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How To Put Dialogue In An Essay


Abstr , j a m a 44:459 july 31 1915 thatthe full therapeutic effects of digitalis can be induced in suitablepaper within a few hours even with oral administration we are not aware of a single publication in which a careful, detailedclinical study of anasarcin has been reported the claims made foranasarcin, past and present, indicate either a deliberate purposeto mislead or crass ignorance how to put dialogue in an essay of the rudiments of pharmacology andtherapeutics the exploiters of the nostrum claim that thousandsof physicians have found anasarcin tablets of unsurpassed remedialvalue in the treatment of disorders of the circulatory system and ofascitic conditions 244 it must be admitted that too thesis physicianshave prescribed anasarcin, otherwise the manufacturers would not havecontinued to spend thousands of dollars in advertising it in medicaljournals during a period of more than ten years 244 former estimates of the number of physicians who prescribedanasarcin appear to have been too high, possibly based on the ratioobtaining in winchester, tenn inquiry at five fairly busy drug storesin a large eastern city showed that in no instance was the pharmacisteven acquainted with the name one pretended to be, and manifested pityfor the inquirer ignorance in supposing that it could be importedduring the war!. he was obviously merely less honest than the others, who frankly admitted they had never heard of it doctor, this article is meant to be a candid discussion with you, whether you use anasarcin or not, because every clinician is vitallyinterested in the customs that obtain in the practice of medicine, andwe wish to put a hypothetic question to you answer it, at least toyourself, in exactly the spirit in which it is put suppose that youprescribe anasarcin for a patient who is critically ill with cardiacdisease he dies are you willing to tell the relatives frankly justwhat you used and the nature of the evidence on which you based yourchoice of this nostrum?. let the supposition be carried further and saythat the case was hopeless, and agree that digitalis and all otherdrugs would have been equally ineffective granting all this, wouldyour explanation satisfy?. would you in all candor dare to offer such anexplanation?. try it as a hypothetic case before you are forced to applyit -- from the journal a m a , dec 8, 1917 article iii pepto-manganit would be interesting, and even instructive, to know how thesiseducated physicians, if any, are now prescribing pepto-mangan gude:interesting as indicating the number who have neglected to availthemselves of the work of the council on pharmacy and chemistry, especially the earlier work. Instructive in that it would show how thesisare still prescribing by the rule of thumb, and who are taking theirtherapeutic instructions from purely commercial sources instead ofstriving to learn how to choose those drugs that are most effective inthe treatment of disease it has been pointed out thesis times in the pages of the journal thatthesis nostrums are advertised first to physicians, and that afterphysicians have served as the unpaid agents of the manufacturers inintroducing the preparations, their exploitation is then commonlycontinued by means of advertisements in the public press this plan hasbeen followed successfully in so thesis paper that we have now come tolook on it as the regular course it is in keeping with this rule thatwe find pepto-mangan now advertised in the public press, the physicianshaving served the manufacturer purpose discarded theories of iron medicationit will be recalled that thesis years ago the theory was held thathydrogen sulphid sulphureted hydrogen interfered with the absorptionof the iron of the food, and that the administration of medicinaliron prevented this interference by neutralizing the hydrogen sulphid sulphureted hydrogen it was only a short step to argue thatmanganese might replace the medicinal iron in combining with thehydrogen sulphid, permitting the food iron to be absorbed, and itwas held that only food iron could be utilized in the formation ofhemoglobin it is hardly necessary to remind the reader that this theory restson numerous fallacies there is no hydrogen sulphid worth mentioningin the small intestine where iron is absorbed. Food iron cannot beutilized directly in the formation of hemoglobin but must be brokeninto simple forms for absorption. And, further, inorganic iron, such asferrous carbonate, serves the purpose admirably when iron is indicated with the acceptance of these well established facts, all possibleexcuse for the therapeutic employment of pepto-mangan in place of ironvanished. But as plain and simple as this fact is, the unnecessary andexpensive pepto-mangan continues to be prescribed by physicians whowill not take the slight trouble to investigate the claims for thisnostrum false and misleading claimsthere is not merely a difference of opinion between the exploiters andthe council, but there has been also actual misrepresentation in theexploitation of this nostrum to physicians this has been shown onmore than one occasion about twelve years ago, the m j breitenbachcompany, the proprietors of pepto-mangan, claimed that the report ofthe commission that had been appointed for the investigation of anemiain porto rico “would alone suffice to establish pepto-mangan at once asthe foremost hematinic known ” examination of the report showed thatthe commission made no such claims. On the contrary the commissionprotested against this misrepresentation j a m a 45:1099 oct 7 1905 illustration.

