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But the other two are more rare, and hardto be met with, yet they are both found growing wild about appledore, near rye in kent time they flower not usually until august government and virtues the plant is venereal, pleasing, andharmless the herb or the root all that the devil hath left of itbeing boiled in wine, and drank, is very powerful against the plague, and all pestilential diseases or fevers, poisons also, and the bitingsof venemous beasts. It helps also those that are inwardly bruised byany casuality, or outwardly by falls or blows, dissolving the clottedblood. And the herb or root beaten and outwardly applied, takes awaythe black and blue marks that remain in the skin the decoction ofthe herb, with honey of roses put therein, is very effectual to helpthe inveterate tumours and swellings of the almonds and throat, byoften gargling the mouth therewith it helps also to procure womencourses, and eases all pains of the mother and to break and discusswind therein, and in the bowels the powder of the root taken in drink, drives forth the worms in the body the juice or distilled water ofthe herb, is effectual for green wounds, or old sores, and cleansesthe body inwardly, and the seed outwardly, from sores, scurf, itch, pimples, freckles, morphew, or other deformities thereof, especiallyif a little vitriol be dissolved therein dock thesis kinds of these are so well known, that i shall not trouble youwith a description of them. My book grows big too fast government and virtues all docks are under jupiter, of which thered dock, which is commonly called bloodwort, cleanses the blood, andstrengthens the liver. But the yellow dock-root is best to be takenwhen either the blood or liver is affected by choler all of themhave a kind of cooling but not all alike drying quality, the sorrelbeing most cold, and the blood-worts most drying of the burdock, ihave spoken already by itself the seed of most of the other kinds, whether the gardens or fields, do stay lasks and fluxes of all sorts, the loathing of the stomach through choler, and is helpful for thosethat spit blood the roots boiled in vinegar help the itch, scabs, andbreaking out of the skin, if it be bathed therewith the distilledwater of the herb and roots have the same virtue, and cleanses the skinfrom freckles, morphews, and all other spots and discolourings therein all docks being boiled with meat, make it boil the sooner. Besidesblood-wort is exceeding strengthening to the liver, and procures goodblood, being as wholeessay a pot herb as any growing in a garden. Yetsuch is the nicety of our times, forsooth, that women will not put itinto a pot, because it makes the pottage black.

The leaves applied to thehead, help hot diseases there, and frenzies sampsucum marjoram sunicula sanicle. Hot and dry in the second degree, cleanses woundsand ulcers saponaria sope-wort, or bruise-wort, vulgarly used in bruises andcut fingers, and is of notable use in the veneral disease satureia savory summer savory is hot and dry in the third degree, winter savory is not so hot, both of them expel wind sazifragia alba white saxifrage, breaks wind, helps the cholic andstone scabiosa scabious. Hot and dry in the second degree, cleanses thebreast and lungs, helps old rotten coughs, and difficulty of breathing, provokes urine, and cleanses the bladder of filthy stuff, breaksaposthumes, and cures scabs and itch boil it in white wine scariola an italian name for succory schœnanthus schœnanth, squinanth, or chamel hay. Hot and binding it digests and opens the passages of the veins. Surely it is as greatan expeller of wind as any is scordium water-germander, hot and dry, cleanses ulcers in the inwardwritings, it provokes urine and the menses, opens stopping of the liver, spleen, reins, bladder, and matrix, it is a great counter poison, andeases the breast oppressed with flegm. See diascordium scrophularia figwort, so called of scrophula, the king evil, which it cures they say, by being only hung about the neck if not, bruise it, and apply it to the place, it helps the piles or hemorrhoids sedum and all his sorts. See barba jovis senna it heats in the second degree and dries in the first, cleanses, purges and digests. It carries downward both choler, flegm, and melancholy, it cleanses the brain, heart, liver, spleen.

