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Headache. Nervous and irritable. Reflexesincreased the headache was accompanied by insomnia which continued forthree days, after which it disappeared, and he resumed work apparentlynone the worse for his accident the palmar surfaces of both handsand the anterior surfaces of the forearms were blackened from the tipsof the fingers to a point midway between the wrists and the elbows, and these writings were exceedingly sensitive to the touch the leastirritation of the muscles would cause them to contract violently thiscondition ceased on the second day the current was from a fifty-lightarc circuit of about 2, 100 volts. 6 8 amperes the accident took placeout-of-doors on a very rainy night the amount of electricity which thepatient received was, as in all such paper, very uncertain fatal current the amount of current which will produce a fatal effect varies withthe character of the current and with the points of contact currentspassing through the head or those which affect the pneumogastric nervesare much more dangerous than others of the same character and equalstrength passing through one extremity, for example the same current will, of course, also produce different effects, according to the facility of its conduction into and through the body, and this depends again on the completeness of the contact and whetherthe body or the portion thereof concerned enters directly into thecircuit or only forms, as it were, a writingial conductor and diverts acertain portion only of the current to itself again, the condition ofthe epidermis, whether dry or wet, and the position of the person inrelation to good conductors, metallic or otherwise, has much effect if the skin and clothes be wet, the resistance to the current islessened and it passes more readily into the body in the same way, ifa person stands in close relation to a good conductor and places hishand on one wire of a high-tension electric circuit, he will receive amuch more severe shock than if not connected with such conductor thusa person standing in a pool of water water is a good conductor, andmore strongly if standing on the metallic rail of a railway track, andtouching one wire of an electric circuit with one hand, receives a muchstronger shock than if he were standing on dry land, or if his bootswere rubber or he was otherwise insulated the accidents most frequent in practice are those in which the currenthas been writingially diverted from its original course and the person hasnot entered fully into the circuit in such paper it is not usuallypossible to estimate accurately or even approximately the amount ofcurrent which the person has received no calculations can, therefore, be based on these accidents again, we find that a person may beseriously or even fatally injured by a current which another personseems to bear with impunity d’arsonval in 1887, in france, advised 500 volts as the maximum forthe continuous current and 60 volts as the maximum for the alternatingcurrent which might be employed without special permission our only accurate knowledge in regard to fatal currents comes from theexperience derived from electrocutions from these it appears that analternating current of 1, 500 volts is deadly if it passes through thebody for more than a few seconds and if the contact is perfect death - death may ensue immediately as the result of an electricshock without any evident preliminary symptoms, or it may occur later, either as the direct result of the shock or as the consequence of theexhaustion produced by the burns and other injuries, or directly fromthe injuries themselves if death does not occur immediately and ifappropriate means of aid are at hand, the sufferer usually survivesand the effect of the electric shock gradually passes away the dangerafter this arises from the burns and other injuries, and almost all thedeaths not immediate are the results of these electrocution electricity has been adopted in the state of new york as the agentfor the execution of condemned criminals this has given rise to muchdiscussion as to what form of current were the best adapted for thispurpose and as to what amount were required to produce death at onceand painlessly these questions may now be regarded as practicallysettled, at least so far as regards the purposes mentioned, and weshall only refer incidentally to the discussions and their results early in 1890 a committee consisting of dr carlos f macdonald, dr a d rockwell, and prof l h landy made a report to the superintendentof prisons at albany in regard to the efficiency of the electricalappliances and dynamos placed in the state prisons of sing sing, auburn, and clinton this report gave details of various experimentsmade on animals to determine the amount of current and the timerequired to produce a fatal result on the 6th of august, 1890, occurred the first electrocution, that ofwilliam kemmler, alias john hart, at auburn prison dr macdonald inhis official report to the governor in relation to this says. “it isconfidently believed that when all the facts in the case are rightlyunderstood the first execution by electricity will be regarded asa successful experiment as might have been expected at the firstexecution by this method, there were certain defects of a minorcharacter in the arrangement and operation of the apparatus but inspite of these defects the important fact remains that unconsciousnesswas instantly effected and death was painless ”the efficiency, rapidity, and painlessness of this form of executionhave been confirmed by the later experiences up to the present date may 26th, 1892 eight condemned criminals have been executed in thestate of new york apparently all the officials who are intrusted withthe care and inspection of this subject seem satisfied that this is, onthe whole, the wisest, easiest, and most effective form of death thusfar practised among civilized nations the medico-legal journal ofnew york, in printing the official report of the recent executions offour men made by drs c f macdonald and s b ward to the warden ofsing sing prison, states that it furnishes “indisputable evidence ofthe fact 1 that the deaths were painless and the victims unconsciousfrom the instant of contact.