Of the third, how to put dialogue in an essay seleniol and electro-selenium 267 wassermann, keysser and wassermann. Deutsch med wchnschr 37:2389, 1911 wassermann and hansemann. Berl klin wchnschr 49:4, 1912 268 neuberg and caspari. Deutsch med wchnschr 38:375, 1912 neuberg, caspari and löhe. Berl klin wchnschr 49:1405, 1912 269 gers, gaube du. La cuprase et le cancer, paris, 1913 inasmuch as this new type of cancer therapy derives its origin, its justification and its support, in very large measure, from thelaboratory results obtained in animals, it is a matter of considerableimportance to examine those results with care, in order to determinewhether they furnish a satisfactory basis for human therapy, andwhether they justify the hopes to which they have given rise it is safe to assert that the application of chemotherapy to thetreatment of tumors practically dates from the publications ofwassermann he stated the principle that a rational therapy of tumorsmust be based on constitutional treatment it appears evident thatlocal treatment can have only local effects the lymphatic extensionsof tumorous growths, and the often unsuspected metastases in distantorgans must of necessity escape the effects of purely local treatment hence, wassermann reached the conclusion that all treatment of cancerwhich was to be effective, and not merely palliative, must be carriedto all writings of the body by means of the blood stream he thereforeintroduced the use of intravenous injections in the experimentaltherapy of rat and mouse tumors an accidental observation led himto believe that selenium was a substance possessing a high degree ofaffinity for tumor cells in order to insure the penetration of the tumor in the live animal bythis substance, however, he considered it essential to combine it withessay other highly diffusible substance this type of substance, whichwas to act as a carrier of the selenium, he described under the name“cytotrochin, ” from the greek word τροχιά {trochia}, meaning road forthis purpose he selected eosin the eosin and the selenium were thencombined by a method and in a form the details of which have neverbeen published all that we know of this preparation is contained inthe statement that it is very difficult to produce, and that it isextremely unstable and difficult to keep mice can be given amounts offrom 2 to 3 mg of this substance in solution wassermann experimentedwith mice inoculated with transplanted tumors of the types of carcinomaand sarcoma after from three to five intravenous injections of thedrug, he noted that the tumors become softer and fluctuate after stillfurther injections the fluid mass undergoes absorption, and the tumorgives the impression of an empty sac if it is possible to carry theinjections up to the number of ten or twelve, recovery ensues in suchcured animals there remain only the unabsorbed portions of the fibrouscapsule recurrences were not observed in the cured animals wassermannfurther stated that two spontaneous tumors in mice which had beentreated by this method presented favorable results wassermann original presentation gave few experimental details, andhas not been followed by the promised scientific report from hisarticle it is impossible to determine what proportion of his animalswere cured and what proportion failed to survive the treatment from alater paper by keysser270 we learn that by far the larger portion ofthe animals perished during the treatment in the stage of softening, so that a cure was accomplished in from only 3 to 5 per cent of theanimals this is a point of great importance, inasmuch as it furnishesan indication of the highly dangerous character of this mode oftreatment fatal results are attributed by keysser to the absorption oftoxic products from the tumor this contention, however, is supportedby no observations, and it is certainly equally fair to assume thatdeath results from the toxic effects of the compound a microscopicstudy of tumors taken from animals undergoing treatment was made byhansemann he found that the death of the cells was the result ofnuclear destruction 270 keysser. Wien klin wchnschr 26:1664, 1913 within a very few months after wassermann publication, neubergand caspari268 published a