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How To Start A Argumentative Essay


And strangulation in all other paper german writers designate strangulation by cords, ropes, and the likeas erdrosselung, and by the hand as erwürgung. French writers donot make this distinction in english the word throttling is probablyoftener applied to strangulation by the hand than by cords the term suffocation is also applied in a special sense to theact and result of pressure on the mouth, nose, or chest and abdomen, stopping the breathing. Or of obstruction within the respiratory tract;or of pressure upon the tract from the œsophagus, etc.

That is, it suspends judgment and withholds publication ofa report until reasonable time has been afforded for furnishing therequired information, provided the manufacturer or agent appears tobe making honest and diligent efforts to supply it the collectionand compilation of such information is essaytimes a lengthy process, especially when the products are of foreign manufacture although it would be easier for the council how to start a argumentative essay to render an immediatedecision than to assist manufacturers to supply the data necessary forthe formation of an authoritative judgment, the council cannot yield toimportunities for hasty action it must rely on the medical professionto bear in mind that the character of a product under considerationby the council has not yet been determined the council holds that, during this stage, a product is suitable, at most, for experimentaluse -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 119 cooperation of the pharmaceutical houses report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryin reply to the suggestion made last year by president bevan that thereshould be closer cooperation between the large pharmaceutical housesand the council on pharmacy and chemistry, the council submitted to theboard of trustees of the american medical association the statementwhich appears below. “cooperation of the pharmaceutical houses. At the opening meeting of the house of delegates last year, president arthur dean bevan suggested the desirability of greater cooperation between the large pharmaceutical houses and the council on pharmacy and chemistry the need of such cooperation has been recognized by the council from the first in no one direction has the council made greater effort than in its endeavor to secure the fullest cooperation of the various pharmaceutical houses the difficulty has been, and always must be, the fundamental antagonism between objectives that are largely commercial on the one hand and purely scientific on the other nevertheless, the council has always believed-- and has acted on the belief-- that there is a possible middle ground wherein the interests of therapeutics would not be injured but would go hand in hand with a commercial development based on enlightened self-interest “the profits to be made by a pharmaceutical house from the sale of a staple drug-- a pharmacopeial, national formulary, or nonproprietary preparation-- which enters into free competition with other drugs of the same kind, are moderate. The profits to be made from the sale of a proprietary medicine on which the manufacturer holds a monopoly are usually large-- essaytimes enormous there are, broadly, two kinds of proprietary preparations advertised to physicians. One represents laborious research ending in the production of a new medicinal chemical. This product can be patented and the manufacturer can obtain a seventeen-year monopoly on its manufacture and sale the other represents no research but comprises simple mixtures-- frequently of the “shotgun” variety-- of well known pharmaceuticals, or biologic products sold under trade names as these do not represent anything new or original the manufacturer is unable to obtain a patent, but by means of the trade name he can and does obtain a perpetual monopoly this, from a business standpoint, is more valuable than the limited monopoly granted by a patent it is not surprising that proprietary remedies of the latter type flourish so long as physicians unthinkingly accept and prescribe them solely on the manufacturer valuation “the council has practically the undivided support of manufacturers of medicinal chemicals. That is, of proprietaries of the first mentioned type but pharmaceutical firms which have found it profitable to promote proprietaries of the second type-- “specialties, ” unscientific or ordinary mixtures of pharmaceuticals or biologic products sold under trade names-- have not supported the council “when the council was organized, it was hoped and believed that all the large pharmaceutical houses would find it possible and desirable, if not actually more profitable, to shape their business methods so as to make their proprietary and other articles conform to those conservative standards on which the council bases its rules, and thus render such articles acceptable for new and nonofficial remedies it soon developed, however, that the methods of the pseudochemical companies, whose sales propaganda in the interest of unscientific nostrums with its attending damage to scientific medicine had led to the establishment of the council, had found their lodgment in most of the pharmaceutical houses it was a genuine disappointment to the council to find that essay of the large and old-established firms were not only unwilling to cooperate with the council, but in thesis instances exhibited a definite antagonism to the council work “the object-- and duty-- of the officers of pharmaceutical houses is primarily to pay dividends to their stockholders through skilful advertising or the persuasiveness of “detail men, ” they are able to induce physicians to prescribe their controlled products, on which there are large profits, even though such products have not only not been accepted by the council, but in thesis instances, have been disapproved is it any wonder that concerns which put out such products are indifferent or openly antagonistic to the work of the council?.

