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Of a t thomson, at the londonuniversity, in 1834-35. Of h graham, at westminster hospital, in1835. Of w cummin, at the aldersgate street school, in 1836-37. Andof t southwood smith, at the webb street theatre of anatomy, in1837-38 107among the noteworthy contributions to the science previous to 1850are the writings of dease 1808, haslam 1817, 108 christison, thesuccessor of professor duncan in the university of edinburgh, and bestknown as a toxicologist, forsyth 1829, 109 chitty 1834, 110watson 1837, 111 brady 1839, 112 skae 1840, 113 pagan 1840, 114 and sampson 1841 115in 1836, dr alfred swaine taylor b 1806, d 1880, the firstprofessor of medical jurisprudence in guy hospital, published his“elements of medical jurisprudence ” this, the most important work uponthe subject in the english language, is now in its twelfth englishand eleventh american edition during forty years of devotion toforensic medicine dr taylor also contributed other important works andnumerous papers, published for the most writing in the reports of guyhospital 116 in 1844, dr wm a guy, professor of forensic medicinein king college, published the first edition of his excellentwork 117 in 1858, fr ogston, professor of medical jurisprudencein the university of aberdeen, published a syllabus and subsequently 1878 a complete report of his lectures 118 in 1882, c m tidy, professor of chemistry and forensic medicine in the london hospital, who had previously 1877 been associated with w b woodman in theauthorship of a valuable handbook, began the publication of a moreextended work, which was interrupted by his death in 1892 119the first spanish work on legal medicine was that of juan fernandezdel valles, printed in 1796-97 120 no further contribution tomedico-legal literature was furnished by spain until the appearance in1834 of the work of peiro and rodrigo, which went through four editionsin ten years 121 ten years later, in 1844, pedro mata, professor oflegal medicine and toxicology at madrid, published the first edition ofa work, which in the development of its subsequent editions, has becomethe most important on the subject in the spanish language 122the first portuguese medico-legal treatise was that of jose ferreiraborjes, first printed at paris in 1832 123a posthumously published report of the lectures of albrecht von hallerwas the earliest swiss work on forensic medicine 124in sweden the earliest medico-legal publication was a comprehensivetreatise by jonas kiernander, in 1776, 125 which was followed in 1783by a translation of hebenstreit, by r martin the voluminous writingsof the brothers wistrand a t and a h , including a handbook, were published at stockholm, between 1836 and 1871 between 1846 and1873, several articles upon medico-legal subjects were published athelsingfors, in finland, by e j bonsdorff, o e dahl, and j a estlander in 1838 skielderup126 published his lectures on legalmedicine, delivered at christiania, and orlamundt127 publisheda handbook at copenhagen in 1843 the earliest recognition ofmedico-legal science in russia was in the lectures of balk, 128 begunin 1802 at the then newly founded university of dorpat although dissertations upon subjects of medico-legal interest werepublished at the university of leyden as early as the middle of theseventeenth century, 129 and the works of pineau, 130 zacchias, 131ludwig, 132 von plenk, 133 and metzger134 were printed in holland, either in latin or in the vernacular, no original systematic work onlegal medicine in the dutch language has yet appeared the only belgian contribution to the literature of forensic medicine, other than articles in the journals, is a text-book by a dambre, firstpublished at ghent in 1859 135two medico-legal works have been printed in the japanese language, onea report of the lectures of professor ernst tiegel, at the universityof tokio, 136 the other a treatise by katayama 137in the united states the development of forensic medicine has kept pacewith that in the mother country in an introductory address deliveredat the university of pennsylvania in 1810, the distinguished dr benjamin rush dwelt eloquently upon the importance of the subject 138in 1813, dr james s stringham was appointed professor of medicaljurisprudence in the college of physicians and surgeons of newyork, and a syllabus of his lectures was published in the followingyear 139 at the same period 1812-13 dr charles caldwell delivereda course of lectures on medical jurisprudence in the university ofpennsylvania 140 in 1815, dr t r beck was appointed lecturer onmedical jurisprudence in the college of physicians and surgeons of thewestern district of the state of new york.