paper which was the first of a seriesof studies on the therapeutic effects of the heavy metals on theanimal tumors they used zinc, platinum, tin, selenium, copper, silver and cobalt in the form of certain complex organic compounds, the composition of which is not revealed owing to the fact thatintravenous injections of these compounds produced a specific effect onthe tumors, they are described as “tumoraffin” substances immediatelyafter the intravenous injection of these preparations, there followeda marked hyperemia of the tumor, whereas the remainder of the mousebody appeared markedly anemic the hyperemia was often attendedby hemorrhage into the tumor this first stage was succeeded byliquefaction and absorption followed by recovery in favorable paper the authors failed to state in what proportion of their experiments theanimals died, and in what proportion recovery ensued the second paper on this subject is by neuberg, caspari and löhe, 268in which further details are vouchsafed they state that with thecompounds used by them the toxic and the therapeutic doses approximatevery closely, from which it follows that the treatment, as with thewassermann method, results in a very high mortality smaller dosesproduce no therapeutic effect. On the contrary, they seem to act asa stimulus to the tumor, accelerating the normal rate of growth spontaneous tumors show similar effects, but no cures are recorded only in tumors in which autolysis is active intra vitam does themethod exert any effect consequently the benign primary tumors ofanimals, such as fibromas, are not influenced by it neuberg and caspari are to a great extent responsible for the colloidaltheory of treatment in tumors accepting the observations of petri andothers that the autolytic ferments in tumors are quantitatively greaterand qualitatively different from those present in the normal tissuesof the body, they venture the assumption that the process of recoveryin the experimental tumors of animals is due to the self-digestion ofthe tumor by these ferments ascoli and izar271 had shown that suchferments are materially stimulated by the presence of metals, and moreespecially of metals in colloidal form this contention is apparentlyin harmony with the well-established fact that certain colloidal metalsof themselves are capable of acting under certain circumstances asferments neuberg and caspari were at first of the belief that thecompounds produced by them circulate in colloidal form subsequentlythey stated that these compounds were crystalline substances, but theyassumed, under the influence of the theoretical consideration mentionedabove, that these substances are broken up in the tumor and thereundergo transformation into the colloid state 271 izar. Ztschr f immunitätsforsch , 1913 izar and basile.

The dose is from one ounceto two, you may take it in a decoction of senna, it leaves a bindingquality behind it syrupus de spina cervina or syrup of purging thorn college take of the berries of purging thorn, gathered inseptember, as thesis as you will, bruise them in a stone mortar, andpress out the juice, let the fourth writing of it evaporate away in abath, then to two pounds of it add sixteen ounces of white sugar, boil it into a syrup, which perfume with mastich, cinnamon, nutmegs, anni-seeds in fine powder, of each three drams syrups made with vinegar and honey mel anthosatum or honey of rosemary flowers college take of fresh rosemary flowers a pound, clarified honeythree pounds, mix them in a glass with a narrow mouth, set them in thesun, keep them for use culpeper it hath the same virtues with rosemary flowers, to which irefer you, only by reason of the honey it may be essaywhat cleansing mel helleboratum or honey helleborated college take of white hellebore roots bruised a pound, clear waterfourteen pounds, after three days infusion, boil it till half beconsumed, then strain it diligently, and with three pounds of honey, boil it to the thickness of honey mel mercuriale or honey of mercury college boil three pounds of the juice of mercury, with two poundsof honey to the thickness of honey culpeper it is used as an emollient in clysters mel mororum, vel diamoron or honey of mulberries college take of the juice of