History

How To Head An Essay


"what do you expect? how to head an essay. you're not first class passengers, you know " to this i agreed and told him all i wanted was an even break with the rest of the prisoners, or "ex-passengers, " as he used to call us there were essay sixty of us occupying the first class cabins, among whom were thesis of the original passengers of the hitachi we were, with one or two exceptions, all young people, and despite the short rations we had and the rough experience we'd undergone, we managed to have essay very enjoyable times, playing deck billiards, quoits, cricket and various card games in the dining saloon was a piano essay of the australian chaps were great mimics and had good voices, so we had essay very enjoyable evenings the last night we were on the hitachi, in writingicular, the japs came to life and were almost human one of them unlocked a large closet that was filled with masks, costumes, false beards, hair, etc , which were used for amateur theatricals we all dressed up as various characters, and we had a regular variety show among the offerings were clog dancing, sword dancing, highland fling, the good old cake walk, and the texas tommy the last number was what we called the "hitachi rag" and was danced by everybody it consisted of the regulation "rag" varied by every conceivable step, including high and lofty tumbling all during the performance the german sailors on the hitachi were peering in through the portholes and lining the alley ways and steps, enjoying the show almost as much as the rest of us but this "hitachi rag" was more than the disciplined teutons could stand first two of them tried it, and in a few minutes all the germans were dancing the news spread to the wolf and there was a general stampede of teuton guards and sailors, in our direction for a few minutes we had full charge of the ship, as the teutons wouldn't stop when their petty officers called them shortly afterwards the chief officer appeared and made us all stop, saying that it was the commander's orders, and that we were "stopping the work of the ship" to say nothing of undermining german discipline on the hitachi, thesis of us lost things out of our rooms, such as razors, a camera, combs and various toilet articles and articles of clothing one day, one of the british chaps caught a jap steward in his room using his safety razor as this writingicular jap had pimples and sores all over his face, the british ally and owner of the razor was very hostile i asked him what he was going to do about it "i shall report the bally rotter to the management, " the briton replied not being used to such violent outbursts of emotion i beat it all the time that we were lying here among the maldive islands, 12 days in all, transferring cargo, the flying machine made regular observation trips twice a day, once in the morning and once in the evening on three different occasions it reported seeing steamers passing not more than 50 or 60 miles off, and once it reported seeing a fast cruiser, probably british, travelling along at full speed this island where we were lying was only 50 or 60 miles off the regular trade route and i had hopes that essay patrolling vessel would blunder on to us, but no such luck. Although one night our hopes were raised to a great height just shortly after sunset, my wife imagined that she saw essaything on the western horizon i got my glasses and concealing myself so that i could not be discovered i had a look i, too, could see essaything, but at that time could not make it out. Although in another ten minutes i had another look and sure enough it was bigger and plainer shortly after, it was discovered by the germans, and an alarm sounded everybody was thrown into great excitement, and the lines tying the wolf and the hitachi together were let go all of us prisoners ran to our rooms and got our "emergency kits" ready just across the hall from our "bridal suite" there was tremendous confusion a corpulent british technical mining expert was rushing about his room in a perfect frenzy, looking for a heavy blue sweater he had carefully hung on a peg against just such an emergency as this. Of course, manlike, he blamed his wife for having mislaid it my wife contributes this slam gratis however, after a few minutes' search, one of them discovered that the sweater was just where it belonged on the man's back i met "father" cross, a veritable giant of a man and the greatest authority on chinese dialects in the country, shouting in a great, roaring voice. "bar steward!. bar steward!. bring me a bottle of whiskey, quick!.

Bull soc chem , 17 1915, 401 “studies of the decomposition of aspirin determined by titrametricmethods and by conductivity measurements indicate that the reaction isexceedingly complex, ” t and h chem abs , 10, 591 discussionawriting from the proposed revision of the standards for the meltingpoint and limit of salicylic acid in acetylsalicylic acid, theexamination shows that there is no appreciable difference between thevarious brands of acetylsalicylic acid examined, all of them with oneexception acetylsalicylic acid, millikin, 5-grain capsules, purchasedon the open market complying with the tests described in this paper the journal of the american medical association, in past years, hasprotested repeatedly against the monopoly given to the bayer companyfor their “aspirin, ” contending that acetylsalicylic acid aspirinwas not new, and that “aspirin, bayer” was simply a good brand ofacetylsalicylic acid which could be bought in foreign countries atmuch lower prices than here although the patent in the united stateshas expired, “aspirin, bayer” is still being retailed at higher pricesthan other products which are now enjoying the privilege of americanmanufacture mr paul bakewell, 211 in an opinion answering the warning circular ofthe bayer co in reference to the use of the word “aspirin” by firmsother than bayer, argues very ably that acetylsalicylic acid, beforethe patent was granted, meant the impure substance which was not usedtherapeutically, while “aspirin” was designated as the improved product a new article of manufacture, the writingicular acetylsalicylic acid madeunder the hoffman patent and “is the substance now known in pharmacyas aspirin” statement made how to head an essay by an officer of the farbenfabriken ofelberfeld co in u s circuit court, 1909 the