And colewort flowers areessaything more tolerable, and the wholeessayr food of the two the moonchallenges the dominion of this herb the sea coleworts descript this has divers essaywhat long and broad large and thickwrinkled leaves, essaywhat crumpled about the edges, and growing eachupon a thick footstalks very brittle, of a greyish green colour, fromamong which rises up a strong thick stalk, two feet high and better, with essay leaves thereon to the top, where it branches forth much. Andon every branch stands a large bush of pale whitish flowers, consistingof four leaves a-piece. The root is essaywhat great, shoots forth thesisbranches under ground, keeping the leaves green all the winter place they grow in thesis places upon the sea-coasts, as well on thekentish as essex shores. As at lid in kent, colchester in essex, anddivers other places, and in other counties of this land time they flower and seed about the time that other kinds do government and virtues the moon claims the dominion of these also the broth, or first decoction of the sea colewort, doth by the sharp, nitrous, and bitter qualities therein, open the belly, and purge thebody. It cleanses and digests more powerfully than the other kind. Theseed hereof, bruised and drank, kills worms the leaves or the juice ofthem applied to sores or ulcers, cleanses and heals them, and dissolvesswellings, and takes away inflammations calamint, or mountain-mint descript this is a small herb, seldom rising above a foot high, with square hairy, and woody stalks, and two small hoary leaves set ata joint, about the height of marjoram, or not much bigger, a littledented about the edges, and of a very fierce or quick scent, as thewhole herb is. The flowers stand at several spaces of the stalk, fromthe middle almost upwards, which are small and gaping like to those ofthe mints, of a pale bluish colour. After which follow small, roundblackish seed the root is small and woody, with divers small stringsspreading within the ground, and dies not, but abides thesis years place it grows on heaths, and uplands, and dry grounds, in thesisplaces of this land time they flower in july and their seed is ripe quickly after government and virtues it is an herb of mercury, and a strongone too, therefore excellent good in all afflictions of the brain the decoction of the herb being drank, brings down women courses, and provokes urine it is profitable for those that are bursten, ortroubled with convulsions or cramps, with shortness of breath, orcholeric torments and pains in their bellies or stomach. It also helpsthe yellow-jaundice, and stays vomiting, being taken in wine takenwith salt and honey, it kills all manner of worms in the body ithelps such as have the leprosy, either taken inwardly, drinking wheyafter it, or the green herb outwardly applied it hinders conceptionin women, but either burned or strewed in the chamber, it drives awayvenomous serpents it takes away black and blue marks in the face, andmakes black scars become well coloured, if the green herb not thedry be boiled in wine, and laid to the place, or the place washedtherewith being applied to the hucklebone, by continuance of time, itspends the humours, which cause the pain of the sciatica the juicebeing dropped into the ears, kills the worms in them the leaves boiledin wine, and drank, provoke sweat, and open obstructions of the liverand spleen it helps them that have a tertian ague the body beingfirst purged by taking away the cold fits the decoction hereof, withessay sugar put thereto afterwards, is very profitable for those thatbe troubled with the over-flowing of the gall, and that have an oldcough, and that are scarce able to breathe by shortness of their wind;that have any cold distemper in their bowels, and are troubled withthe hardness or the spleen, for all which purposes, both the powder, called diacaluminthes, and the compound syrup of calamint are the mosteffectual let no women be too busy with it, for it works very violentupon the feminine writing camomile it is so well known every where, that it is but lost time and labour todescribe it the virtues thereof are as follow a decoction made of camomile, and drank, takes away all pains andstitches in the side the flowers of camomile beaten, and made up intoballs with gill, drive away all sorts of agues, if the writing grieved beanointed with that oil, taken from the flowers, from the crown of thehead to the sole of the foot, and afterwards laid to sweat in his bed, and that he sweats well this is nechessor, an egyptian, medicine itis profitable for all sorts of agues that come either from phlegm, ormelancholy, or from an inflammation of the bowels, being applied whenthe humours causing them shall be concocted. And there is nothing moreprofitable to the sides and region of the liver and spleen than it thebathing with a decoction of camomile takes away weariness, eases pains, to what writing of the body soever they be applied it comforts the sinewsthat are over-strained, mollifies all swellings. It moderately comfortsall writings that have need of warmth, digests and dissolves whatsoeverhas need thereof, by a wonderful speedy property it eases all painsof the cholic and stone, and all pains and torments of the belly, andgently provokes urine the flowers boiled in posset-drink provokessweat, and helps to expel all colds, aches, and pains whatsoever, andis an excellent help to bring down women courses syrup made ofthe juice of camomile, with the flowers, in white wine, is a remedyagainst the jaundice and dropsy the flowers boiled in lye, are goodto wash the head, and comfort both it and the brain the oil madeof the flowers of camomile, is much used against all hard swellings, pains or aches, shrinking of the sinews, or cramps, or pains in thejoints, or any other writing of the body being used in clysters, it helpsto dissolve the wind and pains in the belly. Anointed also, it helpsstitches and pains in the sides nechessor saith, the egyptians dedicated it to the sun, because itcured agues, and they were like enough to do it, for they were thearrantest apes in their religion that i ever read of bachinus, bena, and lobel, commend the syrup made of the juice of it and sugar, takeninwardly, to be excellent for the spleen also this is certain, that itmost wonderfully breaks the stone. Essay take it in syrup or decoction, others inject the juice of it into the bladder with a syringe myopinion is, that the salt of it, taken half a dram in the morning ina little white or rhenish wine, is better than either.

