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How To Start A Conclusion For An Essay


And this hath beensufficiently proved true by the experience of a man of judgment, whokept it long to himself as a great secret it clears the eyes of dust, or any thing gotten into them, and preserves the sight it is also veryavailable against wounds and thrusts, being made into an ointment inthis manner. To every ounce of the water, add two drams of may butterwithout salt, and of sugar and wax, of each as much also. Let themboil gently together let tents dipped into the liquor that remainsafter it is cold, be put into the wounds, and the place covered witha linen cloth doubled and anointed with the ointment. And this is alsoan approved medicine it likewise cleanses and heals all foul ulcers, and sores whatsoever, and stays their inflammations by washing themwith the water, and laying on them a green leaf or two in the summer, or dry leaves in the winter this water, gargled warm in the mouth, and essaytimes drank also, doth cure the quinsy, or king evil in thethroat the said water applied warm, takes away all spots, marks, andscabs in the skin. And a little of it drank, quenches thirst when it isextreme lovage descript it has thesis long and green stalks of large winged leaves, divided into thesis writings, like smallage, but much larger and greater, every leaf being cut about the edges, broadest forward, and smallest atthe stalk, of a sad green colour, smooth and shining. From among whichrise up sundry strong, hollow green stalks, five or six, essaytimesseven or eight feet high, full of joints, but lesser leaves set onthem than grow below. And with them towards the tops come forth largebranches, bearing at their tops large umbels of yellow flowers, andafter them flat brownish seed the roots grow thick, great and deep, spreading much, and enduring long, of a brownish colour on the outside, and whitish within the whole plant and every writing of it smellingstrong, and aromatically, and is of a hot, sharp, biting taste place it is usually planted in gardens, where, if it be suffered, it grows huge and great time it flowers in the end of july, and seeds in august government and virtues it is an herb of the sun, under the signtaurus if saturn offend the throat as he always doth if he beoccasioner of the malady, and in taurus is the genesis this is yourcure it opens, cures and digests humours, and mightily provokeswomen courses and urine half a dram at a time of the dried rootin powder taken in wine, doth wonderfully warm a cold stomach, helpsdigestion, and consumes all raw and superfluous moisture therein. Easesall inward gripings and pains, dissolves wind, and resists poison andinfection it is a known and much praised remedy to drink the decoctionof the herb for any sort of ague, and to help the pains and tormentsof the body and bowels coming of cold the seed is effectual to allthe purposes aforesaid except the last and works more powerfully the distilled water of the herb helps the quinsy in the throat, ifthe mouth and throat be gargled and washed therewith, and helps thepleurisy, being drank three or four times being dropped into the eyes, it takes away the redness or dimness of them.

Then removing it from the fire whilst it is warm, add ambergris cut small, half an ounce, which being well mingled, put in these things following in powder, cinnamon, wood of aloes, ofeach six drams, pearls prepared, two drams, leaf-gold a dram, musk ascruple, make it up according to art culpeper questionless this is a great cordial, and a mightystrengthener of the heart, and vital spirits, a restorer of such asare in consumptions, a resister of pestilences and poison, a reliefto languishing nature, it is given with good success in fevers, butgive not too much of it at a time, lest it prove too hot for the body, and too heavy for the purse you may mix ten grains of it with otherconvenient cordials to children, twenty or thirty to men electuarium e sassaphras college take of sassafras two ounces, common water three pounds, boil it to the consumption of the third writing, adding, towards theend, cinnamon bruised half an ounce, strain it, and with two poundsof white sugar, boil it to the thickness of a syrup, putting in, inpowder, cinnamon, a dram, nutmegs, half a scruple, musk three grains, ambergris, two and thirty grains, ten leaves of gold, spirit of vitriolfour drops, and so make it into an electuary