products reportedin this paper are with the one exception the same as described inthe hoffman patent, and, in the sense of mr bakewell argument, are“aspirin ” however, it would seem better if the name acetylsalicylicacid, instead of aspirin, were used, especially by physicians intheir prescriptions because 1 it is a generic, scientific name. 2“aspirin, bayer” is sold at higher prices than other products, whereaschemically equivalent products sold under the descriptive name may bepurchased at a lower price finally, the manufacture of acetylsalicylicacid in this country is another example of the fact that americanchemists can produce the drug synthetics, and at the same time makeproducts as good as, if not better than, those of german origin 211 “in the matter of aspirin answer to the warning circular of thebayer co of june 1, 1917, ” by mr paul bakewell, monsanto chemicalworks i express my appreciation to dr w a puckner for his kindinterest -- from the journal of industrial and engineering chemistry, april, 1918 the standardization of commercial bismuth tribromphenate william rabak, ph g , sc b this work was begun in view of a request received by the council onpharmacy and chemistry from the medical section of the council ofnational defense for a report on the quality of bismuth tribromphenate, offered to the government by a certain firm in submitting a specimen of its product, “bismuth tribromphenolate, ”the firm claimed that “it is of high character, matching exactly thegerman product formerly imported into this country, ” and expressed thebelief that it would be found to conform to the standards for thispreparation in new and nonofficial remedies later a second specimenwas received from the same company, with the request that this besubstituted for that first received it was explained that the firsthad been taken from an experimental lot, and that the second, takenfrom the regular factory output, was identical with the first exceptthat it was free from odor because of the more thorough washing towhich it had been subjected accordingly, the examination which isreported below refers to the second specimen only new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, defines bismuth tribromphenate asbasis bismuth tribromphenate having the formula bi c₆h₂br₃o₂oh bi₂o₃, and it is required to yield not less than 49 5 per cent of bismuthoxid the chemical formula requires 46 2 per cent bismuth, or 51 6per cent bismuth oxid, bi₂o₃, and 49 2 per cent tribromphenate, c₆h₂br₃ oh it describes it as a “fine, yellow, nearly odorless andtasteless powder, neutral in reaction, ” and “only slightly soluble inwater, alcohol, chloroform, liquid petrolatum and vegetable oils ” itis required to yield tribromphenol to which a melting point of 95 c is assigned when decomposed by alkali and the alkali tribromphenatedecomposed by acid, the separated tribromphenol purified and dried as the new and nonofficial remedies description appeared looselydrawn-- it had been based on information furnished for the productxeroform when this, because of patent protection, was the only bismuthtribromphenate on the market-- it was decided to include in theexamination also specimens of the two brands of bismuth tribromphenateincluded in new and nonofficial remedies, namely, bismuthtribromphenate-merck merck and company and xeroform-heyden theheyden chemical works the merck specimen had been received by thecouncil from merck and company in 1915, while the heyden preparationwas obtained direct from the firm chicago branch in april, 1918 atthis time bismuth tribromphenate-merck could not be obtained from thechicago wholesale houses all three specimens were nearly odorless two of the specimens theresearch council specimen and merck products were of a lemon-yellowcolor, while the heyden preparation was of a grayish color bismuth determinationfour methods for the determination of the bismuth content of thespecimens were tried. A direct ignition to bismuth oxid -- this method was abandonedbecause of the tendency to ignite suddenly during the incineration andthe consequent loss of material b the method of the japanese pharmacopeia, third revised edition, translated by the pharmaceutical society of japan -- the methodconsists in treatment of the product with nitric acid, evaporation andsubsequent heating to bismuth oxid this method also was abandonedbecause of tendency toward sudden ignition with loss of material c the method of kollo apotheker zeitung, 1910, p 99 -- themethod consists in decomposition of the product by heating on waterbath with normal sodium hydroxid solution, with formation of solublesodium tribromphenate and insoluble bismuth hydroxid the bismuthhydroxid is collected on a filter, washed with hot water until a fewdrops of the filtrate no longer turn litmus paper blue, dried andheated to constant weight and weighed as bismuth oxid d a m a method reports a m a chem lab , 1911, p 18 -- this method consists in dissolving the product in hot, stronghydrochloric acid, diluting, filtering and precipitating by saturationwith hydrogen sulphid the bismuth sulphid obtained is dissolved innitric acid and from the solution obtained the bismuth is precipitatedby addition of an excess of ammonium hydroxid and ammonium carbonate the precipitate is collected and converted to bismuth oxid by heat the following tabulation shows the results obtained by methods “c” and“d”:table 1 -- bismuth content of bismuth tribromphenate gm of gm of per cent method salt bi₂o₃ of bi₂o₃ no 1 research council spec c 2 1312 1 1754 55 1 no 1 research council spec d 0 5151 0 2772 50 03 no 2 merck & company c 2 0287 1 2543 61 8 no 2 merck & company d 0 5064 0 2634 52 01 no 3 heyden chem works c 2 0472 1 6020 78 2 no 3 heyden chem works d 0 5227 0 3546 67 8it is seen from the tabulation that the results obtained by the kollomethod method c are higher than those by the sulphid method methodd and that duplicate determinations show a rather wide variation theresults by the sulphid method are essaywhat lower than those by thekollo method, but duplicates agree fairly well in view of the factthat the kollo method will give excessive results if impurities suchas talcum, etc , are present and in consideration of the satisfactoryresults obtained in previous work with the sulphid method, the figuresobtained by this method are taken as indicative of the bismuth contentof the specimens examined