And also amuch greater pressure on the blood-vessels and nerves of the neck tidy divides hanging into three stages:first stage. Writingial stupor lasting thirty seconds to three minutes, according to the length of the drop, the weight of the body, andtightness of the constriction the testimony seems to be uniform thatthere is no pain in this stage. Indeed, that the feeling is rather oneof pleasure 821 the subjective symptoms described are an intense heatin the head, brilliant flashes of light in the eyes, deafening soundsin the ears, and a heavy numb feeling in the lungs essaytimes thereis a feeling of absence of weight in thesis paper efforts to breatheare made for a time after the air-passages are closed it is doubtfulwhether there are any voluptuous feelings, as has been suggested chowne822 reports the case of hornshawor, “monsieur gouffé, ” who was in the habit of hanging himself for exhibition he fixed the noose with a knot that would not slip, sprang into it, the rope coming behind the lower jaw and the two sides passing up behind the ears he would hang for ten to fifteen minutes, and in addition to his own weight would sustain one hundred and fifty pounds three times the rope slipped and he would have died but for the help of spectators he described his sensations as follows. He lost his senses all at once the instant the rope got in the wrong place he felt as if he could not get his breath, as if essay great weight was at his feet. And could not move only to draw himself up. Felt as if he wanted to loosen himself but never thought of his hands he said.

a personalletter received from captain how to start a argumentative essay charles shaler, of the ordnance dewritingmentof the united states army, in reply to certain questions, tends tofully settle that a lead bullet suffers a certain loss of weight in thebarrel due to the friction between the bullet and the bore. This isknown as “leading” and varies according to circumstances “patching”the bullet is often resorted to in order to reduce the leading;lubrication is also practised the fusing of a bullet takes placeespecially with lead bullets a ball which has been writingly fused inthe bore will lose the fused portions in the bore or in flight, andwill move irregularly on account of the resulting irregularity of form a 45-calibre, 500-grain service bullet, lead alloyed with tin, wasweighed without lubricant and was found to weigh 500 5 grains it wasthen lubricated in the cannelures and was fired into a butt composed ofthree barrels placed end to end and filled with sawdust tho bullet wasrecovered, no lubricant being found in the cannelures, and re-weighed, the weight obtained being 485 5 the loss of weight was, therefore, 15 grains or three per cent, essay of which may have been due to thebullet penetrating the sawdust a german-silver “jacketed” 30-calibrebullet, weighing before firing 231 grains, fired without lubrication, when recovered and re-weighed was found to have suffered a loss ofweight of one-half grain or one-quarter of one per cent the other writingof the main question is:does the bullet lose in weight in its course through the body?. thisis, of course, intended to pertain only to those instances in whichthere is no evidence of splitting or division of the bullet, andrefers only to the effect of friction or attrition june 5th, 1878, in saratoga county, mrs jesse billings was accidentally killed by abullet her husband was arrested and tried for murder on the firsttrial he was acquitted a second trial, however, was held, and essayvery interesting expert testimony was brought out on matters pertainingto these questions the medical evidence is published in full by dr lewis balch, of albany, in the transactions of the medical societyof the state of new york for 1881 the rifle from which the bulletwas supposed to have been fired was found in a well, and was sworn tohave belonged to jesse billings in it was found a cartridge of thetype known as the commercial long no 44 this gun became an importantfactor in the case, and most of the evidence as to whether it was theweapon with which the murder had been committed was referred to themedical experts the defence in the first trial claimed that all thelead fired was found in mrs billings’ head on the second trial thesame claim was not made, but that it was a smaller bullet than a 44and its weight less than 220 grains. That in consequence this riflecould not have been that from which the shot was fired, for it onlycalled for a 44 ball, and that it would have thrown a bullet withsuch force that it must have gone entirely through the head theyfurther claimed that powder-marks and grains of powder were found inthe window-sash, showing that the weapon was fired near the window, andthat the hole in the glass was not large enough to admit a full-sized 44 ball the verdict was mainly won upon these statements a questionfor the medical experts to answer was, what would be the effect uponthe skull of a 44-calibre ball fired from a ballard rifle, the ballweighing 220 grains and the charge of powder being 28 grains?.