according to art culpeper it opens obstruction of the liver and spleen, helps coldrheums or defluxions from the head to the lungs, or teeth, or eyes, itis excellent in coughs, and other cold afflictions of the lungs andbreast, it helps digestion, expels wind and the gravel of the kidneys, it provokes the menses, warms and dries up the moisture of the womb, which is thesis how to start a conclusion for an essay times the cause of barrenness, and is generally a helperof all diseases coming of cold, raw thin humours, you may take half adram at a time in the morning electuarium de baccis lauri or electuary of bay-berries college take of the leaves of dried rue ten drams, the seeds ofammi, cummin, lovage, origanum, nigella, caraway, carrots, parsley, bitter almonds, pepper black and long, wild mints, calamus aromaticus, bay-berries, castorium of each two drams, sagapenum half an ounce, opopanax three drams, clarified honey a pound and an half, the thingsto be beaten. Being beaten, and the gums dissolved in wine, make itinto an electuary according to art culpeper it is exceeding good either in the cholic, or iliacpassion, or any other disease of the bowels coming of cold or wind, itgenerally eases pains in the bowels you may give a dram in the morningfasting, or half an ounce in a clyster, according as the disease is diacapparit college take of capers four ounces agrimony roots, nigella seeds, squils, asarabacca, centaury, black pepper, smallage, thyme of eachan ounce, honey three times their weight, make it into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper they say it helps infirmities of the spleen, and indeedthe name seems to promise so much, it may be good for cold bodies, ifthey have strength of nature in them diacinnamomum college take of cinnamon fifteen drams, cassia lignea, elecampaneroots, of each half an ounce, galanga, seven drams, cloves, longpepper, both sorts of cardamoms, ginger, mace, nutmegs, wood of aloes, of each three drams, saffron, one dram, sugar five drams, musk twoscruples, adding according to the prescript of the physician, and byadding three pounds eight ounces of clarified honey, boil it and makeit into an electuary according to art culpeper diacinnamomum, or in plain english, a composition ofcinnamon, heats the stomach, causes digestion, provokes the menses, strengthens the stomach and other writings that distribute the nourishmentof the body, a dram of it taken in the morning fasting, is good forancient people and cold bodies, such as are subject to dropsies anddiseases of flegm, or wind, for it comforts and strengthens naturemuch if you take it to help digestion, take it an hour before meat, doso in all things of like quality diacorallion college take of coral white and red, bole-amoniac, dragon-blood, of each one dram, pearls half a dram, wood of aloes, red roses, gumtragacanth, cinnamon, of each two scruples, sanders white and red, ofeach one scruple, with four times its weight in sugar dissolved insmall cinnamon water, make it into an electuary, according to art culpeper it comforts and strengthens the heart exceedingly, andrestores such as are in consumptions, it is cooling, therefore good inhectic fevers, very binding, and therefore stops fluxes, neither doi know a better medicine in all the dispensatory for such as have aconsumption accompanied with looseness it stops the menses and fluoralbus take but a dram at a time every morning, because of its bindingquality, except you have a looseness, for then you may take so much twoor three times a day diacorum college take of the roots of cicers, acorus, or calamus aromaticus, pine-nuts, of each a pound and a half, let the cicers roots, beingcleansed, cut, boiled, and pulped, be added to ten pounds of clarifiedhoney, and boiled, stirring it to its just thickness, then beingremoved from the fire, add the acorus roots beaten, the pine-nuts cut, and these following in powder take of black pepper an ounce, longpepper, cloves, ginger, mace, of each half an ounce, nutmegs, galanga, cardamons, of each three drams, mix them with the roots and honey intoan electuary according to art culpeper the electuary provokes lust, heats the brain, strengthensthe nerves, quickens the senses, causes an acute wit, eases pains inthe head, helps the falling-sickness and convulsions, coughs, catharrs, and all diseases proceeding from coldness of the brain half a dram isenough to take at one time, because of its heat