calculating the per cent of bismuth oxidobtained to bismuth bi, the following values are obtained. Bismuth tribromphenolate, research council specimen. Bismuth, 44 8 per cent bismuth tribromphenate-merck, merck & co. Bismuth, 46 6 per cent xeroform, heyden chemical works. Bismuth, 60 7 per cent total tribromphenolthe content of tribromphenate radical, c₆h₂br₃o-, was determined bythe method of kollo apotheker zeitung, 1910, p 99 it consists intitrating the filtrate of the bismuth oxid determination of kollo, described under “c” bismuth determinations, with normal hydrochloricacid, using phenolphthalein as an indicator the cubic centimetersof normal alkali consumed multiplied by the theoretical factor 0 331gives the weight of tribromphenol combined and free contained in thespecimen the following results were obtained:table 2 -- determination of total tribromphenol in bismuth tribromphenate gm tribromphenol gm of calculated from per cent salt theoretical of total taken factor tribromphenol no 1 research council spec 1 7817 1 0592 59 44 no 2 merck & co 0 9743 0 5627 57 75 no 3 heyden chem works 2 0440 0 4303 21 04 uncombined tribromphenolthe definite chemical formula given in new and nonofficial remediesfor bismuth tribromphenate and the statement that it is “only slightlysoluble in alcohol ” requires the absence of uncombinedtribromphenol, but no method for its detection or determination isprovided in the u s patent 516, 358 expired march 13, 1911, issued to brunorichard seifert, assignor to dr f von heyden, for “phenol bismuthcompound” the freedom from uncombined tribromphenol was provided for bythe direction to wash with alcohol the product obtained in the swiss pharmacopeia the permissible content of uncombinedtribromphenol is limited thus. “if 0 5 gm be shaken with 5 c c of alcohol and 1 c c of the filtrate be diluted with 15 c c of water, neither a turbidity nor a flocculent precipitate should appear ”when this test was applied to the three specimens under examination, the merck and heyden specimens complied, while the research councilspecimen did not comply, with this requirement method 1 -- about 1 gm of bismuth tribromphenate was placed in aflask, 20 c c of 95 per cent alcohol added and shaken for fifteenminutes, after which it was filtered by suction through a gooch filterinto an erlenmeyer flask the flask was rinsed with 10 c c of alcoholand finally the filter was washed with 10 c c of alcohol, 25 c c of tenth-normal sodium hydroxid solution were added to the alcoholicfiltrate which was nearly but not perfectly clear containing thetribromphenol, and the residual alkali titrated with tenth-normalhydrochloric acid the number of cubic centimeters of tenth-normal alkali consumedmultiplied by 0 331 gave the weight of tribromphenol table 3 table 3 -- determination of free tribromphenol gm tribromphenol calculated from per cent gm of theoretical free salt taken factor tribromphenol research council spec 2 3351 0 3806 16 31 merck & co 0 7980 0 0364 4 56 heyden chemical works 1 9460 0 0132 0 68method 2 -- about 2 gm of bismuth tribromphenate were placed in aglass stoppered erlenmeyer flask, 100 c c of alcohol were measured inand shaken during one-half hour and allowed to stand over night fiftyc c of the supernatant liquid were then removed by means of a pipet, a slight excess of tenth-normal sodium hydroxid added and the residualalkali titrated with tenth-normal hcl table 4 gives results obtained table 4 -- per cent of tribromphenol by method 2 gm tribromphenol calculated from per cent gm of theoretical free salt taken factor tribromphenol research council spec 2 0712 0 3905 18 85 merck & co 1 9417 0 0760 3 92 heyden chemical works 2 0440 0 0198 0 97table 5 gives a comparison of the results obtained by the two methods table 5 -- comparison of results by methods 1 and 2 method 1 method 2 research council spec 16 31 18 85 merck & co 4 56 3 92 heyden chemical works 0 68 0 97the results obtained in method 1 the percolation method apparentlyare reliable and, as the method is the more simple, may be givenpreference combined tribromphenol tribromphenatethe amount of tribromphenol existing in the specimen in combination wascalculated by subtracting from the per cent of total tribromphenoldetermined, the per cent of free tribromphenol found by method 1 the figures obtained are given in table 6 table 6 -- the tribromphenate content of bismuth tribromphenate per cent of combined tribromphenol research council specimen 43 13 merck & co 53 19 heyden chemical works 20 36 summaryfrom the foregoing the specimens examined contain the percentagesshown in table 7 of bismuth bi, combined tribromphenate and freetribromphenol table 7 -- percentages of bismuth and of combined tribromphenate andfree tribromphenol per cent per cent per cent combined free bismuth tribromphenate tribromphenol research council specimen 44 8 43 13 16 31 merck & co 46 6 53 19 4 56 heyden chemical works 60 7 20 36 0 68this examination shows:1 the bismuth tribromphenolate submitted to the council ofnational defense, does not correspond to the description of bismuthtribromphenate in new and nonofficial remedies 2 as now supplied, xeroform-heyden does not meet the requirements forbismuth tribromphenate, nor does its composition correspond to that ofthe product formerly supplied 3 the description in new and nonofficial remedies of bismuthtribromphenate should provide an upper, as well as a lower, limitfor the bismuth content. It should provide tests for the absenceof adulterants, and also set a limit of permissible uncombinedtribromphenol report to council of national defensethe results of this examination with reference to the researchcouncil specimen having been submitted to the council on pharmacy andchemistry, this body advised the medical section of the council ofnational defense as follows:1 the specimen of “bismuth tribromphenolate” sent to the councilof national defense complies with the new and nonofficial remediesdescription for bismuth tribromphenate, except that it containsconsiderable amounts approximately 16 per cent of alcohol-soluble, uncombined tribromphenol revision of n n r standardsthe results of the examination of the three specimens were sentto the heyden chemical works and to merck and co in each casedisclosing the identity of the writingicular firm product, askingaid in the standardization of the product after merck and co