in the inability ofthe blood from a post-mortem wound to coagulate completely at firstthe greater writing may coagulate, but after a time coagulation is lessand less complete, and the coagula are not as firm as those from theblood of a living person the period at which these changes occur alsovaries, but they may generally be clearly noticed in from three to fourhours after death, or even sooner in the first two to four hours afterdeath, therefore, as far as the condition of the blood is concerned, itmay be difficult or impossible to say whether a wound was made beforeor soon after death in other words, this difficulty exists as long asthe tissues of the body live after the body as a whole is dead there are certain general pathological or occasional conditions of thebody in which the blood during life does not coagulate at all or onlyimperfectly, as in scurvy and in the case of the menstrual blood alsoblood in a serous cavity, especially if it be abundant or there existsinflammation, is found not to coagulate or only imperfectly postmortem the blood remains liquid long after death in paper of death bydrowning, asphyxia, etc , and in such paper hemorrhage may be free in awound made essay time after death furthermore, after putrefaction hasset in the blood again becomes more or less liquid, and may flow awayfrom a wound like a hemorrhage, but it no longer coagulates the principal signs of a wound inflicted during life are 1hemorrhage, 2 coagulation of the blood, 3 eversion of the lips ofthe wound, and 4 retraction of its sides 1 hemorrhage varies in amount with the size of the wound, thevascularity of the writing, and the number and size of the large vesselsinvolved in incised or punctured wounds the amount, as a rule, isquite considerable if there is a free exit most of the blood runsoff. The rest stays in the wound, where it soon coagulates with theexceptions mentioned above but besides writingly filling the wound inthe form of a clot, the edges of the wound are deeply stained withthe coloring matter of the blood, and this stain cannot be removed bywashing this staining involves especially the muscular and cellulartissues further, a hemorrhage during life is an active and not a passive one;the blood is forced into the interspaces of the tissues in the vicinityof the wound, and is found infiltrated in the cellular tissue, themuscles, the sheaths of the vessels, etc it is here incorporated, as it were, with the tissues so that it cannot be washed away in anante-mortem wound the arterial nature of the hemorrhage may show bythe marks of the jets of blood about the wound or on the clothes orsurrounding objects when a large vessel has been divided and theexit for the blood is free, this may run off without infiltrating thetissues or even staining the edges to any considerable extent, andthere may remain but little in the wound in the case of lacerated andcontused wounds the amount of hemorrhage is less, but rarely failsentirely, and if the wound is in a vascular writing it is liable to causedeath from hemorrhage, though a whole limb may possibly be torn offwithout much hemorrhage in the latter case, however, there are usuallyfound clots of blood adhering to the edges of the lacerated woundand the ends of the vessels in contusions where there is no woundof the skin the blood is prevented from flowing externally, and itsaccumulation and distribution form an ecchymosis here again we see theactive power of the hemorrhage which infiltrates between the tissues, stains them deeply, and appears either as a mere stain or in fineclots incorporated, as it were, with the tissues or writingly occupying acavity formed by an extensive displacement of the surrounding writings the amount of blood varies under the same conditions as in incisedwounds, and also according to the greater or less disintegration ofthe tissues by the blow, allowing a larger or smaller central cavityto be formed in “bleeders” the amount of the hemorrhage does notvary under the normal conditions, but a fatal hemorrhage may occurfrom a very insignificant wound after hemorrhage from a wound madeduring life the veins are empty about the wound, especially thosesituated centripetally, while normally after death the blood is mostlyaggregated in the veins they are the source of post-mortem hemorrhage, but do not empty themselves to any great extent the hemorrhage from a wound made after death may be extensive ifthe blood remains fluid as in the paper mentioned above, i e , after death from drowning or asphyxia or after the commencement ofputrefaction otherwise the amount of hemorrhage decreases with thelength of time after death, until the blood loses its fluidity andhemorrhage no longer occurs in general, it is slight unless a largevein is opened, for the veins are the source of the hemorrhage thereis usually scarcely any hemorrhage after the first two to four hours this applies also to subcutaneous hemorrhages or ecchymoses thesepost-mortem hemorrhages are passive and not active, consequently thereis less infiltration of blood into the surrounding tissues, whichmerely imbibe it, and the stain is less deep and may be washed off theedges of the wound, in contrast to the stain of ante-mortem wounds after putrefaction has set in the hemorrhage may be more abundant, as the blood is driven to the surface by the formation of gas in theabdomen and thorax at the same time, the coloring matter of the bloodtransudes through the walls of the veins and is imbibed by and stainsthe tissues, so that it may be impossible to distinguish it from a trueecchymosis fortunately these conditions are of small moment, as anexamination is seldom deferred so long cadaveric ecchymoses show almost invariably while the