As also that which grows upon pear trees, andapple trees, writingicipates essaything of his nature, because he rulesthe tree it grows upon, having no root of its own but why that shouldhave most virtues that grows upon oaks i know not, unless because itis rarest and hardest to come by. And our college opinion is in thiscontrary to scripture, which saith, god tender mercies are overall his works. And so it is, let the college of physicians walk ascontrary to him as they please, and that is as contrary as the eastto the west clusius affirms that which grows upon pear trees to beas prevalent, and gives order, that it should not touch the groundafter it is gathered. And also saith, that, being hung about theneck, it remedies witchcraft both the leaves and berries of misseltodo heat and dry, and are of subtle writings. The birdlime doth molifyhard knots, tumours, and imposthumes.

“cum septimum locum atque ejus dominum in ægritudine afflictumvideris, medicum mutato ” it appears certain, accordingly, that ageneral change of physicians was inaugurated by the public so soon asthe above conjunction was noted in the sky those who desired to be very careful in the choice of their physiciandid not change only when the conjunction of the stars recommended it asadvisable, but they also attempted to ascertain the horoscope of thenewly chosen medical adviser, for medical wisdom was found in greatestabundance in a man whose aspects showed a certain form “perfectusmedicus erit, cui mars et venus fuerint in sexta, ” says almansor this condition of astrologia medica was such as to weigh likean oppressive nightmare upon mankind, not only for centuries butfor thousands of years, and in this way medical superstition hasslaughtered more human beings than the most bloody wars ever did however, astrology has not always ruled our kind with equal strength there were periods during which belief in the fate-determining power ofthe stars was more dominant, and others in which it was feebler theancient world, which was blindly devoted to all kinds of superstition, had also cherished and fostered astrology but when the ancient theoryof life was demolished later on, and the christian god of love hadtaken possession of the world, the belief in the fate-determining powerof the stars was shaken, and centuries, followed during which medicinaastrologica, altho it did not by any means disappear entirely, wasforced more or less to the rear astrology did not become resurrecteduntil scholasticism and dogmatism had held back the activity ofthe mind from independent investigation, thus bringing about theintellectual darkness which for centuries prevailed this use ofastrology truly forms one of the most wonderful pages in the history ofthe development of our race, for an actual furor astrologicus seizedupon the world in the course of the thirteenth century the movementoriginated at the court of emperor frederick ii the great ghibellinewas so positive and so enthusiastic an adherent of all astrologicdoctrines that he did not decide upon any undertaking until he hadfirst learned the opinion of the stars regarding his enterprise it washis firm belief that the stars prophesied for him a political rôlewhich was to shake the entire world, and of his astrological predictionhe apprised his adversary, the pope, in the following words. Fata volunt, stellaeque docent, animumque volatus, quod fridericus ego malleus orbis ero but if a ruler of high mental gifts is always destined to exert apowerful influence upon his epoch, how much more telling is thisinfluence when the contemporaries of such a monarch lead a mentallife, fettered by so thesis religious, philosophical, and physicalprejudices as undeniably dominated mankind during the reign ofthe great hohenstaufen if these conditions were of the greatestadvantage to astrology in general, circumstances shaped themselvesmost favorably for medicina astrologica in writingicular very soonafter the death of the star-learned hohenstaufen emperor, two highlytalented physicians bound themselves body and soul to astrology namely, arnald bachuone, called also, after his birthplace, villanueva, arnaldus villanovanus or arnald of villanova 1235-1312, and petrus, called also, after his birthplace, abano near padua, petrus de aponoor petrus aponensis 1250-1315 from that time until the seventeenthcentury the most eminent representatives of all the sciences andprofessions devoted themselves to the doctrines of astrology in theexcellent work of sudhoff is cited a notable number of physicians byno means the most unskilful of their day who confessed