hadsubmitted valuable advice for a revision of the essaywhat loosely drawnstandards for bismuth tribromphenate in n n r , 1918, the inquirywhether the following proposed revision of the description of bismuthtribromphenate in new and nonofficial remedies was acceptable, wassubmitted to both firms:bismuth tribromphenate -- bismuthi tribromphenas -- bismuthtribromphenol -- xeroform -- a basic bismuth tribromphenate of variablecomposition an amorphous, yellow, nearly odorless and tasteless powder, neutral to moistened litmus paper it is only slightly soluble in water, alcohol, chloroform, liquid petrolatum and vegetable oils alkalies and strong acids decompose it it is stable at temperatures below 120 c when about 1 gm of the salt is boiled with 10 c c of sodium hydroxide test solution, the liquid filtered, and the filtrate acidulated with sulphuric acid, the white curdy precipitate produced, when washed and dried, melts at 90 to 95 c tribromphenol the contents of the filter dissolve completely in dilute hydrochloric acid insoluble inert material boil 1 gm of bismuth tribromphenate with 20 c c of a mixture of equal writings of acetic acid and distilled water, cool the solution and filter free the filtrate from bismuth by the addition of hydrogen sulphide, boil the mixture and again filter the latter filtrate leaves not more than 0 005 gm of residue on evaporation and gentle ignition alkalies and alkali earths shake for one minute in a separatory funnel, 2 gm of bismuth tribromphenate, 20 c c of ether, and 20 c c of a mixture of equal volumes of hydrochloric acid and distilled water draw off the aqueous portion and concentrate to about 4 c c. Pour it into 100 c c distilled water, filter, evaporate the filtrate on the water bath to 30 c c , again filter and divide this filtrate into portions of 5 c c each mix one portion with an equal volume of dilute sulphuric acid. It does not become cloudy lead treat another portion with a slight excess of ammonia water. The supernatant liquid does not exhibit a bluish tint copper another portion is not immediately affected by barium nitrate test solution sulphate heat gently a mixture of about 0 2 gm of bismuth tribromphenate with 5 c c of potassium hydroxide test solution and about 0 2 gm of aluminum wire. The vapors evolved do not turn red litmus blue nitrates shake 1 gm of bismuth tribromphenate frequently during fifteen minutes with 30 c c of alcohol 95 per cent , filter and rinse flask with two separate 10 c c portions of alcohol, allowing the washings to run through filter to the combined filtrate and washings add 20 c c of tenth-normal sodium hydroxide and a few drops of phenolphthalein solution and determine the excess of alkali with tenth-normal hydrochloric acid not more than 1 c c of tenth-normal sodium hydroxide should have been consumed by the alcoholic liquid free tribromphenol add 2 c c of nitric acid to 2 gm of bismuth tribromphenate in a porcelain crucible, carefully evaporate to dryness on a sand bath and incinerate dissolve the residue in 5 c c of concentrated hydrochloric acid and add to the solution 10 c c of a saturated solution of stannous chloride in concentrated hydrochloric acid the mixture should not darken on standing thirty minutes arsenic mix 0 5 gm of the salt with 10 c c of a mixture of equal writings of hydrochloric acid, u s p , and distilled water no effervescence should occur carbonate to about 0 5 gm of bismuth tribromphenate, accurately weighed, add 20 c c of hydrochloric acid and digest on water bath add 150 c c of distilled water and filter rinse the beaker with 30 c c of distilled water and allow the washings to run through the filter saturate the combined filtrate and washings with hydrogen sulphide, filter off the bismuth sulphide, wash and dissolve in hot dilute nitric acid add a slight excess of ammonia water followed by 2 c c of ammonium carbonate test solution allow to stand thirty minutes, filter off the precipitated bismuth hydroxide and heat to constant weight at dull red heat the residue of bismuth oxide bi₂o₃ should not be less than 45 per cent nor more than 55 per cent of the original weight of bismuth tribromphenate taken, corresponding to not less than 40 per cent nor more than 49 per cent of bismuth the heyden chemical works accepted the proposed monograph regardingthe laboratory findings, the firm stated that “the product had to bemade in this country after importations from europe became impossibleand the first lots were not fully up to the standard ” later the firmstated that it could furnish a product which it considered equal tothat which was previously imported and offered to submit “samples ofthe new material ”merck and co acknowledged the receipt of the monograph but made nostatement as to its acceptance or suggestions for its revision as thenew monograph was accepted by the heyden chemical works and as merckand co offered no objections, it was adopted for n n r , 1919, bythe council on pharmacy and chemistry in november, 1918, merck and co sent a specimen labeled “bismuthtribromphenate-merck, ” “merck and co , new york, distributors andguarantors” and wrote. “you will notice this sample conforms in nearlyall details to the tests submitted with our letter of june 4 we havebeen able to produce better goods, but just at present unsatisfactorystarting material confronts us ”examination of the specimen demonstrated that it was soluble to aconsiderable extent in alcohol the n n r , 1918, descriptionprovides that it should be only slightly soluble in alcohol and, according to the standards adopted for new and nonofficial remedies, 1919, contained 18 per cent of uncombined tribromphenol more thanfive times the permitted amount in december, 1918, merck and co submitted another specimen and said:“we believe this is a better grade than we have been able to make inthe recent past it seems to meet all the tests for n n r , 1919, with two exceptions. These are a solubility in alcohol, and b thetest for uncombined tribromphenol {”}when the two recent samples of bismuth tribromphenate-merck and twosamples of xeroform-heyden were examined according to the new monographthe results given in table 8 were obtained table 8 -- examination of tribromphenate and xeroform 1 bismuth weight of per cent weight bi₂o₃ of brand and date received taken, obtained, bismuth, gm gm gm xeroform-heyden from mfr july, 1918 0 6754 0 3565 47 2 xeroform-heyden