body is stillwarm and the blood more or less liquid, i e , during the first eightor ten hours after death they are not due to injury or violence beforeor after death, but they may closely resemble ecchymoses produced onthe living body and be mistaken for them this is the more important asthey are quite constant on the cadaver in this connection, it may be said that an ecchymosis due to a blowbefore death may not show till after death, as it requires essay timefor a deep ecchymosis or even an ecchymosis covered by a thick layerof skin to show superficially thus a man kicked in the abdomen diedthirty-five hours after the injury from peritonitis, due to a ruptureof the bladder no ecchymosis appeared at the site of the injuriesuntil after death it is not uncommon in paper of hanging to observean ecchymosis along the course of the cord appearing only after death huize met with a case of this description devergie remarked that onthe bodies of those drowned ecchymoses are often hidden for a time onaccount of the sodden state of the skin, and they appear only afterthe water has evaporated, which may require essay days furthermore, it is not necessary to survive long after an injury in order that anecchymosis may show post mortem if the blood is fluid at the time ofthe blow and any capillaries or larger blood-vessels are torn, then wemay have an ecchymosis though death be almost instant casper thoughtthat it required essay time before death for an ecchymosis to develop, and that if the person injured by a contusion died soon after theinjury, an ecchymosis would not appear after death there are thesiswell-authenticated paper to prove that casper opinion is wrong amongthe most famous of these is that of the duchesse de praslin 615 shewas attacked and killed by her husband while she was asleep in bed the thirty or so wounds showed a mortal conflict, and she could nothave survived more than one-half hour, and yet after death there werenumerous ecchymoses from the contusions another case is also mentioned by taylor 616 a young man diedsuddenly after a blow from a companion, having been struck in the sidea fortnight before by a heavy box, which knocked him senseless andnearly killed him the post mortem revealed an ecchymosis on the sidewhich on the authority of casper opinion was attributed to the oldinjury the color of the ecchymosis would be sufficient to settle allsuch doubts, as the changes of color would have fully developed or thecolor even disappeared in writing in fourteen days’ time an ecchymosis made post mortem does not undergo the color changesseen in ecchymoses during life, unless the tissues are œdematous inwhich the ecchymosis occurs these changes in color have already beendescribed, the deep blue changing to violet in eighteen to twenty-fourhours at the earliest in support of the foregoing and disprovingcasper views, christison found that within two hours after deathsevere blows on a dead body are followed by a livid discoloration, similar to those produced by a blow shortly before death this lividdiscoloration is due to the effusion of a very thin layer of bloodexternal or superficial to the true skin, essaytimes in a stratum ofthe true skin or more rarely into the cellular tissue, staining deeplythe writingition walls of the fat-cells of course, a more or less recentcontusion or ecchymosis on a dead body was not necessarily produced atthe same time as the cause of death it should be borne in mind inthis connection that ecchymosis is not a necessary result of a blow orcontusion according to devergie, ecchymosis does not appear when a blow inflictedpost mortem is received by skin directly covering a bony surfacebeneath, and rarely appears where there is a large amount of fat and nosolid point of resistance beneath the site of the blow we have already referred to the fact which portal long ago remarked, namely, that the spleen has been ruptured without ecchymosis orabrasion of the skin the same absence of ecchymosis has been noticedin paper where the liver, stomach, intestines, bladder, etc , have beenruptured as the result of contusing blows the following case cited by taylor617 illustrates this point henkereported the case of a man who died of peritonitis a few hours afterfighting with another man there was no mark on the skin or ecchymosis, though there existed peritonitis from rupture of the small intestine the blow was proven by direct evidence, and though essay medicalwitnesses on account of the absence of external signs thought that noblow could have been struck, others of more experience admitted that itcould have been the cause of the rupture watson618 reports a similar case of a girl nine years old whoreceived a blow from a shoe on the abdomen this was followed by greatpain, collapse and death in twenty-one hours no marks of injury werevisible externally, but peritonitis existed from rupture of the ileum a similar case is reported by williamson, 619 where peritonitisresulted from complete rupture of the ileum without any trace of injuryexternally, though the blow was struck by the hoof of a horse another case was brought into guy hospital620 who had been run overby an omnibus no injury was discoverable, though the wheel had passedover the chest and abdomen he died of peritonitis, however, which setin on the second day, and on post-mortem examination the liver andsmall intestines were found ruptured christison thought as the result of his experiments and experiencethat the most reliable signs of an ecchymosis made during life, anddistinguishing it from one caused by a blow after death, were asfollows. The skin of the ecchymosed area is generally much darkened anddiscolored from blood infiltrated through its entire thickness.