peony is an herb of the sun, the roots of it cure thefalling-sickness diacydonium simple college take of the flesh of quinces cut and boiled in fair waterto a thickness, eight pounds, white sugar six pounds, boil it to itsjust thickness diacydonium with species college take of the juice of quinces, sugar, of each two pounds, white wine vinegar half a pound, added at the end of the decoction, itbeing gently boiled, and the scum taken away, add ginger two ounces, white pepper ten drams and two scruples, bruise them grossly, and boilit again to the thickness of honey diacydonium compound, magisterial college take of white sugar six pounds, spring water four pounds, clarify them well with the white of an egg, scumming them, then takeof ripe quinces cleansed from the rind and seeds, and cut in fourquarters, eight pounds, boil them in the foregoing syrup till they betender, then strain the syrup through a linen cloth, vocata anglice, boulter. Boil them again to a jelly, adding four ounces of white winevinegar towards the end. Remove it from the fire, and whilst it iswarm put in these following species in powder, ginger an ounce, whitepepper, cinnamon, nutmegs, of each two drams, keep it for use culpeper the virtues of all these three are, they comfort thestomach, help digestion, stays vomiting, belchings, &c stop fluxesand the menses they are all harmless, you may take the quantity of anutmeg of them at a time, before meat to help digestion and fluxes, after meat to stay vomiting, in the morning for the rest confectio de hyacintho college take of jacinth, red coral, bole-amoniac, earth of lemnos, of each half an ounce, the berries of chermes, the roots of tormentiland dittany, the seeds of citrons, sorrel, and purslain, saffron, myrrh, red roses exungulated, all the sorts of sanders, bone of astag heart, hart-horn, ivory prepared, of each four scruples, samphire, emerald, topaz, pearls, raw silk, leaves of gold and silver, of each two scruples, camphire, musk, ambergris, of each five grains, with syrup of lemons make it into a confection according to art culpeper it is a great cordial and cool, exceeding good in acutefevers and pestilences, it mightily strengthens and cherishes theheart never above half a dram is given at a time, very seldom somuch antidotum hæmagogum college take of lupines husked two drams, black pepper fivescruples and six grains, liquorice four scruples, long birthwort, mugwort, cassia lignea, macedonian parsley seed, pellitory of spain, rue seed, spikenard, myrrh, pennyroyal, of each two scruples andfourteen grains, the seeds of smallage, savin, of each two scruplesand thirteen grains, centaury the greater, cretish carrots, nigella, caraway, annis, cloves, alum, of each two scruples, bay leaves onescruple, one half scruple, and three grains, schænanth one scrupleand thirteen grains, asarabacca, calamus aromaticus, amomum, centaurythe less, the seed of orrach, peony, fennel, of each one scruple andsix grains, wood of aloes, a scruple and fourteen grains, cypress, elecampane, ginger, cappar roots, cummin, orobus, of each one scruple, all of them being beaten into very fine powder, let them be made intoan electuary according to art, with four times their weight in sugar, let it stand one month before you use it culpeper it provokes the menses, brings away both birth andafter-birth, the dead child, purges such as are not sufficiently purgedafter travail, it provokes urine, breaks the stone in the bladder, helps the stranguary, disury, iskury, &c helps indigestion, thecholic, opens any stoppings in the body, it heats the stomach, purgesthe liver and spleen, consumes wind, stays vomiting, but let it not betaken by pregnant women, nor such people as have the hemorrhoids thedose is from one dram to two drams diasatyrion college take of satyrion roots three ounces, dates, bitter almonds, indian nuts, pine nuts, festick nuts, green ginger, eringo rootspreserved, of each one ounce, ginger, cloves, galanga, pepper long andblack, of each three drams, ambergris one scruple musk two scruples, penins four ounces, cinnamon, saffron, of each half an ounce, malagawine three ounces, nutmegs, mace, grains of paradise, of each twodrams, ash-tree keys, the belly and loins of scinks, borax, benjamin, of each three drams, wood of aloes, cardamoms, of each two drams, theseeds of nettles and onions, the roots of avens, of each a dram and anhalf, with two pounds and an half of syrup of