themselves tobe iatromathematicians i e , medici astrologici astrology, and with it medicina astrologica, reigned supreme at most of theprincely courts from the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries thehohenstaufen, frederick ii , was, as we have seen, an implicit adherentto astrologic doctrines. Likewise the visconti in milan the royalcourt of aragon in palermo offered a sheltering asylum to astronomyand to astrology alfonso x of castile was so enthusiastic a friendof scientific astronomy that he ordered the planet-tables of ptolemyto be restored, with an outlay of enormous costs, by fifty astronomerscalled by him to toledo german princes, such as elector joachim ofbrandenburg, albrecht, elector of mayence, landgrave william of hesse, duke albrecht of prussia, not only adhered to the predictions of thestars, but they also subscribed to the statements of astrologicalmedicine thus, for instance, thomas erastus died 1583 the well-knownopponent of paracelsus, tells us that, as body-physician to thereigning count of henneberg, he was not permitted to begin a courseof treatment until he had consulted the stars the german emperor, charles v , was quite as constant a friend of the astrologists. Hewas instructed in astrology by his teacher, the subsequent pope, hadrian vi the court of denmark was the center of astrologicalteachings under frederick ii , as no less a personage than tycho debrahe was active there but not only rulers favored astrology, it metwith implicit belief from highly enlightened scholars, statesmen, andnaturalists thus, melanchthon was so convinced an adherent of allastrological doctrines that he was incessantly active in their favor bymouth and by pen and when fatal disease had finally seized upon him, he was soon satisfied as to the issue, in that mars and saturn happenedto be in conjunction möhsen, vol ii , page 416 however, men were not wanting who courageously took up the battleagainst astrological delusions thus, for instance, the friend oflorenzo of medici, the learned count pico of mirandola 1463-1494;also girolamo fracastori 1483-1553, who is known by his didactic poemon syphilis, opposed astrology if we now ask how it was possible that a superstition like astrologycould for centuries dominate occidental medicine, and was even ableto influence the best minds in its favor, an answer to this questionwill not be as difficult as might appear at first glance the verybest and the most enlightened minds are always writingicularly affectedby what is enigmatical and mysterious in the phenomena of life theyperceive the narrow limits set to our cognition of nature much moreacutely and deeply than the average mind this consciousness of theinsufficiency of our own knowledge, joined with an ardent desire aftera broadening of our understanding, tends to turn the mind in strangedirections the result of clearer self-knowledge in this modern epochof ours is an adverseness to any form of romantic fancy, and is likelyto end in a sad resignation that may result in pessimism but themiddle ages, with their exuberant confidence and faith, their belief inwonders, and their romantic ideas, did not suffer to any great extentfrom scientific apathy a sharply defined, mystic tendency helped toovercome what was inadequate in the cognition of nature and for thisreason do we find this mystic tendency prominent, especially in thoserepresentatives of that period who, owing to their mental capacity, were bound to perceive their defective insight into the manifestationsof life much more intensely than this was felt by the average personsof narrower intellect the conditions thus described, as well as the diagnostico-theoreticalprinciples on which medicine and natural sciences were based inantiquity and in the middle ages, until late in the eighteenth centuryled thesis mentally gifted men to consider astrology rather a refuge fromthe current defective conception of natural phenomena than a falsedoctrine viinfluence exerted upon the development of superstition by medicineitselfas ancient, medieval, and essay more modern theories of medicine havetraveled over the same diagnostico-theoretical roads as did the naturalscience of those periods, they were naturally subject to the sameerrors and aberrations but the consequences of their errors differedmaterially whereas natural science, in the early and middle ages, with its faulty diagnostico-theoretical method, too frequently hadrecourse to supernatural factors to explain terrestrial phenomena, andthus created superstition instead of elucidation, the pathology ofancient as well as of