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Arb a d pharm inst d universität, berlin 11:210, 1914 as a result of thoms’ work the german courts held that formamint wasnot a new chemical compound consequently the formamint patent number189036 was annulled in berlin, nov 29, 1913 again the contention that formaldehyd in the nascent or activecondition is less poisonous and irritating than in its ordinary form iscontrary to what would be expected from the behavior of such compounds if it were liberated, as claimed, in the “nascent” condition, it wouldbe, for that very reason, not only more active but also more harmful as a matter of fact, formamint did have an irritant effect on theworker who carried out these investigations when one tablet wastaken each hour for twelve consecutive hours, marked irritation ofthe intestinal tract resulted there was almost sufficient nausea tocause vomiting and uneasiness in the alimentary canal following theexperiment when the twenty-four tablets were taken the results weresimilar but more pronounced this is decidedly in contradiction to theassertions of the manufacturers otto seifert, 26 moreover, cites the following. “by effects. Only a few patients complain of an unpleasant sharp taste, burning of the tongue seifert, sklarek among the general symptoms observed are urticaria-like exanthems glaser, roters, which are accompanied by nausea, vomiting, headache, insomnia and vertigo, burning and irritability especially in the larynx meissner. Phenomena of poisoning geissler. Gastric disturbances engelmann. Renal irritation steinhard. Unsuited for diabetics voit ”26 seifert, otto. Die nebenwirkungen der modernen arzneimittel, 1915 the contention that formamint, when mixed directly with mediumsand left in contact with bacteria, will kill the organisms wascorroborated thus the statements and pictures in the booklet, “thegospel of prevention, ” which is enclosed with each bottle of formamint, showing the inhibition of growth of air bacteria on plates containingformamint are no doubt true and authentic finally, the claim that formamint is an almost perfect throatdisinfectant was by no means confirmed, as a glance at the tables willshow one hour after it is taken, even when a tablet was used eachhalf hour for twelve hours, the number of bacteria in the throat waspractically the same as when formamint was not used even ten minutesafter taking a tablet the number of bacteria in the throat was nevergreatly reduced, as is maintained by the manufacturers has no selective actionformamint exerts no selective action in killing off the very delicateorganisms which are more apt to be pathogenic when the comparativecounts were made on blood agar which would favor the growth of thedelicate parasitic organisms, no reduction whatever was shown by theuse of formamint the number of streptococci was found to be the same, within limits ofexperimental error, ten minutes after taking a tablet as it was beforethe tablet was taken therefore it seems that formamint fails, as any such germicide wouldbe expected to fail, to kill bacteria in the crypts and recesses ofthe throat, for when dissolved in the mouth it cannot reach and remainin contact with the organisms long enough to kill them before it isswallowed summarysummed up, the investigation shows:1 that the claims made for formamint are extravagant and misleading 2 that the recommendations for the use of these tablets may be, inessay paper, fraught with danger and are a menace, not only to thehealth of the individual, but also to the safety of the community 3 that the claim that formamint is a definite chemical compound isfalse 4 that the use of formamint may produce marked irritation of theintestinal tract 5 that formamint is not a throat disinfectant, as the manufacturersmaintain, but its action on the bacteria of the throat is an almostnegligible one and dependence on formamint for the prevention ofinfection and for curing disease is not only unwise but dangerous 6 that formamint conflicts with the rules of the council falsestatements are made with regard to its composition rule 1. Grosslyunwarranted claims are made for its therapeutic properties rule 6, and therefore its exploitation to the public rules 3 and 4 is apublic danger it is recommended that this report be published, to call attention notonly to the falsity of the claims made for, and the danger in the useof, formamint, but also to emphasize the utter inefficiency of all suchmethods of “disinfecting” the throat -- from the journal a m a , aug 28, 1915 hydragogin report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryhydragogin c bischoff & co , new york, selling agents is advertisedas “a most powerful diuretic and cardiac tonic ” the composition givenis.