green ginger, make theminto an electuary according to art electuarium diaspermaton college take of the four greater and lesser cold seeds, the seedsof asparagus, burnet, bazil, parsley, winter cherries, of each twodrams, gromwell, juice of liquorice, of each three drams, cinnamon, mace, of each one dram, with eight times their weight in white sugardissolved in marsh-mallows water, make it into an electuary accordingto art culpeper it breaks the stone, and provokes urine men may take halfan ounce at a time, and children half so much, in water of any herb orroots, &c or decoction of them that break the stone micleta college take of the barks of all the myrobalans torrified, of eachtwo drams and an half, the seeds of water-cresses, cummin, annis, fennel, ammi, caraway, of each a dram and an half, bruise the seedsand sprinkle them with sharp white wine vinegar, then beat them intopowder, and add the mirobalans, and these things that follow, spodium, balaustines, sumach, mastich, gum arabic, of each one dram and fifteengrains, mix them together, and with ten ounces of syrup of myrtles, make them into an electuary according to art culpeper it gently eases the bowels of the wind cholic, wringingof the bowels, infirmities of the spleen, it stops fluxes, thehemorrhoids, as also the menses electuarium pectorale or a pectoral electuary college take of the juice of liquorice, sweet almonds, hazel-nuts, of each half an ounce, pine-nuts an ounce, hysop, maidenhair, orris, nettle seeds, round birthwort, of each a dram and an half, blackpepper, the seeds of water-cresses, the roots of elecampane, of eachhalf a dram, honey fourteen ounces, make them into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper it strengthens the stomach and lungs, and helps the vicesthereof take it with a liquorice stick theriaca diatessaron college take of gentain, bay-berries, myrrh, round birthwort, of each two ounces, honey two pounds, make them into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper this is a gallant electuary it wonderfully helps coldinfirmities of the brain, as convulsions, falling-sickness, deadpalsies, shaking palsies, &c as also the stomach, as pains there, wind, want of digestion, as also stoppings of the liver, dropsies, itresists the pestilence and poison, and helps the bitings of venomousbeasts the dose is from half a dram to two drams, according to the ageand strength of the patient, as also the strength of the diseases. Youmay take it either in the morning, or when urgent occasion calls for it diascordium college take of cinnamon, cassia lignea, of each half an ounce, scordium, an ounce, dittany of crete, tormentil, bistort, galbanum, gumarabic, of each half an ounce, opium one dram and an half, sorrel seedsone dram and a half, gentain half an ounce, bole-amoniac an ounce andan half, earth of lemnos half an ounce, long pepper, ginger, of eachtwo drams, clarified honey two pounds and an half, sugar of roses onepound, canary wine ten ounces, make them into an electuary according toart culpeper it is a well composed electuary, essaything appropriated tothe nature of women, for it provokes the menses, hastens labour, helpstheir usual sickness at the time of their lying in.

They provoke menses, help malignant ulcers, ease thetoothache, assuage swelling, and help the rickets see oil how to start a conclusion for an essay of cappers cariophillatæ, &c of avens, or herb bennet the roots are dry, andessaything hot, of a cleansing quality, they keep garments from beingmoth-eaten see the leaves caulium of colewort i know nothing the roots are good for, but onlyto bear the herbs and flowers centaurii majoris of centaury the greater the roots help such asare bursten, such as spit blood, shrinking of sinews, shortness ofwind, coughs, convulsions, cramps. Half a dram in powder being takeninwardly, either in muskadel, or in a decoction of the same roots theyare either not at all, or very scarce in england, our centaury is thesmall centaury cepœ of onions are hot and dry according to galen in thefourth degree. They cause dryness, and are extremely hurtful forcholeric people, they breed but little nourishment, and that little isnaught. They are bad meat, yet good physic for phlegmatic people, theyare opening, and provoke urine and the menses, if cold be the causeobstructing. Bruised and outwardly applied, they cure the bitings ofmad dogs, roasted and applied, they help boils, and aposthumes.