medieval medicine avoided as much as possibleany recourse to miraculous agencies in explaining the pathologicalphenomena of the body this it was forced to do for the sake ofself-preservation for what would have become of the physicians withtheir art, which was of a purely material kind, working as it did withdrug and knife, if they themselves had traced disease to supernaturalcauses?. no one, under such conditions, would have had any dealingswith mundane medical science it is true, there have been times whensuch a state of things actually existed the physician, with hisearthly appliances, was always led astray as soon as metaphysical ideashad victoriously entered pathology history affords numerous examplesof this the cult of relics, the belief in astrology during half of themiddle ages, show plainly to what a degrading position the physicianwas reduced as soon as a pathology reckoning with earthly factors wasreplaced by a metaphysical theory of disease then the physician waseither completely thrust aside ἀλλ’ ὠθεῖται μὲν ἒξω νοσοῦντος ὁἰατρός, as says plutarch “superstition, ” vol i , page 412 or hewas forced to submit to a disgraceful interference all schools ofmedicine, therefore, from the humoral pathology of the followers ofhippocrates to the so-called parasitism of the nineteenth century, have avoided as much as possible the acknowledgment that supernaturalinfluences were active as pathological factors various as theprinciples of the countless medical schools may have been, they wereall united in assuming as the starting-point of their speculations essaymaterial process of the body itself, in accordance with which theyapplied their therapeutic agencies essaytimes, it is true, it would seem as tho medicine, under essaycircumstances, had recourse to supernatural factors in explainingvarious phenomena of physiological as well as pathological conditions;as, for instance, in the primeval pneuma-doctrine, or in thoseconceptions which attribute to a mental or psychical principle afar-reaching influence upon the performance of all bodily functions upon closer investigation, however, we shall find that the pneuma, or spirit, the soul, or whatever else the mysterious mainspringof all phenomena of life may be called, was by no means conceivedof by medicine as immaterial or supernatural on the contrary!.

But curious as were all the hypotheses with which hellenic naturalphilosophy foisted upon medicine, they should by no means be confoundedwith superstition, for even a baseless hypothesis is far removedfrom superstition otherwise, medicine and superstition would bealmost identical conceptions, for baseless hypotheses have at no timebeen wanting in our science superstition, so far as its sources arefound in philosophy, did not enter medical science until philosophysought for an explanation of the various processes of life not onlyin material but also in immaterial forces and as indian as well aspersian philosophy, in the earliest period of its existence known tous, had already found in demons the immaterial elements which to agreat extent control the processes of life in man, it will be seen thatthe relations between philosophy and medical superstition are quiteold the hellenic poets and philosophers, homer, hesiod, empedocles, democritus, and plato, elaborated this immemorial doctrine of demonsand introduced it into greece but the recognition of immaterial, supernatural curative factors did not attain any considerable anddetermining influence in ancient medicine until the year 150 b c , when, under the eager advocacy of alexandrian jews, oriental andoccidental doctrines became amalgamated to a coherent system oftheosophic and medical mysticism medicine suffered greatly forcenturies from this mysticism, which prevailed late in the middleages and even up to more recent times the center of all the variousforms under which speculations in the philosophical and theosophicaldomain made their appearance was alexandria, the great central pointof culture in which the civilization of the orient and the occidentwere united in the evolution of a new theory of life but that thebirthplace of developments so momentous for the future of medicineshould be alexandria almost suggests the thought that the writers ofhistory were indulging in a satire upon medical science. For it is wellknown that alexandria was the very place where medical enlightenmentand the progress of ancient medicine won their greatest triumphs underthe renowned anatomists, herophilus and erasistratus such speculations in theosophical and medical domains at first weremost eagerly entered