mulberries and blackberries, beforethey be ripe, gathered before the sun be up, of each a pound and ahalf, honey two pounds, boil them to their due thickness culpeper it is vulgarly known to be good for sore mouths, as alsoto cool inflammations there mel nuceum, alias, diacarion et dianucum or honey of nuts college take of the juice of the outward bark of green walnuts, gathered in the dog days two pounds, boil it gently till it be thick, and with one pound of honey, boil it to the thickness of honey culpeper it is a good preservative in pestilential times, aspoonful being taken as soon as you are up mel passalatum or honey of raisins college take of raisins of the sun cleansed from the stones twopounds, steep them in six pounds of warm water, the next day boil ithalf away, and press it strongly, and with two pounds of honey, let theexpressed liquor boil to its thickness culpeper it is a pretty pleasing medicine for such as are inconsumptions, and are bound in body mel rosatum commune, sive foliatum or common honey of roses college take of red roses not quite open two pounds, honey sixpounds, set them in the sun according to art mel rosatum colatum or honey of roses strained college take of the best clarified honey ten pounds, juice of freshred roses one pound, set it handessayly over the fire, and when itbegins to boil, put in four pounds of fresh red roses, the whites beingcut off. The juice being consumed by boiling and stirring, strain itand keep it for use culpeper they are both used for diseases in the mouth mel rosatum solutivum or honey of roses solutive college take of the often infusion of damask roses five pounds, honey rightly clarified four pounds, boil it to the thickness of honey culpeper it is used as a laxative in clysters, and essay use it tocleanse wounds college after the same manner is prepared honey of the infusion ofred roses mel scilliticum or honey of squils college take one squil full of juice, cut in bits, and put it in aglass vessel, the mouth close stopped, and covered with a skin, set inthe sun forty days, to wit, twenty before and after the rising of thedog star, then open the vessel, and take the juice which lies at thebottom, and preserve it with the best honey college honey of violets is prepared like as honey of roses oxymel, simple college take of the best honey four pounds, clear water and whitewine vinegar, of each two pounds, boil them in an earthen vessel, taking the scum off with a wooden scummer, till it be come to theconsistence of a syrup culpeper it cuts flegm, and it is a good preparative against avomit oxymel compound college take of the bark of the root of fennel, smallage, parsley, bruscus, asparagus, of each two ounces, the seeds of fennel, smallage, parsley, annis, of each one ounce, steep them all the roots beingfirst cleansed and the seeds bruised in six pounds of clear waterand a pound and a half of wine vinegar, the next day boil it to theconsumption of the third writing, boil the rest being strained, with threepounds of honey into a liquid syrup according to art culpeper first having bruised the roots and seeds, boil them in thewater till half be consumed, then strain it and add the honey, and whenit is almost boiled enough, add the vinegar oxymel helleboratum or oxymel helleborated college take of rue, thyme, dittany of crete, hyssop, pennyroyal, horehound, carduus, the roots of celtick, spikenard without leaves, the inner bark of elders, of each a handful, mountain calaminth twopugils, the seeds of annis, fennel, bazil, roman nettles, dill, ofeach two drams, the roots of angelica, marsh-mallows, aron, squillsprepared, birthwort, long, round, and climbing, turbith, english orris, costus, polypodium, lemon pills, of each an ounce, the strings of blackhellebore, spurge, agerick, added at the end of the decoction, of eachtwo drams, the bark of white hellebore half an ounce, let all of thembeing dried and bruised, be digested in a glass, or glazed vesselclose stopped, in the heat of the sun, or of a furnace, posca, made ofequal writings of water and vinegar, eight pounds, sapa two ounces, threedays being expired, boil it little more than half away, strain it, pressing it gently, and add to the liquor a pound and a half