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Ibid 46. 134 jan 13 1906;ibid 46. 290 jan 27 1906. Ibid 58. 280 jan 27 1912 long after the death of dr cyrus edson, the claim was made thatphenalgin was made under his direction and that it was his “discovery ”as a matter of fact, dr edson had favored the use of ammonol at onetime, and when the council exposed the false claims then being madefor phenalgin, the journal charged that a fraud was being perpetratedon the medical profession despite the exposure of the methods used inexploiting ammonol and phenalgin, one finds just as glaringly falsestatements made in the advertisements of phenalgin today as weremade in its unsavory past this would seem to indicate either thatphysicians have short memories or that they are strangely indifferentto the welfare of their patients, to their own reputations and to thegood name of medicine the new york medical journal of dec 22, 1917, contained anadvertisement of phenalgin-- it has been running for months-- from whichthe following is quoted. “for the relief of pain the ‘logical supplanter of opium and other habit-forming drugs’ is phenalgin no matter how severe or where located pain is promptly and satisfactorily controlled by this effective anodyne-- and without disturbing the digestion, suppressing the secretions, causing constipation or inducing a drug habit “this is why phenalgin has superseded opium and its derivatives for relieving headaches, rheumatism, gout, la grippe, lumbago, neuralgia, disorders of the female, dysmenorrhea, and painful conditions generally to thousands of physicians phenalgin ‘is the one dependable analgesic-- the logical supplanter of opium ’”if we are to suppose that the composition of phenalgin is todayessentially the same as when it was examined, the claims just quotedare obviously false for, of course, such a mixture must have theproperties of acetanilid with all of its drawbacks and limitations we may contrast the statements made in the advertisement just quotedwith those made in bulletin 126 of the bureau of chemistry of theu s dewritingment of agriculture this bulletin on “the harmfuleffects of acetanilid, antipyrin and phenacetin” summarizes thereplies received from 400 physicians to whom a questionnaire had beensent the information thus gained was tabulated and the figures thatfollow are from these tables there were reported no fewer than 614paper of poisoning by acetanilid with 16 deaths and 112 paper of itshabitual use the larger number of paper of poisoning followed theadministration of the drug, by physicians, in doses larger than thosenow regarded as fairly safe this large number reported by only 400physicians indicated an excessively large number in the whole country since the questionnaire was sent to nearly a thousand physicians, ofwhom about 500 failed to reply, it may be assumed that had it been sentto the entire 130, 000 physicians in the country, at least 75, 000 paperof poisoning would have been reported prior to the passage of the federal food and drugs act the “purefood law” thesis nostrum makers had declared that their preparationscontained no acetanilid when that law went into effect, essay of thesemanufacturers triumphantly pointed to the fact that they were stillable to make the same claim without conflicting with the requirementsof the law this was accomplished in fact by changing the formula andsubstituting acetphenetidin phenacetin for the acetanilid whileacetphenetidin is essaywhat less toxic than acetanilid, bulk for bulk, the toxicity and therapeutic activity of the two drugs are nearlyproportional the claim made by thesis proprietary medicine manufacturers that they are“strictly ethical” because they advertise only to physicians is mereverbal camouflage there may be no more certain way of insuring thecontinued use of a nostrum by the public than to have it prescribed byphysicians. And none know this better than the makers of nostrums aproprietary individuality is obtained by giving essay special form tothe tablets and package or a special coloring to the capsules “specify‘phenalgin pink top capsules’” so as to indicate the identity of theproducts in such a way that the patient may in the future procure themwithout the advice or warning of the physician when a proprietarypreparation with the name or initials stamped on it or attached toit is prescribed, the patient immediately is aware of the fact, andhis respect for the physician intelligence and wisdom is naturallylessened the physician should never place such dangerous drugs as acetanilid andacetphenetidin, or ready made mixtures of them, in the hands of thepatient in such a way that