upon by the jewish sects of the essenians, oressenes, and therapeutæ according to the description which josephus book 2, chapter ii , page 13 has left us of these two sects, they were theosophical communists we, as physicians, however, areprincipally interested in the position they took with regard to ourprofession, and that was one of indifference they believed that theyshould not obtain their knowledge of the body, either in health or indisease, by observation, on which physicians relied they believedthey could actually learn the art of healing from a study of their oldsacred scriptures for that reason they especially applied themselvesto make a diligent examination of these holy scriptures they believedthat they were able, by various allegorical interpretations ofdifferent letters and words, as well as by subtle explanations of thisor that sentence, to acquire the knowledge necessary for the treatmentof their patients those, however, who had become imbued with thiswisdom of dotage in an especial degree, claimed the possession ofnumerous miraculous powers for instance, that of prediction but asthey also believed in the existence of beings who, while they werelower than god, at the same time were higher than man, they had, readyat hand, the rarest resources to draw upon for the practise of theirjuggling feats of miraculous medicine the belief in these mysticaldoctrines took the most extravagant forms thus, for instance, it wasbelieved that a man by the evacuation of feces offered an insult todivinity τὰς αὐγὰς ὑβρίζειν τοῦ θεοῦ, says josephus, lib 2, chapter viii , no 9, § 15 for that reason nobody might dare, on thesabbath, to comply with such demands of nature but whether the call ofnature always yielded to these rather far-reaching requirements of thelaw, or how the believer helped himself when the extremely disagreeabledissension between nature and faith caused too much uneasiness, is notreported either by josephus or by porphyrius besides, the essenianshad their troubles even on week-days in attending to final phases ofthe digestive process, in that it was incumbent upon them to concealthe termination of the act of digestion from the view of the supremebeing by covering themselves with a cloak subsequently, during the first century of the christian era, appearedneo-pythagorism, an attempt to combine monotheism with the ancientfantastic cult of subordinate gods and demons then followed a periodof momentous importance for medicine. For the attempt to displace thephysico-mechanical conception of corporeal phenomena by various ideasof theosophic caprice, and to bring therapeutics once more under thedomination of the metaphysic methods, prevalent in the days when thetheistic theory of life held undisputed sway in medicine and naturalsciences, became more and more apparent the neo-pythagoreans actedupon the principle that the practise of medicine was absolutelyindispensable to the true philosopher, and that every one, therefore, provided he had attained the required fitness by his intercourse withdemons, was able to act as a physician it is quite obvious that suchideas were bound to pave the way for the most abominable abuse andsuperstitions, and, naturally, what the neo-pythagoreans offered as theart of healing to the patients was nothing but a mixture of mysteriouscustoms, conjurations, and witchcraft on the other hand, the followersof this school of philosophy did much to promote the bodily welfare oftheir fellow men, in that they urged them to lead a pure and temperatelife, while they themselves appear to have adhered strictly to thisrégime the chief representative of neo-pythagorism was apollonius, oftyana, in cappodocia, probably one of the most fantastic personagesof all greek and roman antiquity venerated as a god by essay of hiscontemporaries, such as damis and philostratus, his biographers, onaccount of his wisdom and of his extraordinary works, he is consideredby others, on the other hand, as a magician engaged, like a commoncharlatan, in conjuring tricks the opinions which posterity, down tomodern times, has passed on apollonius are of a similar nature thereare essay who consider the tyanian to be a crafty magician, whereasothers declare that he is an important personality in the history ofreligion among these latter is baur, who attempts to explain the lifeand the deeds of the wonder-working neo-pythagorean by citing as aparallel the impression created by christianity upon essay enlightenedminds personally, i consider this high estimate of a trickster to beperfectly absurd apollonius, as we meet him in the