As | | | salivation| | | | needle prick | | | | | | | is only place | | | | | | | that it hurts | | | 6/22/16 | 2 how to start a conclusion for an essay | 1/4 |hurt, but not |slight indur- | | | | | | so long | ation and | | | | | | | slight | | | | | | | tenderness | | | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |hurt, but not |pain “dead | | | | | | so long | stinging” | | | | | | | lasts 1 hour | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |not so bad |about the same -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2 | 32| ♂ | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |essay pain |no induration | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |more pain |slight indur- | | | | | | | ation -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 3 | | ♂ | 6/12/16 | 1 | 1/5 |no symptoms |painful | | | 6/13/16 | 2 | 1/4 |no symptoms |painful | | | 6/14/16 | 2 | 1/4 |says the last |painful | | | 6/16/16 |arseno-| | two have hurt | | | | |benzol | | the more | | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 |more pain than |small painful | | | | | | previously | area | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 | | | | | 6/18/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so much |essay indur- | | | | | | pain. In | ation at site | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/5 | fact, patient | of injections | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | says he is | | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | over it in a | | | | | | | very short | | | | | | | while. Com- | | | | | | | plained of | | | | | | | last one | | | | 6/22/16 | 2 | 1/4 |essay pain |considerable | | | | | | | tenderness | | | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |not so much as | now after so | | | | | | previously | thesis injec- | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 | | tions -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 4 | 36| ♂ | 6/22/16 | 2 | 1/4 |no pain |no tenderness | | | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |essay pain |essay tender- | | | | | | | ness | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |could not sleep|essay tender- | | | | | | at night | ness. Slight | | | | | | | induration -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 5 | 32| ♂ | 6/20/16 | 3 | 20 |essay pain |no induration | | | | |minims| | | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 25 |essay pain | | | | | |minims| | | | | 6/23/16 | 2 | 1/4 |worse pain |no induration | | | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |worse pain | | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |worse than any |slight tender- | | | | | | |ness -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 6 | 20| ♂ | 6/ 8/16 | 1 | 1/6 |very little | | | | 6/10/16 | 1 | 1/5 |very little | | | | 6/13/16 | 1 | 1/4 |very little | | | | 6/14/16 | 2 | 1/4 |bothered more | | | | | | | than others | | | | 6/17/16 | 2 | 1/5 |quite a little |still essay | | | | | | pain | soreness | | | 6/18/16 | 2 | 1/5 |quite a little |still essay | | | | | | pain | soreness | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/4 |considerably |very little | | | | | | less pain than| tenderness | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | with prepar- | | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | ation 2 | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 7 | 30| ♂ | 6/12/16 | 1 | 1/5 |little pain |none | | | 6/13/16 | 2 | 1/4 |no pain | | | | 6/14/16 | 2 | 1/5 |essay pain | | | | 6/16/16 |arseno-| | | | | | |benzol | | | | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so much |no tenderness | | | 6/18/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so much |no tenderness | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/5 |very little |only slight | | | | | | pain | amount of | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | | induration | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | | | | | 6/22/16 | 2 | 1/4 |essay pain |essay little | | | | | | | induration | | | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |considerable |essay indura- | | | | | | pain | tion | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |“fine” |slight indura- | | | | | | | tion -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 8 | 28| ♂ | 6/13/16 | 2 | 1/5 |little pain |little pain | | | | | | | afterward | | | 6/15/16 | 2 | 