Set the vessel, beingclose stopped, in the sun thirty or forty days, afterwards strain it, and keep it for use culpeper a little of this medicine being taken in the morningfasting, and walking half an hour after, preserves the body in health, to extreme old age, as sanius tried, who using no other medicine butthis, lived in perfect health till one hundred and seventeen years ofage it makes the digestion good, a long wind, a clear voice, an acutesight, a good colour, it suffers no offensive thing to remain in thebody, neither wind, flegm, choler, melancholy, dung, nor urine, butbrings them forth. It brings forth filth though it lie in the bones, ittakes away salt and sour belchings, though a man be never so licentiousin diet, he shall feel no harm. It hath cured such as have thephthisic, that have been given over by all physicians. It cures suchas have the falling sickness, gouts, and diseases and swellings of thejoints. It takes away the hardness of the liver and spleen we shouldnever have done if we should reckon up the writingicular benefits of thismedicine. Therefore we commend it as a wholeessay medicine for soundnessof body, preservation of health, and vigour of mind thus galen acetum theriacale, norimberg or treacle vinegar college take of the roots of celandine the greater, one ounceand a half. The roots of angelica, masterwort, gentian, bistort, valerian, burnet, white dittany, elecampane, zedoary, of each one dram, of plantain the greater one dram and a half, the leaves of mousear, sage, scabious, scordium, dittany of crete, carduus, of each half anhandful, barks and seeds of citrons, of each half a dram, bole amoniacone dram, saffron three drams, of these let the saffron, hart-horn, dittany, and bole, be tied up in a rag, and steeped with the thingsbefore mentioned, in five pints of vinegar, for certain days by atemperate heat in a glass well stopped, strain it, and add six drams ofthe best treacle to it, shake it together, and keep it for your use acetum theriacale or treacle vinegar college add to the description of treacle water, clove-gilliflowerstwo ounces, lavender flowers an ounce and a half, rose, and elderflower vinegar, of each four pounds, digest it without boiling, threedays, then strain it through hippocrates’ sleeve culpeper see treacle water for the virtues, only this is more cool, a little more fantastical decoctions decoctum commune pro clystere or a common decoction for a clyster college take of mallows, violets, pellitory, beets, and mercury, chamomel flowers, of each one handful, sweet fennel seeds half anounce, linseeds two drams, boil them in a sufficient quantity of commonwater to a pound culpeper this is the common decoction for all clysters, accordingto the quality of the humour abounding, so you may add what simples, orsyrups, or electuaries you please. Only half a score linseeds, and ahandful of chamomel flowers are added decoctum epythimi or a decoction of epithimum college take of myrobalans, chebs, and inds, of each half anounce, stœchas, raisins of the sun stoned, epithimum, senna, of eachone ounce, fumitory half an ounce, maudlin five drams, polipodium sixdrams, turbith half an ounce, whey made with goat milk, or heifermilk four pounds, let them all boil to two pounds, the epithimumexcepted, which boil but a second or two, then take it from the fire, and add black hellebore one dram and an half, agerick half a dram, sal gem one dram and an half, steep them ten hours, then press it stronglyout culpeper it purges melancholy, as also choler, it resists madness, and all diseases coming of melancholy, and therefore let melancholypeople esteem it as a jewel decoctum sennæ gereonis or a decoction of senna college take of senna two ounces, pollipodium half an ounce, gingerone dram, raisins of the sun stoned two ounces, sebestens, prunes, ofeach twelve, the flowers of borrage, violets, roses, and rosemary, ofeach two drams, boil them in four pounds of water till half be consumed culpeper it is a common decoction for any purge, by adding othersimples or compounds to it, according to the quality of the humour youwould have purged, yet, in itself, it chiefly purges melancholy decoctum pectorale or a pectoral decoction college take of raisins of the sun stoned, an ounce, sebestens, jujubes, of each fifteen, dates six, figs four, french barley oneounce, liquorice half an ounce, maiden-hair, hyssop, scabious, colt-foot, of each one handful, boil them in three pounds of watertill two remain culpeper the