open market july, 1918 0 8259 0 6156 66 7 bismuth tribromphenate-merck nov , 1918 0 4882 0 2512 46 1 bismuth tribromphenate-merck dec , 1918 0 8869 0 4495 45 5 2 uncombined tribromphenol no c c per cent weight of tenth- of free brand and date received taken, normal naoh tribrom- gm consumed, phenol c c xeroform-heyden from mfr july, 1918 1 7 4 24 5 xeroform-heyden open market july, 1918 1 0 7 2 3 bismuth tribromphenate-merck nov , 1918 1 5 7 18 8 bismuth tribromphenate-merck dec , 1918 1 5 16 5in view of the laboratory report the referee of the council onpharmacy and chemistry in charge of bismuth tribromphenate recommendedthat the acceptance of xeroform-heyden and bismuth tribromphenate-merckbe withdrawn, but that this should be without prejudice to theirreinstatement when satisfactory products are again offered for sale the council adopted the recommendation of the referee and accordinglyxeroform-heyden and bismuth tribromphenate-merck are omitted from newand nonofficial remedies, 1919 when the laboratory findings with regard to xeroform-heyden and theaction of the council deleting the article from new and nonofficialremedies was reported to the heyden chemical works, the firm expressedregret that efforts to produce a product equal to that formerlyobtained from gerthesis had so far not been successful and announcedthat it had decided to withdraw xeroform-heyden from the market forthe present when merck and co was advised in regard to the reportof the laboratory and council action, this firm questioned thefeasibility of producing a product meeting the council standards andsuggested that the test for free tribromphenol be revised to permitas much as 15 per cent of this constituent when merck and co wasreminded that its product submitted in 1915 essentially complied withthe adopted standards an old sample of xeroform-heyden was also foundto comply and that the estimate of the therapeutic value of bismuthtribromphenate is based on a product essentially devoid of freetribromphenol, the firm replied:“as stated in our letter of the 12th inst , we do not wish to marketthe chemical unless it meets all legitimate requirements of thephysicians that use it if, therefore, your standard proves to be goodand it is commercially possible to make supplies conforming to it, weshall do so we shall discontinue the article unless it is of suitablequality ”-- from reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1918, p 93 the standardization of procain and examination of the market supplyprocain, which chemically is the mono-hydrochlorid ofpara-amino-benzoyldiethyl-amino-ethanol, is the nonproprietary nameselected by the federal trade commission as the official designationfor the drug previously known under the proprietary name “novocaine ”before the war procain was obtainable in this country only throughthe farbwerke hoechst co , the american representative of the germanestablishment, farbwerke, vorm, meister, lucius and bruening, underthe name “novocaine ” this monopoly on “novocaine” was exercised byvirtue of united states patent no 812554, which was issued to alfredeinhorn, munich, gerthesis, assignor to farbwerke, vorm, meister, luciusand bruening, hoechst a m , in 1906 with the outbreak of hostilities, congress passed the trading with the enemy act, and under this, thefederal trade commission took charge of the novocain patent with aview of securing the production of this product in the united states to ensure an adequate supply of the drug, the federal trade commissionon recommendation of the committee on synthetic drugs of the nationalresearch council, in addition to issuing a license to the farbwerkehoechst company which license was later transferred to the h a metzlaboratories granted authority to the abbott laboratories and therector chemical company to manufacture it under the u s patent afterspecimens submitted by these firms had been found satisfactory in theassociation laboratory and at the cornell pharmacologic laboratory when the first specimen of american made procain was sent to theamerican medical association chemical laboratory it was necessary towork out adequate standards the standards were formulated on the basisof the novocain monograph in the german pharmacopeia, 1910, ed 5, p 363, remedia “hoechst, ” p 242, and new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, p 32, and the work carried out in this laboratory the following description has been adopted for new and nonofficialremedies, 1919, and all specimens of procain were subjected to thesetests:procain occurs in small colorless and odorless crystals, or acrystalline powder which if placed on the tongue produces a transientsense of numbness it melts at 153-155 c 212212 u s patent number 812, 554-- the novocain patent-- declaresthat the salt melts at 156 c evidently based on this, the germanpharmacopoeia remedia “hoechst” and past editions of new andnonofficial remedies give this melting point two specimens of germanmade novocain obtained from our files, stated to be manufactured byfarbwerke-hoechst vorm meister, lucius and bruening, hoechst a m were found to melt, respectively, between 154 and 155 c and between153 5 and 154 5 c when the melting point was determined according tothe directions of the u s pharmacopoeia, 9th revision the variousspecimens examined at that time melted between 153 and 155 c and itwas decided to permit this range one gm of procain is soluble in 0 7 c c of water and in 20 c c ofalcohol u s p 95 per cent at 20 c from the aqueous solution, which is neutral, alkali hydroxids and carbonates precipitate thefree base in the form of a colorless oil, which soon congeals to acrystalline mass, but solutions of sodium bicarbonate are miscible withsolutions of procain without producing precipitations or turbidity dissolve 1 gm of procain in water separate portions of the solutionyield a white precipitate with potassium mercuric iodid solution, a white precipitate with mercuric chlorid test solution, a brownprecipitate with iodin test solution and a yellow precipitate withpicric acid test solution acidify a portion with dilute nitric acid a white curdy precipitate is thrown down on the addition of silvernitrate test solution dissolve about 0 1 gm of procain in 5 c c of water, add 2 drops ofdilute hydrochloric acid and 2 drops of sodium nitrite solution 10 percent and mix with a solution of 0 2 gm of betanaphthol in 