1/5 |little pain |little pain | | | | | | | afterward -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 9 | 28| ♀ | 6/17/16 | 2 | 1/5 |essay complaint |very little | | | | | | of pain | induration | | | 6/18/16 | 2 | 1/5 | fairly severe | | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/5 |essay pain. Says|very slight | | | | | | these have | induration | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | hurt very much| | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | less than | | | | | | | others | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 10 | 37| ♂ | 6/12/16 | 1 | 1/5 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/13/16 | 1 | 1/4 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/14/16 | 1 | 1/5 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/15/16 | 3 | 1/5 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/16/16 |arseno-| | | | | | |benzol | | | | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 |“much less pain|none | | | | | | than biniodid | | | | | | | or grey oil” | | | | 6/18/16 | 3 | 1/5 |no complaint |none | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/5 |says he is over|essay indura- | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | it in one hour| tion at site | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | | of injection -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 11 | 30| ♀ | 6/11/16 | 1 | 20 |considerable. |considerable | | | | |minims| not so much | pain and | | | 6/12/16 | 2 | 20 | | tenderness on | | | | |minims| | palpation | | | | | | | over area | | | 6/13/16 | 1 | 25 |not much pain |indurated area | | | | |minims| | at pt of | | | | | | | each | | | | | | | painful | | | 6/14/16 | 1 | 25 |not much pain |slight indura- | | | | |minims| | tion -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- * the diagnosis in case 5 was primary syphilis, and in the other paper, secondary syphilis † in this column, ♂ indicates male, and ♀ female in no case did wassermann become negative the criticism may be raised that the number of paper and of injectionsis too small to permit the drawing of any just conclusions evenshould we grant it, the statistics certainly do not prove any markedsuperiority of any one of the preparations over the others we wish tothank dr sollmann for advising and directing us in this work, and drs bailey, bernstein, markus and reycraft for assistance in carrying itout report of dr albert keideltwenty paper were chosen at random from the syphilitic patientsattending the clinic they were given intramuscular injections of thethree solutions, in amounts varying from 1 to 2 c c , at intervals inmost instances of two days the injections were invariably made intothe gluteal muscles, at depths of from 2 to 2-1/2 inches, and ordinarycare exercised to preserve asepsis after injection the patient wasallowed to dewriting, and the result was recorded at the succeedingvisit the result was determined from the patient statement and ourexamination essay patients received injections of only one solution;essay were treated with first one and later with another, and onepatient received all three at different times the solutions were nevermixed for a single injection, of course table 2 -- reactions in twenty paper reported by dr keidel preparation reactions number of ┌────────────┴────────────┐ injections severe mild none undetermined 1 13 14 4 8 39 2 5 15 16 5 41 3 7 25 3 2 37 -- - 117 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the solutions are understood to contain a 1 per cent solution of redmercuric iodid in oil, two of them containing in addition 2 5 percent of guaiacol, one of these being a proprietary preparation thesolutions are designated as preparations 1, 2 and 3, respectively, corresponding to the numbers on the labels of the bottles in which theywere originally received the local reactions are recorded as “severe” s, “mild” m, “none” o and “undetermined” u by “severe” ismeant very severe pain lasting for from several hours to several days;by “mild” is meant slight pain or numbness for several hours, or lessthan an hour. “none” indicates that there was no local reaction, and“undetermined, ” that the patient has failed to return after the lastinjection in table 3 all the details of the investigation are recorded under“local reaction, ” the letters represent the type of reaction after eachinjection, in the order in which they were given.