Outwardly it clears how to essay examples the sight, takes awayinflammations, scabs, itch, the shingles, and all spreading sores, and is as wholeessay an herb as can grow about any an house tragus, dioscorides polium, &c polley, or pellamountain. All the sorts are hot inthe second degree, and dry in the third. Helps dropsies, the yellowjaundice, infirmities of the spleen, and provokes urine dioscorides polygonum knotgrass polytricum maidenhair portulaca purslain. Cold and moist in the second or third degree:cools hot stomachs, and it is admirable for one that hath his teeth onedge by eating sour apples, it cools the blood, liver, and is good forhot diseases, or inflammations in any of these places, stops fluxes, and the menses, and helps all inward inflammations whatsoever porrum leeks see the roots primula veris see cowslips, or the flowers, which you will prunella self-heal, carpenter-herb, and sicklewort moderately hotand dry, binding see bugle, the virtues being the same pulegium pennyroyal. Hot and dry in the third degree. Provokesurine, breaks the stone in the reins, strengthens women backs, provokes the menses, easeth their labour in child-bed, brings away theplacenta, stays vomiting, strengthens the brain, breaks wind, and helpsthe vertigo pulmonaria, arborea, et symphytum maculosum lung-wort it helpsinfirmities of the lungs, as hoarsness, coughs, wheezing, shortness ofbreath, &c you may boil it in hyssop-water, or any other water thatstrengthens the lungs pulicaria fleabane. Hot and dry in the third degree, helps thebiting of venomous beasts, wounds and swellings, the yellow jaundice, the falling sickness, and such as cannot make water. Being burnt, the smoak of it kills all the gnats and fleas in the chamber. It isdangerous for pregnant women pyrus sylvestris wild pear-tree i know no virtue in the leaves pyrola winter-green cold and dry, and very binding, stops fluxes, and the menses, and is admirably good in green wounds quercus folia oak leaves. Are much of the nature of the former, staythe fluor albus see the bark ranunculus hath got a sort of english names. Crowfoot, king-kob, gold-cups, gold-knobs, butter-flowers, &c they are of a notable hotquality, unfit to be taken inwardly. If you bruise the roots and applythem to a plague-sore, they are notable things to draw the venom tothem raparum folia if they do mean turnip leaves, when they are youngand tender, they are held to provoke urine rosmarirum rosemary, hot and dry in the second degree, binding, stops fluxes, helps stuffings in the head, the yellow jaundice, helpsthe memory, expels wind see the flowers serapio, dioscorides rosa solis see the water rosa alba, rubra, damascena white, red, and damask roses rumex dock.

It is a singular good wound-herb forgreen wounds, to stay the bleeding, and quickly close together the how to essay examples lipsof the wound, if the herb be bruised, and the juice only applied it isoften used in gargles for sore mouths, as also for the secret writings the smoak hereof being bruised, drives away flies and gnats, which inthe night time molest people inhabiting near marshes, and in the fennycountries loosestrife, with spiked heads of flowers it is likewise called grass-polly descript this grows with thesis woody square stalks, full of joints, about three feet high at least. At every one whereof stand two longleaves, shorter, narrower, and a greener colour than the former, andessay brownish the stalks are branched into thesis long stems of spikedflowers half a foot long, growing in bundles one above another, outof small husks, very like the spiked heads of lavender, each of whichflowers have five round-pointed leaves of a purple violet colour, oressaywhat inclining to redness. In which husks stand small round headsafter the flowers are fallen, wherein is contained small seed theroot creeps under ground like unto the yellow, but is greater than it, and so are the heads of the leaves when they first appear out of theground, and more brown than the other place it grows usually by rivers, and ditch-sides in wet ground, asabout the ditches at and near lambeth, and in thesis places of this land time it flowers in the months of june and july government and virtues it is an herb of the moon, and under thesign cancer. Neither do i know a better preserver of the sight whenit is well, nor a better cure for sore eyes than eyebright, takeninwardly, and this used outwardly.