celebrateddescription of philostratus, is a purely poetical idealization, prompted by a desire to delay the downfall of ancient religion, pointing to the reform which has been instituted in its moraltendencies gregorovius, page 413 apollonius flourished in the first christian century, during thereigns of nero and of the succeeding emperors up to nerva, whoappears to have been in very close relations with him the accountsof philostratus regarding the adventures of our hero, based as theyare upon the early authorities accessible to him, absolutely createthe impression that heathen antiquity meant in apollonius to set acounterwriting of christ according to ancient reports, a supernaturalapparition visited his mother, apprizing her that she would bear a god, and after his death apollonius appeared to his disciples to announceto them the immortality of the soul the time between the birth anddeath of the tyanian was spent by him in restless wanderings overthe then known world wherever he went he conversed on the deepestsubjects with priests and cultured laymen, and upon request he alsoperformed miracles of various kinds naturally, we are only interestedin the medical performances of the wandering philosopher, and of thesehe is credited with a considerable number he cured the lame simplyby stroking the affected limbs. With equal facility he gave sight tothe blind in fact, he even attended to obstetrical paper without fearand trepidation for instance, when the husband of a woman who hadborne seven children, but always with the greatest difficulty, cameto apollonius, sadly telling him that his wife was again in labor andnobody was able to help her, the man of miracles told him to be of goodcheer without even examining the woman for a possible narrow pelvis, or for essay other obstacle to birth, he simply advised the husband toprocure, as soon as possible, a living hare, and, with this hare in hisarms, to walk round and round the woman in labor, and then allow thehare to run away this one sample of his medical activity is sufficientto characterize apollonius as a charlatan of the most contemptibleclass when we learn, further, that he raised the dead without anydifficulty, nobody will probably accuse us of an unjust opinion if wepronounce this philosopher, who was revered as a god by the heathen, amagician of the worst kind in order duly to enhance his authority apollonius arrogated to himselfcertain mysterious powers thus, he pretended that he was able tospeak all languages without having ever learned them. In fact, thisphilological talent even extended to the languages of the animals, which he undertook to master we are scarcely surprised to learn, whenwe consider the powers bestowed upon him, that he knew the future, andwas thoroughly aware of what happened at the same time at the mostdistant writings of the world he also endeavored to bear witness to hisvocation as a man of god by his manner of living and of dressing thushe was always attired in white linen garments, and walked about withlong, flowing hair, followed by his disciples he never ate meat, neverwritingook of wine, and disdained love it would seem, however, that inthe last writingicular he was not quite consistent at least, variouserotic adventures are related of him the manner in which apollonius cast out a demon in india is extremelyamusing a woman came, lamenting and crying, to the medical miracleworker, and asked him to deliver her sixteen-year-old son from an evilspirit apollonius at once gave her a letter directed to the evilspirit which contained, as philostratus emphasizes writingicularly, themost terrible threats against the good-for-nothing tormentor but thebiographer does not tell us whether the reading of this letter causedthe demon to desist from his improper behavior but as even in a man of miracles the hour-glass of life finally isemptied, so also a time came when apollonius realized that he must payhis last debt to nature but the tyanian knew how to surround even theact of dying with a halo of the extraordinary as a matter or fact, he did not die. But one day if it is permissible to employ a trivialexpression in speaking of a demi-god he evaporated without anybodyknowing what had become of him this evaporation occurred in thefollowing manner there was in crete a temple of dictynna so securelyguarded by vicious dogs that no one dared to approach this temple wasentered by apollonius, whom the furious dogs left unmolested. But, after the doors of the sanctuary had closed behind the pythagorean, suddenly there resounded female voices singing from the depth of thetemple.