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he recommendsthat a tablet be crushed and wrapped in “butter cloth ” the how to start a conclusion for an essay ends of thecloth are to be tied with thread, the formamint is to be moistened, andthe packet is to be held in the mouth of the baby several times eachday 21 wingrave. Lancet, london 2:1067, 1906 young22 published the results of essay experiments by himself anddelépine on the human throat they dissolved a tablet in the mouth andmade swab cultures with the following results. Immediately after taking the tablet 0 colonies 10 minutes after taking the tablet 35 colonies 30 minutes after taking the tablet 150 colonies22 young. Lancet, london 1:975, 1908 they found no staphylococci at any time other results of swabbingvarious writings of the throat before and after the use of formamint, reported by these investigators, show enormous reductions in the count, claimed to be due to the action of formamint the count was made onagar at 37 c , but they fail to state the time elapsing between takingthe formamint and making the swab young also reports favorableclinical results in paper of scarlet fever, diphtheria, sore throat, and the like it must be noted, however, that they state that the mouthand fauces must first be thoroughly cleansed by swabbing and douchingbefore formamint is used the “chemical compound” claimthe claims made in the advertising literature of formamint are veryextravagant thesis are highly improbable these statements will bediscussed later the statement is made that formamint is a new chemical compound. “formamint is pentamethanallactose, 5 choh c₁₂h₂₂o₁₁ it is an original combination of formaldehyde with lactose, a definite chemical compound the formaldehyde molecule is locked up in it until solution in the saliva takes place, when the formaldehyde is liberated in its nascent state and is therefore active without being irritant ”furthermore the makers contend that this new chemical compound isentirely harmless for example, daus, 5 in an article on “thedisinfectant action of formic aldehyde on mucous membranes, ” declares. “no indication of irritant or other injurious action made its appearance even after large doses the urine remained free from albumin and sugar ”such statements as these are found in the advertising literature. “formamint tablets are absolutely harmless and innocuous, even to little children ” “when dissolved in the saliva, formamint tablets liberate slowly nascent formaldehyde in a most active yet non-irritant form ”they maintain that formamint is not only absolutely harmless, butactually beneficial to the tissues it may be used “to tone up andstrengthen the tissues, prevent hoarseness, and allay irritation insingers, public speakers, ” etc the claims urged as to its germicidal power are indeed glittering this“new chemical compound” is claimed to liberate formaldehyd in essay newand peculiar condition which, while it has a soothing and tonic effecton the cells of the human tissues, can at the same time quickly killany form of bacterial life “dissolving readily, it releases its germicidal, antiseptic qualities, which impregnate the saliva and are carried naturally and easily around the mouth and in the deepest crevices of the throat-- destroying the germs where they are causing the mischief formamint prevents and destroys infectious germ life in a soothing grateful way ” “in the saliva it frees a germicide, fatal to germs but harmless to the most delicate membranes and flowing into every tiny corner of the gums, tonsils and throat, into places where no gargle ever reaches, it most effectively disinfects the throat ”the claims as to the preventive and curative effects of the preparationcover a large portion of the category of human ailments and distresses the following quotations indicate essay of its supposed properties. “ it is therefore self-evident that formamint should be looked upon as a necessary writing of the treatment of all forms of tonsillitis ” “the value of formamint is equally great in diphtheric tonsillitis, or as a prophylactic ” “the extraordinary success which i had with formamint in a school epidemic of scarlet fever during may and june, 1907, was the determining factor which induced me to abandon the use of inhalations, gargles, local applications in the treatment of diseases of the throat, and to use formamint exclusively for the future ” “there are naturally thesis similar conditions in which formamint may be used as a prophylactic, notably scarlet fever, mumps, streptococcal and staphylococcal sore throats, ‘milk outbreaks’ of sore throat, drain throats, hospital throats, and the like ” “formamint tablets are indicated in angina, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, stomatitis, gingivitis, glossitis, ulceration, spongy or bleeding gums, pyorrhea alveolaris, ‘smoker sore throat, ’ abscess or boils, etc ” “as a prophylactic against diphtheria, scarlet