they can be employed without his supervisionor control he should never prescribe more than is needed at the timeand should not form the habit of using fixed doses or combinationsof drugs without a special reference to the writingicular needs of theindividual certain forms of headache yield more readily to a mixture of caffeinand acetanilid or caffein and acetphenetidin than to either acetanilidor acetphenetidin alone when the physician wishes to prescribe sucha mixture he may combine 1 grain of caffein or 2 grains of citratedcaffein with 3 grains of acetanilid or 4 grains of acetphenetidin ina powder or capsule under supervision such a dose may be repeatedat intervals of from two to four hours if necessary to control pain it is necessary to remember, however, that when small doses fail togive relief, increase in the dose is useless this fact is especiallyimportant, and disregard or ignorance of it has been responsible forthesis paper of poisoning further, it should be remembered that while itwas taught for thesis years that the admixture of caffein with acetanilidlessened the effect of the latter drug on the heart, hale has shownthat this is not the case and such mixtures must be used with specialcaution -- from the journal a m a , feb 2, 1918 article vi fellows’ syrup, and other preparations of the hypophosphiteswe hope that it is clear to those who have read the several articlesof this series that their purpose is to present evidence that willenable the reader to form a correct estimate of the literatureemployed in the exploitation of various nostrums the distinctionbetween mere assertion-- however plausible, and from however eminentan authority-- and evidence should again be emphasized satisfactoryevidence rests on careful observation by those who are capable ofaccurately determining to what extent any changes that may be observedare due to the therapeutic agent employed and not mere accompanimentsof such treatment when the council on pharmacy and chemistry was organized in 1905, the greater writing of the literature of the nostrums was so palpablymisleading, the statements often so ludicrously false, that it was onlynecessary to call attention to this fact to have those claims collapse as a result of the council work, the exploiters of worthless nostrumshave developed a greater degree of shrewdness in avoiding the easilyexploded falsehoods this has made it increasingly difficult to pointout the exact statements on which thesis of the false claims now rest, even though the exploitation as a whole is as inherently dishonest asbefore if a nostrum is worthless, any exploitation must be false andmisleading in effect, even though not one single false direct statementis made a platitude may be given an appearance of importance if uttered in animpressive manner, and it may be employed to suggest far more than itcategorically affirms these two facts are appreciated by thesis nostrumexploiters and we find that they have adopted the impressive manner tosecure attention, and the platitude to suggest far more than they coulddefend in direct statement thus we have the “lie with circumstance ” fellows’ syrupa full page advertisement, which has been appearing regularly forabout a year and which must represent a good deal of money, is used togive an appearance of importance to a few words which, if printed inordinary type, would either pass wholly unnoticed or would lead one toassume that essaything essential to the full meaning had been omitted the statement, in full reads. “fellows’ syrup differs from other preparations of the hypophosphites leading clinicians in all writings of the world have long recognized this important fact have you?. to insure results, prescribe the genuine ℞ syr hypophos comp fellows’ reject cheap and inefficient substitutes reject preparations ‘just as good ’”the only direct statement contained in the advertisement is to theeffect that thesis clinicians have observed that fellows’ syrup and otherpreparations of the hypophosphites are not alike in truth, fellows’is not like the better preparations of this type, since after standingit contains a muddy looking deposit that any pharmaceutical tyro wouldbe ashamed of technically, then, the statement is true, but it ishardly credible that the manufacturer is paying for an entire page in amedical journal to make this statement without any attempt to suggestessaything else the advertising pages of six medical journals were examined in theorder in which they chanced to come to hand in five of these, theentire advertisement of fellows’ syrup was in the words just quoted;not a single word more in one there was the further statement.