10 c c ofsodium hydroxid solution 10 per cent a scarlet red precipitate isthrown down to a solution of about 0 1 gm of procain in 5 c c of water add 3drops of dilute sulphuric acid and mix with 5 drops of potassiumpermanganate test solution the violet color of the latter disappearsimmediately distinction from cocain dissolve about 0 1 gm procain in 1 c c sulphuric acid u s p thesolution is colorless organic impurities dissolve 0 1 gm of the salt in 10 c c of water and saturate withhydrogen sulphid no coloration or precipitation occurs salts of theheavy metals incinerate about 0 5 gm of procain accurately weighed not more than0 1 per cent of residue remains to obtain specimens representing the market supply, orders for thethree brands of procain were placed with pharmaceutical firms in newyork, baltimore and san francisco the baltimore and san franciscofirms supplied specimens of procain-novocain brand and procain-rectorbrand but reported that the abbott brand was not procurable thenew york correspondent was able to supply procain-rector only asthe entire output of the abbott laboratories was stated to go tothe government, specimens of this product were obtained through thesurgeon-general of the army from the general purchasing office, medicaldept , u s army the following specimens were obtained and examined:1 procain-abbott, 6 specimens.

Slightinjection of conjunctivæ mouth open. Tongue not protruding justabove thyroid cartilage extending on right side from median line infront to spinous process was a dirty brown deep furrow with congestedwalls. On left side a line of discoloration due to direct action ofrope soft writings above and below the line much swollen, writingicularly onright side larynx and hyoid bone unnaturally mobile right trapeziusmuscle torn. Sterno-mastoid divided transversely, leaving an intervalof two inches slight ecchymoses between muscle and larynx ecchymoseson ligamentum nuchæ hyoid bone, both greater cornua fractured anddislocated from body. Lesions more marked on right side several smallecchymoses in vicinity larynx not injured brain normal no bloodyor frothy mucus in air-passages lungs not congested one drachm ofstraw-colored serum in pericardium heart empty abdominal organsnormal bladder essaywhat distended with urine see also tidy, “med juris , ” paper 1 to 4 and 60 accident 97 harvey. Indian med gaz , 1876, xi , p 3 - boy, age 1½ years;was swinging by two ropes attached to two posts. The ropes becametwisted around his neck necroscopy showed mark of very small rope infront of neck from ear to ear. Mucous membrane of larynx dark. Lungsmuch congested 98 hackel. Op cit , p 35 - man, age 19, sitting on a load of wood, with the lines around his neck, fell and was hung by the lines 99 biggs and jenkins.

W a puckner, secretary “pil mixed treatment chichester” is a proprietary preparation ofthe hillside chemical co , newburgh, n y it is sold in the form ofpills, each said to contain 1/20 grain of mercuric iodid and 5 grainsof potassium iodid in 1907 the council examined the therapeutic claims advanced for thispreparation and found that they were unwarranted, exaggerated andmisleading it found, also, thesis misleading statements in regard to theproduct itself furthermore, the a m a chemical laboratory found thepills to be “short weight” in potassium iodid content at the time that the council examined pil mixed treatment chichester, a dermatologist of recognized standing, to whom the“literature” for this product had been submitted for an opinion, madethe following report:“assuming that this pill contains what is claimed for it, one-twentieth 1/20 of a grain of biniodid of mercury and five 5 grains ofpotassium iodid, it presents neither an original nor a very usefulformula “the literature furnished by the company abounds in suggestions thatthe mixture, how to head an essay as they prepare it, represents essay unusual potency whichis not possessed by the ordinary mixture of these same drugs in thesame proportion these suggestions may of course be dismissed withoutconsideration there is nothing mysterious in a mixture of potassiumiodid and biniodid of mercury and this formula is no more entitledto special consideration than any other pill or tablet of the samecomposition prepared by any reputable pharmaceutical firm “the formula of this pill, however, does not represent a goodcombination it is offered for use both during the active secondaryperiod of syphilis and for tertiary lesions the pill does not containenough mercury to be an efficient remedy for secondary syphilis and notenough potassium iodid to be satisfactory in the treatment of tertiarylesions it is neither fish, flesh, fowl, nor good red herring apatient with secondary syphilis should not be dosed all the time withpotassium iodid and for the treatment of tertiary lesions he shouldhave a very much larger quantity of potassium iodid than can be givenin these pills without giving toxic doses of mercury “the statement that this pill ‘does not impair the appetite nor disturbdigestion and is well borne by patients who cannot tolerate iodidsotherwise administered’ is a bald claim which cannot be justified byexperience the most unsatisfactory way of administering potassiumiodid is in solid form a patient who can stand potassium iodid in pillform, as it is furnished in this preparation, can stand it in any formin which it is ever administered “in short this preparation is neither agreeable nor efficient thegreatest objection to it is its inefficiency, for it is offered asan adequate preparation for the treatment of syphilis in all of itsstages, whereas it is neither satisfactory for the treatment ofsecondary syphilis nor of tertiary lesions ”during the fourteen years which have elapsed since the council firstexamination of pil mixed treatment chichester, arsphenamin hasbeen added to the syphilographer armamentarium and much has beenlearned about syphilis and its treatment while there exist differencesof opinion as to the exact value of arsphenamin in the treatment ofsyphilis and there are even essay who desist from the use of arseniccompounds of any kind, no syphilographer of standing countenances theroutine treatment of syphilis with a fixed combination of mercuriciodid and potassium iodid the use of pil mixed treatment chichesteris on a par with the use of certain “blood purifiers” which wereadvocated at a time when the treatment