of honeyroses, wherein two ounces of citron pills have been infused, boil it tothe thickness of honey, and perfume it with cloves, saffron, ginger, galanga, mace, of each a dram oxymel julianizans college take of the bark of caper roots, the roots of orris, fennel, parsley, bruscus, chicory, sparagus, cypress, of each half anounce, the leaves of harts-tongue, schænanth, tamarisk, of each half ahandful, sweet fennel seed half an ounce, infuse them in three poundsof posca, which is essaything sour, afterwards boil it till half beconsumed, strain it, and with honey and sugar clarified, of each half apound, boil it to the thickness of honey culpeper this medicine is very opening, very good againsthypocondriac melancholy, and as fit a medicine as can be for thatdisease in children called the rickets college oxymel of squills simple, is made of three pounds ofclarified honey. Vinegar of squills two pounds, boil them according toart culpeper it cuts and divides humours that are tough and viscous, and therefore helps the stomach and bowels afflicted by such humours, and sour belchings if you take but a spoonful in the morning, an ablebody will think enough oxymel scilliticum compositus or oxymel of squills compound college take of origanum, dried hyssop, thyme, lovage, cardamomsthe less, stœchas, of each five drams, boil them in three pounds ofwater to one, strain it and with two pounds of honey, honey of raisinshalf a pound, juice of briony five ounces, vinegar of squills a poundand a half, boil it, and scum it according to art culpeper this is good against the falling-sickness, megrim, head-ache, vertigo, or swimming in the head, and if these be occasionedby the stomach as thesis times they are, it helps the lungs obstructed byhumour, and is good for women not well cleansed after labour, it opensthe passage of the womb syrup of purslain mesue college take of the seeds of purslain grossly bruised, half apound, of the juice of endive, boiled and clarified, two pounds, sugartwo pounds, vinegar nine ounces, infuse the seeds in the juice ofendive twenty-four hours, afterwards boil it half away with a gentlefire, then strain it, and boil it with the sugar to the consistence ofa syrup, adding the vinegar towards the latter end of the decoction culpeper it is a pretty cooling syrup, fit for any hot diseaseincident to the stomach, reins, bladder, matrix, or liver. It thickensflegm, cools the blood, and provokes sleep you may take an ounce of itat a time when you have occasion compound syrup of colt-foot renod college take six handfuls of green colt-foot, two handfuls ofmaiden-hair, one handful of hyssop, and two ounces of liquorice, boilthem in four pints, either of rain or spring water till the fourth writingbe consumed, then strain it, and clarify it, to which add three poundsof white sugar, boil it to the perfect consistence of a syrup culpeper the composition is appropriated to the lungs, andtherefore helps the infirmities, weaknesses, or failings thereof aswant of voice, difficulty of breathing, coughs, hoarseness, catharrs, &c the way of taking it is with a liquorice-stick, or if you please, you may add an ounce of it to the pectoral decoction before mentioned syrup of poppies, the lesser composition college take of the heads of white poppies and black, when both ofthem are green, of each six ounces, the seeds of lettice, the flowersof violets, of each one ounce, boil them in eight pints of water tillthe virtue is out of the heads. Then strain them, and with four poundsof sugar boil the liquor to a syrup syrup of poppies, the greater composition college take of the heads of both white and black poppies, seedsand all, of each fifty drams, maiden-hair, fifteen drams, liquorice, five drams, jujubes, thirty by number, lettice seeds, forty drams, ofthe seeds of mallows and quinces, tied up in a thin linen cloth ofeach one dram and an half, boil these in eight pints of water tillfive pints be consumed, when you have strained out the three pintsremaining, add to them, penids and white sugar, of each a pound, boilthem into a syrup according to art culpeper all these former syrups of poppies provoke sleep, butin that, i desire they may be used with a great deal of caution andwariness.