medicine is chiefly appropriated to the lungs, and therefore causes a clear voice, a long wind, resists coughs, hoarseness, asthmas, &c you may drink a quarter of a pint of it everymorning, without keeping to any diet, for it purges not i shall quote essay syrups fitting to be mixed with it, when i come tothe syrups decoctum trumaticum college take of agrimony, mugwort, wild angelica, st john wort, mousear, of each two handfuls, wormwood half a handful, southernwood, bettony, bugloss, comfrey the greater and lesser, roots and all, avens, both sorts of plantain, sanicle, tormentil with the roots, the buds ofbarberries and oak, of each a handful, all these being gathered in mayand june and diligently dried, let them be cut and put up in skins orpapers against the time of use, then take of the forenamed herbs threehandfuls, boil them in four pounds of conduit water and two pounds ofwhite wine gently till half be consumed, strain it, and a pound ofhoney being added to it, let it be scummed and kept for use culpeper if sight of a medicine will do you good, this is as liketo do it as any i know syrups altering syrups culpeper reader, before we begin with the writingicular syrups, ithink good to advertise thee of these few things, which concern thenature, making, and use of syrups in general 1 a syrup is a medicineof a liquid body, compounded of decoction, infusion, or juice, withsugar or honey, and brought by the heat of the fire, into the thicknessof honey 2 because all honey is not of a thickness, understand newhoney, which of all other is thinnest 3 the reason why decoctions, infusions, juices, are thus used, is, because thereby, first, they willkeep the longer secondly, they will taste the better 4 in boilingsyrups have a great care of their just consistence, for if you boilthem too much they will candy, if too little, they will sour 5 allsimple syrups have the virtues of the simples they are made of, and arefar more convenient for weak people, and delicate stomachs syrupus de absinthio simplex or syrup of wormwood simple the college take of the clarified juice of common wormwood, clarified sugar, of each four pounds, make it into a syrup accordingto art after the same manner, are prepared simple syrups of betony, borrage, bugloss, carduus, chamomel, succory, endive, hedge-mustard, strawberries, fumitory, ground ivy, st john wort, hops, mercury, mousear, plantain, apples, purslain, rasberries, sage, scabious, scordium, houseleek, colt-foot, paul bettony, and other juices notsour culpeper see the simples, and then you may easily know both theirvirtues, and also that they are pleasanter and fitter for delicatestomachs when they are made into syrups syrupus de absinthio compositus or syrup of wormwood compound college take of common wormwood meanly dry, half a pound, red rosestwo ounces, indian spikenard three drams, old white wine, juice ofquinces, of each two pounds and an half, steep them a whole day in anearthen vessel, then boil them gently, and strain it, and by adding twopounds of sugar, boil it into a syrup according to art culpeper mesue is followed verbatim in this. And the receipt isappropriated to cold and flegmatic stomachs, and it is an admirableremedy for it, for it strengthens both stomach and liver, as alsothe instruments of concoction, a spoonful taken in the morning, isadmirable for such as have a weak digestion, it provokes an appetite toone victuals, it prevails against the yellow iaundice, breaks wind, purges humours by urine syrupus de acetosus simplex or syrup of vinegar simple college take of clear water four pounds, white sugar five pounds, boil them in a glazed vessel over a gentle fire, scumming it till halfthe water be consumed, then by putting in two pounds of white winevinegar by degrees, perfect the syrup culpeper that is, only melt the sugar with the vinegar over thefire, scum it, but boil it not syrupus acetosus simplicior or syrup of vinegar more simple college take of white sugar five pounds, white wine vinegar twopounds, by melting it in a bath, make it into a syrup culpeper of these two syrups let every one use which he finds byexperience to be best. The difference is but little they both of themcut flegm, as also tough, hard viscous humours in the stomach. Theycool the body, quench thirst, provoke urine, and prepare the stomachbefore the taking of a vomit if you take it as a preparative for anemetic, take half an ounce of it when you go to bed the night beforeyou intend it to operate, it will