As also near london, by pancraschurch, and by a causeway-side in the middle of a field by paddington how to essay examples time they flower about the end of june and beginning of july, andtheir seed is ripe in august government and virtues this is an herb the sun challenges dominionover, and is a most precious herb, little inferior to betony. Thecontinual use of it preserves the body in health, and the spirits invigour. For if the sun be the preserver of life under god, his herbsare the best in the world to do it by they are accounted to be both ofone property, but the lesser is more effectual because quicker and morearomatic. It is a friend to the heart, liver, and other principal writingsof a man body two or three of the stalks, with leaves put into a cupof wine, especially claret, are known to quicken the spirits, refreshand cheer the heart, and drive away melancholy. It is a special helpto defend the heart from noiessay vapours, and from infection of thepestilence, the juice thereof being taken in essay drink, and the writingylaid to sweat thereupon they have also a drying and an astringentquality, whereby they are available in all manner of fluxes of bloodor humours, to staunch bleedings inward or outward, lasks, scourings, the bloody-flux, women too abundant flux of courses, the whites, andthe choleric belchings and castings of the stomach, and is a singularwound-herb for all sorts of wounds, both of the head and body, eitherinward or outward, for all old ulcers, running cankers, and most sores, to be used either by the juice or decoction of the herb, or by thepowder of the herb or root, or the water of the distilled herb, orointment by itself, or with other things to be kept the seed is alsono less effectual both to stop fluxes, and dry up moist sores, beingtaken in powder inwardly in wine, or steeled water, that is, whereinhot rods of steel have been quenched. Or the powder, or the seed mixedwith the ointments the butter-bur, or petasitis descript this rises up in february, with a thick stalk about afoot high, whereon are set a few small leaves, or rather pieces, andat the top a long spiked head. Flowers of a blue or deep red colour, according to the soil where it grows, and before the stalk with theflowers have abiden a month above ground, it will be withered and gone, and blow away with the wind, and the leaves will begin to spring, which being full grown, are very large and broad, being essaywhat thinand almost round, whose thick red foot stalks above a foot long, stand towards the middle of the leaves the lower writing being dividedinto two round writings, close almost one to another, and are of a palegreen colour. And hairy underneath the root is long, and spreadsunderground, being in essay places no bigger than one finger, inothers much bigger, blackish on the outside, and whitish within, of abitter and unpleasant taste place and time they grow in low and wet grounds by rivers and watersides their flower as is said rising and decaying in february andmarch, before their leaves, which appear in april government and virtues it is under the dominion of the sun, andtherefore is a great strengthener of the heart, and clearer of thevital spirit the roots thereof are by long experience found to bevery available against the plague and pestilential fevers by provokingsweat. If the powder thereof be taken in wine, it also resists theforce of any other poison the root hereof taken with zedoary andangelica, or without them, helps the rising of the mother thedecoction of the root in wine, is singularly good for those that wheesemuch, or are short-winded it provokes urine also, and women courses, and kills the flat and broad worms in the belly the powder of the rootdoth wonderfully help to dry up the moisture of the sores that are hardto be cured, and takes away all spots and blemishes of the skin itwere well if gentlewomen would keep this root preserved, to help theirpoor neighbours it is fit the rich should help the poor, for the poorcannot help themselves the burdock they are also called personata, and loppy-major, great burdock andclod-bur it is so well known, even by the little boys, who pull offthe burs to throw and stick upon each other, that i shall spare towrite any description of it place they grow plentifully by ditches and water-sides, and by thehighways almost everywhere through this land government and virtues venus challenges this herb for her own, andby its leaf or seed you may draw the womb which way you please, eitherupwards by applying it to the crown of the head, in case it falls out;or downwards in fits of the mother, by applying it to the soles of thefeet. Or if you would stay it in its place, apply it to the navel, and that is one good way to stay the child in it the burdock leavesare cooling, moderately drying, and discussing withal, whereby it isgood for old ulcers and sores a dram of the roots taken with pinekernels, helps them that spit foul, mattery, and bloody phlegm theleaves applied to the places troubled with the shrinking of the sinewsor arteries, gives much ease the juice of the leaves, or rather theroots themselves, given to drink with old wine, doth wonderfully helpthe biting of any serpents. And the root beaten with a little salt, andlaid on the place, suddenly eases the pain thereof, and helps thosethat are bit by a mad dog the juice of the leaves being drank withhoney, provokes urine, and remedies the pain of the bladder the seedbeing drank in wine forty days together, doth wonderfully help thesciatica the leaves bruised with the white of an egg, and applied toany place burnt with fire, takes out the fire, gives sudden ease, andheals it up afterwards the decoction of them fomented on any frettingsore, or canker, stays the corroding quality, which must be afterwardsanointed with an ointment made of the same liquor, hog-grease, nitre, and vinegar boiled together the roots may be preserved withsugar, and taken fasting, or at other times, for the same purposes, andfor consumptions, the stone, and the lask the seed is much commendedto break the stone, and cause it to be expelled by urine, and is oftenused with other seeds and things to that purpose cabbages and coleworts i shall spare labour in writing a description of these, since almostevery one that can but write at all, may describe them from his ownknowledge, they being generally so well known, that