of syphilis was a bafflingproblem present day claimsthe present advertising, which reads as if it had been written in theheyday of proprietary license, is, in effect, an invitation to treatsyphilis in its various stages and manifestations with pil mixedtreatment chichester if heeded by those who read the advertising ofthe hillside chemical co , it will result in much harm to the publicand the profession for this reason, the present report of the councilis published as a protest against any advertising propaganda advocatingthe routine treatment of a disease which requires that each case bestudied carefully so that prompt and efficient measures may be appliedto the various manifestations of the disease the following advertisement appeared recently in several medicaljournals. “medicine is an exact science-- on paper only!. ” every general practitioner of medicine is called upon to treat syphilis occasionally he cannot depend upon the use of arsenicals alone in most paper, “mixed treatment” the giving of mercury and iodides is required to get satisfactory results pil mixed treatment chichester accurately and successfully meets the indications and assures definite action important advantages. Ready solubility of mercury in combination with potassium iodide avoidance of gastric, buccal or intestinal disturbance easy administration, can be taken at any time, anywhere economical, both drugs in one combination accurate adjustment of dosage to each individual case full physiological action-- assured by purity of content secrecy-- patient or friends do not know nature of medicine pil mixed treatment chichester has been time tested and trial proven it needs no introduction to the thousands of physicians who prescribe or dispense it while the advertisement does not directly so advise, yet it is asubtle invitation to the general practitioner to use pil mixedtreatment chichester and thus save himself and his patient the timeand inconvenience which the rational treatment of syphilis imposes acircular “the treatment of syphilis simplified and improved” begins. “no therapeutic fact is more conspicuously and decisively established than that a radical cure of syphilis can be effected by the continuous administration, from the period of development, of a proper combination of mercury with iodine ”continuing, it is admitted that mercury is the most efficacious drug inthe primary and secondary stages of syphilis and iodin in the tertiarystage, but it is asserted that. “ it is now granted by all syphilologists that the antiluetic action of these drugs is immeasurably augmented by properly combining them, and that the best results are obtained when they are conjunctively administered throughout the entire course of the disease ”arguing along the same lines, this circular continues. “ it was not until mercury and iodine in the form of pil mixed treatment chichester was evolved that the marked advantages of the combined employment of these drugs in the various stages of syphilis became a scientific certainty ”further we are asked to believe that. “because of the greatly increased potency of mercury and iodine when combined, as in pil mixed treatment chichester, the foremost syphilologists are now agreed that the employment of these drugs in such form should be enjoined as soon as the disease develops, and should be thus continued until a cure has been effected. In other words, pil mixed treatment chichester should be made the sole antisyphilitic medication throughout all stages of the disease ”the circular illustrates the extent to which our knowledge of drugs maybe distorted and misrepresented and the public health jeopardized inthe exploitation of a proprietary medicine illustration. One reason scientific medicine lags uncritical medicaljournals perpetuate-- for a price-- the use of nostrums proprietary claimsin its advertising, the hillside chemical co claims that pil mixed treatment chichester both as to formula and method ofpreparation “in the incapsulated powder form” was “brought to thenotice of the profession by dr w r chichester of new york, aneminent syphilographer and recognized authority in the therapeuticsof syphilis ” it is claimed that this pill “is perfectly soluble, tasteless, nonirritant, and therefore well adapted to a sensitivestomach ” it is claimed that the pill “is always preferable to oneextemporaneously prepared, which, even if identical in composition, often gives negative results ”an examination made in the chemical laboratory of the association todetermine if the product now marketed contains the claimed amount ofpotassium iodid indicated that this was the case the chemist who madethis examination commented as follows on the claim that in this pill, potassium iodid is rendered tasteless, that the pill is “perfectlysoluble” and that extemporaneous pills of “identical compositionoften give negative results ”“that the potassium iodid has been rendered tasteless is false, naturally. The pills when placed in the mouth, after removal of thecoating, have the characteristic taste of alkali iodids the claimthat the pills are entirely soluble is incorrect. They contain a largeamount of insoluble material, probably kaolin the assertion that anextemporaneous compound prescription even if identical in compositionwith the chichester pill is often inert, is absurd and a reprehensibleattack by suggestion of the ideal that the physician shall write hisprescription to meet the individual needs of his patient and that thepharmacist shall compound the prescriptions of the physician as theyare required it should also be pointed out that while much is saidabout the potassium iodid in the chichester pill being in powderedform, the pill mass is solid and very slowly soluble and the claim ofbeing in powdered form is, if immaterial, also incorrect ”as to the asserted standing of the alleged discoverer of the formulafor pil mixed treatment. Dr william r chichester appears to havelived and practiced in new york since 1886 or longer, but the claimthat he is an “eminent syphilographer” seems to have originated withthe exploiters of “pil mixed treatment ” search failed to show thename of w r chichester among authors of textbooks of syphilis or anyother branch of medicine or among authors of contemporary literature inthe index medicus from 1907 down to the present. Nor did a search ofthe catalogue to the surgeon-general library reveal