work the easier, but if for any ofthe foregoing occasions, take it with a liquorice stick syrupus acetosus compositus or syrup of vinegar compound college take of the roots of smallage, fennel, endive, of eachthree ounces, the seeds of annis, smallage, fennel, of each one ounce, of endive half an ounce, clear water six pounds, boil it gently in anearthen vessel till half the water be consumed, then strain and clarifyit, and with three pounds of sugar, and a pound and a half of whitewine vinegar, boil it into a syrup culpeper this in my opinion is a gallant syrup for such whosebodies are stuffed either with flegm, or tough humours, for it opensobstructions or stoppings both of the stomach, liver, spleen, andreins. It cuts and brings away tough flegm and choler, and is thereforea special remedy for such as have a stuffing at their stomach syrupus de agno casto or syrup of agnus castus college take of the seeds of rue and hemp, of each half a dram, of endive, lettice, purslain, gourds, melons, of each two drams, offleawort half an ounce, of agnus castus four ounces, the flowers ofwater lilies, the leaves of mints, of each half a handful, decoctionof seeds of lentils, and coriander seeds, of each half an ounce, threepounds of the decoction, boil them all over a gentle fire till twopounds be consumed, add to the residue, being strained, two ounces ofjuice of lemons, a pound and a half of white sugar, make it into asyrup according to art culpeper a pretty syrup, and good for little syrupus de althæa or syrup of marsh-mallows college take of roots of marsh-mallows, two ounces, the roots ofgrass asparagus, liquorice, raisins of the sun stoned, of each halfan ounce, the tops of mallows, marsh-mallows, pellitory of the wall, burnet, plantain, maiden-hair white and black, of each a handful, redcicers an ounce, of the four greater and four lesser cold seeds, ofeach three drams, boil them in six pounds of clear water till fourremain, which being strained, boil into a syrup with four pounds ofwhite sugar culpeper it is a fine cooling, opening, slipery syrup, and chieflycommendable for the cholic, stone, or gravel, in the kidneys or bladder syrupus de ammoniaca or syrup of ammoniacum college take of maudlin and cetrach, of each four handfuls, commonwormwood an ounce, the roots of succory, sparagus, bark of caper roots, of each two ounces, after due preparation steep them twenty-four hoursin three ounces of white wine, radish and fumitory water, of each twopounds, then boil it away to one pound eight ounces, let it settle, in four ounces of which, whilst it is warm, dissolve by itself gumammoniacum, first dissolved in white wine vinegar, two ounces, boil therest with a pound and an half of white sugar into a syrup, adding themixtures of the gum at the end culpeper it cools the liver, and opens obstructions both of it andthe spleen, helps old surfeits, and such like diseases, as scabs, itch, leprosy, and what else proceed from the liver over heated you may takean ounce at a time syrupus de artemisia or syrup of mugwort college take of mugwort two handfuls, pennyroyal, calaminth, origanum, bawm, arsmart, dittany of crete, savin, marjoram, germander, st john wort, camepitis, featherfew with the flowers, centaury theless, rue, bettony, bugloss, of each a handful, the roots of fennel, smallage, parsley, sparagus, bruscus, saxifrage, elecampane, cypress, madder, orris, peony, of each an ounce, juniper berries, the seeds oflovage, parsley, smallage, annis, nigella, carpobalsamum or cubebs, costus, cassia lignea, cardamoms, calamus aromaticus, the roots ofasarabacca, pellitory of spain, valerian, of each half an ounce, beingcleansed, cut, and bruised, let them be infused twenty-four hours infourteen pounds of clear water, and boiled till half be consumed, beingtaken off from the fire, and rubbed between your hands whilst it iswarm, strain it, and with honey and sugar, of each two pounds, sharpvinegar four ounces, boil it to a syrup, and perfume it with cinnamonand spikenard, of each three drams culpeper it helps the passion of the matrix, and retains it inits place, it dissolves the coldness, wind, and pains thereof. Itstrengthens the nerves, opens the pores, corrects the blood, itcorrects and provokes the menses you may take a spoonful of it at atime syrupus de betonica compositus or syrup of bettony compound college take of bettony three handfuls, marjoram four handfuls anda half, thyme, red roses, of each a handful, violets, stœchas, sage, of each half