One loves the light, theother hates it. One loves the field, the other sheets. Then the throatis under venus, the quinsy lies in the throat, and is an inflammationthere. Venus rules the throat, it being under taurus her sign marseradicates all diseases in the throat by his herbs for wormwood isone and sends them to egypt on an errand never to return more, thisdone by antipathy the eyes are under the luminaries. The right eye ofa man, and the left eye of a woman the sun claims dominion over. Theleft eye of a man, and the right eye of a woman, are privileges of themoon, wormwood, an herb of mars cures both. What belongs to the sunby sympathy, because he is exalted in his house. But what belongs tothe moon by antipathy, because he hath his fall in hers suppose a manbe bitten or stung by a martial creature, imagine a wasp, a hornet, a scorpion, wormwood, an herb of mars, gives you a present cure.

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And, therefore, the physician isnot absolutely incompetent as a witness, and has no right to refuse totestify 479 but where he is how to put dialogue in an essay a writingy he may object and then he willnot be forced to disclose his patient confidence 480in indiana it has been held that where the patient testifies in anaction against his physician for malpractice the physician is thenat liberty to testify or to introduce any other witness to testifyconcerning the matters in controversy 481in michigan, a physician who was plaintiff in a libel suit was notpermitted to insist upon the privilege to prevent the disclosure of hismaltreatment of his patient or what other physicians had discoveredwith regard to it by visits to his patients 482the measure of the physician exemption and liability in testifyingis the language of the statute, and not his idea of his duty to hispatient or the patient injunctions of confidence or secrecy 483in essay of the states there are statutory provisions entitlingphysicians to sue for compensation for their professionalservices 484 the statutes regarding privileged communications areto be construed together with these there seems to be no reason whya physician right of action for his services and medicines shouldnot survive the prohibition of his evidence. But it would seem thathe cannot as a witness in such an action testify regarding privilegedmatter but he can prove it by other witnesses 485the result of the legislation it is doubtless due to considerations of public policy that thestatutes changing the common-law rule have been enacted;486 butthey have not proved an unalloyed benefit, and essay of their featureshave brought about conditions which in essay paper have embarrassedthe administration of justice the law in new york may be taken forillustration. It formerly cut off the safest means of ascertaining themental condition and competency of a testator;487 it now precludes aphysician from disclosing the condition of his patient who is a lunaticor habitual drunkard, 488 though it be the most satisfactory evidence;it shuts out much testimony tending to show fraud in insurancepaper;489 it precludes a physician from stating the cause of hispatient death, 490 though there is no longer any secrecy connectedwith it, for the law makes it the duty of the physician to make, forfiling with the local board of health, a certificate of the probablecause of the death of a patient 491 it has been the subject of muchadverse criticism, 492 but all such considerations are properly to beaddressed to the legislature and not to the courts it seems to be themost far-reaching in its exclusion, and though it has been the longestin existence, was modified at the legislative sessions of 1891, 1892, and 1893, a fact which tends to show that there was sound reason in thecriticisms a synopsis of the laws of the several states and territories of the united states of america, and of great britain and ireland, and of the north american provinces of great britain, regulating the practice of medicine and surgery, prepared from the latest statutes by william a poste, late first deputy attorney-general of the state of new york, and charles a boston, esq , of the new york city bar synopsis of the existing statuteswhich regulate the acquirement of the right to practise medicine and surgery in the united states, great britain and ireland, and the canadian provinces note - this synopsis is designed to contain especially thoseprovisions of the statutes which regulate the right to practisemedicine and surgery it is not intended to include provisionsregulating apothecaries, druggists, chemists, and dentists, or the saleof drugs, medicines, and poisons. Nor provisions for the organizationand procedure of boards of medical examiners, except so far as theyregulate the requirements demanded from applicants for permission topractise. Nor provisions with reference to the duties of clerks orregistrars in the preparation and safe-keeping of records in theircare. Nor those defining the duties of members of boards, and punishingthe misconduct of such members. Nor those prescribing qualificationsfor appointment to the public medical service. Nor former laws not nowapplicable to candidates. Nor regulations of the form of certificatesor licenses, where the issuing of them is committed to essay publicfunctionary or body.