descriptions arealtogether needless place they are generally planted in gardens time their flower time is towards the middle, or end of july, andthe seed is ripe in august government and virtues the cabbages or coleworts boiled gentlyin broth, and eaten, do open the body, but the second decoction dothbind the body the juice thereof drank in wine, helps those that arebitten by an adder, and the decoction of the flowers brings downwomen courses. Being taken with honey, it recovers hoarseness, orloss of the voice the often eating of them well boiled, helps thosethat are entering into a consumption the pulp of the middle ribs ofcoleworts boiled in almond milk, and made up into an electuary withhoney, being taken often, is very profitable for those that are puffyand short winded being boiled twice, an old cock boiled in the brothand drank, it helps the pains and the obstructions of the liver andspleen, and the stone in the kidneys the juice boiled with honey, anddropped into the corner of the eyes, clears the sight, by consumingany film or clouds beginning to dim it. It also consumes the cankersgrowing therein they are much commended, being eaten before meat tokeep one from surfeiting, as also from being drunk with too much wine, or quickly to make a man sober again that was drunk before for asthey say there is such an antipathy or enmity between the vine and thecoleworts, that the one will die where the other grows the decoctionof coleworts takes away the pain and ache, and allays the swelling ofsores and gouty legs and knees, wherein thesis gross and watery humoursare fallen, the place being bathed therewith warm it helps also oldand filthy sores, being bathed therewith, and heals all small scabs, pushes, and wheals, that break out in the skin the ashes of colewortstalks mixed with old hog-grease, are very effectual to anoint thesides of those that have had long pains therein, or any other placepained with melancholy and windy humours this was surely chrysippusgod, and therefore he wrote a whole volume on them and their virtues, and that none of the least neither, for he would be no small fool. Heappropriates them to every writing of the body, and to every disease inevery writing. And honest old cato they say used no other physic i knownot what metal their bodies were made of. This i am sure, cabbages areextremely windy, whether you take them as meat or as medicine. Yea, as windy meat as can be eaten, unless you eat bag-pipes or bellows, and they are but seldom eaten in our days.

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It gently purges cholerand phlegm, extenuating that which is gross, and cutting that whichis tough and glutinous, cleanses that which is foul, and hindersputrefaction and corruption. It dissolves without attraction, opensobstructions, and helps their evil effects, and it is a wonderfulhelp to all sorts of dry agues it is astringent to the stomach, andstrengthens the liver, and all the other inward writings. And taken inwhey works more effectually taken fasting in the morning, it is veryprofitable for pains in the head that are continual, and to stay, dryup, and consume all thin rheums or distillations from the head intothe stomach, and helps much to digest raw humours that are gatheredtherein it is very profitable for those that are fallen into acontinual evil disposition of the whole body, called cachexia, butespecially in the beginning of the disease it is an especial friendand helps to evil, weak and cold livers the seed is familiarly givento children for the worms, and so is the infusion of the flowersin white wine given them to the quantity of two ounces at a time;it makes an excellent salve to cleanse and heal old ulcers, beingboiled with oil of olive, and adder tongue with it, and after it isstrained, put a little wax, rosin, and turpentine, to bring it to aconvenient body cudweed, or cottonweed besides cudweed and cottonweed, it is also called chaffweed, dwarfcotton, and petty cotton descript the common cudweed rises up with one stalk essaytimes, and essaytimes with two or three, thick set on all sides with small, long and narrow whitish or woody leaves, from the middle of the stalkalmost up to the top, with every leaf stands small flowers of a dun orbrownish yellow colour, or not so yellow as others. In which herbs, after the flowers are fallen, come small seed wrapped up, with thedown therein, and is carried away with the wind. The root is small andthready there are other sorts hereof, which are essaywhat less than the former, not much different, save only that the stalks and leaves are shorter, so that the flowers are paler and more open place they grow in dry, barren, sandy, and gravelly grounds, inmost places of this land time they flower about july, essay earlier, essay later, and theirseed is ripe in august government and virtues venus is lady of it the plants areall astringent, binding, or drying, and therefore profitable fordefluctions of rheum from the head, and to stay fluxes of bloodwheresoever, the decoction being made into red wine and drank, or thepowder taken therein it also helps the bloody-flux, and eases thetorments that come thereby, stays the immoderate courses of women, and is also good for inward or outward wounds, hurts, and bruises, and helps children both of bursting and the worms, and being eitherdrank or injected, for the disease called tenesmus, which is an oftenprovocation to the stool without doing any thing the green leavesbruised, and laid to any green wound, stays the bleeding, and heals itup quickly the juice of the herb taken in wine and milk, is, as plinysaith, a sovereign remedy against the mumps and quinsey. And furthersaith, that whosoever shall so take it, shall never be troubled withthat disease again cowslips, or peagles both the wild and garden cowslips are so well known, that i neithertrouble myself nor the reader with a description of them time they flower in april and may government and virtues venus lays claim to this herb as her own, and it is under the sign aries, and our city dames know well enough theointment or distilled water of it adds beauty, or at least restores itwhen it is lost the flowers are held to be more effectual than theleaves, and the roots of little use an ointment being made with them, takes away spots and wrinkles of the skin, sun-burning, and freckles, and adds beauty exceedingly.