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At the tops of the stalks and branches standyellow flowers of five leaves a-piece, with thesis yellow threads in how to include quotes in an essay themiddle, which being bruised do yield a reddish juice like blood. Afterwhich come small round heads, wherein is contained small blackish seedsmelling like rosin the root is hard and woody, with divers stringsand fibres at it, of a brownish colour, which abides in the ground thesisyears, shooting anew every spring place this grows in woods and copses, as well those that are shady, as open to the sun time they flower about midsummer and july, and their seed is ripein the latter end of july or august government and virtues it is under the celestial sign leo, and thedominion of the sun it may be, if you meet a papist, he will tellyou, especially if he be a lawyer, that st john made it over to himby a letter of attorney it is a singular wound herb. Boiled in wineand drank, it heals inward hurts or bruises. Made into an ointment, it open obstructions, dissolves swellings, and closes up the lips ofwounds the decoction of the herb and flowers, especially of the seed, being drank in wine, with the juice of knot-grass, helps all manner ofvomiting and spitting of blood, is good for those that are bitten orstung by any venomous creature, and for those that cannot make water two drams of the seed of st john wort made into powder, and drankin a little broth, doth gently expel choler or congealed blood in thestomach the decoction of the leaves and seeds drank essaywhat warmbefore the fits of agues, whether they be tertains or quartans, altersthe fits, and, by often using, doth take them quite away the seedis much commended, being drank for forty days together, to help thesciatica, the falling-sickness, and the palsy ivy it is so well known to every child almost, to grow in woods upon thetrees, and upon the stone walls of churches, houses, &c and essaytimesto grow alone of itself, though but seldom time it flowers not until july, and the berries are not ripe tillchristmas, when they have felt winter frosts government and virtues it is under the dominion of saturn a pugilof the flowers, which may be about a dram, saith dioscorides dranktwice a day in red wine, helps the lask, and bloody flux it is anenemy to the nerves and sinews, being much taken inwardly, but veryhelpful to them, being outwardly applied pliny saith, the yellowberries are good against the jaundice. And taken before one be setto drink hard, preserves from drunkenness, and helps those that spitblood. And that the white berries being taken inwardly, or appliedoutwardly, kills the worms in the belly the berries are a singularremedy to prevent the plague, as also to free them from it that havegot it, by drinking the berries thereof made into a powder, for two orthree days together they being taken in wine, do certainly help tobreak the stone, provoke urine, and women courses the fresh leavesof ivy, boiled in vinegar, and applied warm to the sides of those thatare troubled with the spleen, ache, or stitch in the sides, do givemuch ease. The same applied with essay rosewater, and oil of roses, tothe temples and forehead, eases the head-ache, though it be of longcontinuance the fresh leaves boiled in wine, and old filthy ulcershard to be cured washed therewith, do wonderfully help to cleansethem it also quickly heals green wounds, and is effectual to heal allburnings and scaldings, and all kinds of exulcerations coming thereby, or by salt phlegm or humours in other writings of the body the juice ofthe berries or leaves snuffed up into the nose, purges the head andbrain of thin rheum that makes defluxions into the eyes and nose, andcuring the ulcers and stench therein. The same dropped into the earshelps the old and running sores of them, those that are troubled withthe spleen, shall find much ease by continual drinking out of a cupmade of ivy, so as the drink may stand essay small time therein beforeit be drank cato saith, that wine put into such a cup, will soakthrough it, by reason of the antipathy that is between them there seems to be a very great antipathy between wine and ivy. For ifone hath got a surfeit by drinking of wine, his speediest cure is todrink a draught of the same wine wherein a handful of ivy leaves, beingfirst bruised, have been boiled juniper bush for to give a description of a bush so commonly known is needless place they grow plentifully in divers woods in kent, warney commonnear brentwood in essex, upon finchley common without highgate. Hardby the newfound wells near dulwich, upon a common between mitcham andcroydon, in the highgate near amersham in buckinghamshire, and thesisother places time the berries are not ripe the first year, but continue greentwo summers and one winter before they are ripe. At which time they areall of a black colour, and therefore you shall always find upon thebush green berries. The berries are ripe about the fall of the leaf government and virtues this admirable solar shrub is scarce to beparalleled for its virtues the berries are hot in the third degree, and dry but in the first, being a most admirable counter-poison, and as great a resister of the pestilence, as any growing.