a handful, the seeds of fennel, annis, and ammi, of eachhalf an ounce, the roots of peons, polypodium, and fennel, of each fivedrams, boil them in six pounds of river water, to three pounds, strainit, and add juice of bettony two pounds, sugar three pounds and a half, make it into a syrup culpeper it helps diseases coming of cold, both in the head andstomach, as also such as come of wind, vertigos, madness. It concoctsmelancholy, it provokes the menses, and so doth the simple syrup morethan the compound syrupus byzantinus, simple college take of the juice of the leaves of endive and smallage, of each two pounds, of hops and bugloss, of each one pound, boil themtogether and scum them, and to the clarified liquor, add four pounds ofwhite sugar, to as much of the juices, and with a gentle fire boil itto a syrup syrupus byzantinus, compound college take of the juices so ordered as in the former, fourpounds, in which boil red roses, two ounces, liquorice half an ounce, the seeds of annis, fennel, and smallage, of each three drams, spikenard two drams, strain it, and to the three pounds remaining, add two pounds of vinegar, four pounds of sugar, make it into a syrupaccording to art culpeper they both of them viz both simple and compoundopen stoppings of the stomach, liver, and spleen, help the ricketsin children, cut and bring away tough flegm, and help the yellowjaundice you may take them with a liquorice stick, or take a spoonfulin the morning fasting syrupus botryos or syrup of oak of jerusalem college take of oak of jerusalem, hedge-mustard, nettles, of eachtwo handfuls, colt-foot, one handful and a half, boil them in asufficient quantity of clear water till half be consumed. To two poundsof the decoction, add two pounds of the juice of turnips baked in anoven in a close pot, and with three pounds of white sugar, boil it intoa syrup culpeper this syrup was composed against coughs, shortness ofbreath, and other the like infirmities of the breast proceeding ofcold, for which if you can get it you may take it with a liquoricestick syrupus capillorum veneris or syrup of maiden-hair college take of liquorice two ounces, maiden-hair five ounces, steep them a natural day in four pounds of warm water, then aftergentle boiling, and strong straining, with a pound and a half of finesugar make it into a syrup culpeper it opens stoppings of the stomach, strengthens the lungs, and helps the infirmities of them this may be taken also either witha liquorice stick, or mixed with the pectoral decoction like syrup ofcoltsfoot syrupus cardiacus, vel julepum cardiacum or a cordial syrup college take of rhenish wine two pounds, rose water two ounces anda half, cloves two scruples, cinnamon half a dram, ginger two scruples, sugar three ounces and a half, boil it to the consistence of a julep, adding ambergris three grains, musk one grain culpeper if you would have this julep keep long, you may put inmore sugar, and yet if close stopped, it will not easily corruptbecause it is made up only of wine, indeed the wisest way is to orderthe quantity of sugar according to the palate of him that takes it itrestores such as are in consumptions, comforts the heart, cherishes thedrooping spirits, and is of an opening quality, thereby carrying awaythose vapours which might otherwise annoy the brain and heart. You maytake an ounce at a time, or two if you please syrupus infusionis florum cariophillorum or syrup of clove-gilliflowers college take a pound of clove-gilliflowers, the whites being cutoff, infuse them a whole night in two pounds of water, then with fourpounds of sugar melted in it, make it into a syrup without boiling culpeper this syrup is a fine temperate syrup.

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According to matthiolus, helps ruptures. You maytake half a dram at a time ostrutij masterwort, given once before under the name ofimperitoria but i have essaything else to do than to write one thingtwice as they did pastinatæ, sativæ, and silvestris garden and wild parsnips theyare of a temperate quality, inclining essaything to heat. The gardenparsnips provoke lust, and nourish as much and more too, than any rootordinarily eaten. The wild are more physical, being cutting, cleansing, and opening. They resist the bitings of venomous beasts, ease painsand stitches in the sides, and are a sovereign remedy against the windcholic pentafylli of cinqfyl, commonly called five-leaved, or five-finger’dgrass. The root is very drying, but moderately hot.