fever, influenza, measles, epidemic poliomyelitis, and other pathogenic micro-organisms to neutralize putrefaction products in and about the teeth, correct fermentative processes, deodorize and purify the breath, etc ” “to tone up, and strengthen the tissues, prevent hoarseness and allay irritation in singers, public speakers, neutralize the effects of dust-infection or disinfect the saliva or sputum in influenza, tuberculosis, etc ”one man declares that along with specific constitutional treatment he“had the best results from the use of formamint tablets” in a case ofsyphilitic ulceration of the tongue in short, formamint is recommended for the treatment or preventionof almost everything, from a bad breath to such grave conditions asscarlet fever, diphtheria and tuberculosis, conditions in which adelay in proper treatment-- for instance, in diphtheria, a failure toadminister antitoxin-- may result in the death of the patient a series of investigations was therefore undertaken in order todiscover whether the extravagant claims regarding the germicidal powerof formamint could be verified experimental datatwo fifty-cent bottles of wulfing formamint were purchased in theopen market and were kept well stoppered to prevent deterioration qualitative tests showed the presence of formaldehyd and the amount wasdetermined quantitatively by the hydrogen peroxid method as given bysutton 23 the results were respectively, 1 99 per cent and 2 03 percent of formaldehyd 23 sutton. Volumetric analysis, edition 10, p 390 illustration. Two formamint advertisements reproduced in miniaturetypical of those appearing in a certain type of medical journals essay determinations were made of the germicidal power of formamintin vitro, that is, under controlled laboratory conditions atwenty-four-hour plain agar culture of staphylococcus aureus waswashed off in 10 c c of sterile 0 85 per cent sodium chloridsolution a 1:100, 000 dilution of this was made in each of three flaskscontaining 100 c c of sterile saliva flask 1 contained 1 per cent offormamint, flask 2, 5 per cent. Flask 3, containing no formamint, waskept as a control at intervals samples were removed and dilutions madeand plated in duplicate on standard agar the plates were incubatedtwenty-four hours at 37 c , and plates containing less than 200colonies were counted the results are given in table 1 after sevendays there was no appreciable difference in the plates another test was made by adding a 1 per cent formamint solution toplain agar plates inoculated with b coli a twenty-four-hour plainagar culture of b coli was washed off in 10 c c of sterile 0 85 percent sodium chlorid solution a 1:1, 000, 000 dilution was made of thisand 1 c c added to each plate varying amounts of 1 per cent solutionof formamint were added to each plate they were incubated seventy-twohours at 37 c after seven days’ incubation the count was the same theresults are given in table 2 another experiment was made thus. One loopful of a twenty-four-hourplain agar culture of streptococcus lacticus was mixed with a tubeof north medium one loopful from the inoculated tube was mixed with asecond tube of north medium both tubes were poured into petri dishesand allowed to cool one half of each plate was well smeared with a 10per cent solution of formamint in saliva after twenty-four hours’incubation at 37 c , only a few colonies appeared on the side to whichthe formamint had been applied, while the other half was thicklycovered with colonies table 1 -- showing time in which cultures of staphylococcus aureus werekilled by different amounts of formamint amount of formamint| period of |average count| count on flask in saliva |standing at 37 c | when plated |of saliva without per cent | hours | | formamint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 3 | 32 | 3200 1 | 6 | 0 | 7000 5 | 1 | few | 5000 5 | 2 | 0 | 4100 5 | 3 | 0 | 3200* 5 | 6 | 0 | 7000* -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- * the last two observations were made at the same time as on the 1 percent solutions this work so far corroborates that reported in the literature quotedby the manufacturers but the fact that a compound is a germicide whenbrought into intimate contact with bacteria in a solution or medium ina test tube or flask does not prove that it will be effective when usedin the human throat the alleged germicidal actionan attempt was made to discover whether or not the claims advanced bythe manufacturers as to the perfect germicidal action of formamint inall the nooks and crannies of the mouth and throat could be confirmed table 2 -- count of b coli cultures with different amounts of formamint no c c of 1 per cent formamint 0 0 1 0 3 0 5 0 7 1 0 1 5 2 0 3 0 count 160 33 39 26 15 12 2 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the first step in attacking this problem was to make comparative countsof the number of bacteria in the throat before and after the use offormamint the methods employed were as follows.