w r chichesteras ever having published anything on syphilis or any other subject pil mixed treatment chichester is sold under therapeutic claimswhich are unwarranted and misleading the preparation well illustratesthe abuses which are connected with the exploitation as proprietariesof established drugs or mixtures of established drugs -- from thejournal a m a , oct 22, 1921 atophan omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following reportexplaining why atophan has been omitted from new and nonofficialremedies schering and glatz, inc , the firm which markets thisbrand of cinchophen in the united states, has refused to placeeither the u s pharmacopeial name, “phenylcinchoninic acid acidumphenylcinchoninicum” or the n n r name, “cinchophen, ” on the labeland in the advertising matter so as to make the identity of the productclear to physicians furthermore, the product is sold under therapeuticclaims which the council holds to be exaggerated and unwarranted w a puckner, secretary commercial history of cinchophenthe substance, 2-phenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid, was described bydoebner and gieseke in 1887 ann d chem liebig 242:291 thetherapeutic properties of this compound were described by nicolaier anddohrn in 1908 deutsch arch f klin med 93:331 subsequentlythe product was placed on the market and extensively advertised by thechemische fabrik auf actien vorm e schering, berlin, gerthesis thisfirm also took out a patent in the united states on its productionand in 1911 secured a u s trademark on the name “atophan ” in1912 atophan was passed on by the council and admitted to new andnonofficial remedies when the government of the united states took charge of german-ownedpatents during the world war, the federal trade commission, andlater the chemical foundation, inc , issued licenses to americanfirms whereby these were authorized to manufacture the compound in the meantime, schering and glatz, inc , who had been the u s representatives for the chemische fabrik auf actien, also undertook tosupply the drug, but did not obtain a license from the boards in chargeof german patents also, this firm secured, in 1919, a trademark of theword “atophan, ” apparently after the german-owned trademark had beencanceled the drug “atophan” was admitted to the u s pharmacopeia as“phenylcinchoninic acid acidum phenylcinchoninicum ” as this nameproved too cumberessay, the council on pharmacy and chemistry coined theabbreviated name “cinchophen” for it, and this name is now used by allthe firms which are marketing the product in the united states, withthe exception of schering and glatz, inc , who use the term “atophan, ”first owned by the chemische fabrik auf actien atophan, a brand of cinchophenbecause of the confusion which is bound to arise from giving variousnames to one drug, the council selects a common name and providesstandards of identity, purity and strength for any drug which, byreason of the absence or lapse of patent rights or for other reason, is open to manufacture by more than one firm the council, then, willaccept such article only if it is marketed under the title adoptedfor new and nonofficial remedies the rules provide, however, thatwhen the council adopts a common name for an article that has beenadmitted under another name, such article will be retained in new andnonofficial remedies under the older name if the council name is givenprominence on the label and in the circulars and advertisements, inorder to avoid confusion accordingly, when the period of acceptancefor atophan in new and nonofficial remedies was about to expire, schering and glatz were notified that atophan could be retained inthat publication only on condition that the name, “cinchophen, ”or else the pharmacopeial name, “phenylcinchoninic acid acidumphenylcinchoninicum” be placed on the label and used in the circularsand advertising unwarranted therapeutic claims for atophanat the time that the council asked schering and glatz to adoptcinchophen or phenylcinchoninic acid as a synonym for atophan, thefirm was also requested to omit from future advertising a number oftherapeutic claims to which the council was obliged to take exception schering and glatz refused the first request and made no definitepromise with regard to the second the council, therefore, directed theomission of atophan from new and nonofficial remedies, 1921 the advertising to which the council took exception does not appear tobe distributed at present a pamphlet has been sent out, however, whichis equally objectionable it contains unwarranted therapeutic claimsand suggests that atophan be used in conditions in which it is notindicated for instance. “no longer the vague, hypothetical, ‘test-tube demonstrated’ principle of uric acid elimination by solution, but a definite, scientifically and clinically established, physiologic stimulation of the uric acid excretion performed innocuously and controllable to a nicety by dosage and by urine and blood tests ”the “innocuousness” of atophan has not been proved.

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It is not convinced, butwishes to learn legislators are prepared to follow public opinion thepurveyors of patent medicines are watching events what, under these conditions, should be the attitude of the medicalprofession?. plainly, it should continue to be what it always hasbeen. To stand aggressively for the protection of the public health, without any compromise in doing so, it is true, physicians willexpose themselves to the imputation of selfish motives selfishlycommercial minds cannot or will not understand the unselfish idealsof a profession-- that is their loss physicians, however, must becareful not to give a semblance of reason to the charge. For that woulddiminish the effect of their attitude they must confine themselves toinforming the public of the facts. And to guarding the health of thepublic at large, and of their own patients in writingicular no one, in a free country, can force a diseased individual to seekeffective treatment or prevent him from using an ineffective treatment, unless his disease imperils the health of others at that point, andnot before, the government can and should take personal measures however, it is a well recognized function of the government to protectindividuals against their own ignorance it does this when it forcesthe child to go to school.