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Scarcestanding above the brims of the husks, round pointed also, and of agreenish yellow colour the seed that follows is not so bright, butlarger, contained in the like great heads the roots are neither sogreat nor woody. It perishes every year with the hard frosts in winter, but rises generally from its own sowing place this came from essay writings of brazil, as it is thought, and ismore familiar in our country than any of the other sorts. Early givingripe seed, which the others seldom do time it flowers from june, essaytimes to the end of august, orlater, and the seed ripens in the mean time government and virtues it is a martial plant it is found bygood experience to be available to expectorate tough phlegm from thestomach, chest, and lungs the juice thereof made into a syrup, or thedistilled water of the herb drank with essay sugar, or without, if youwill, or the smoak taken by a pipe, as is usual, but fainting, helpsto expel worms in the stomach and belly, and to ease the pains in thehead, or megrim, and the griping pains in the bowels it is profitablefor those that are troubled with the stone in the kidneys, both toease the pains by provoking urine, and also to expel gravel and thestone engendered therein, and hath been found very effectual to expelwindiness, and other humours, which cause the strangling of the mother the seed hereof is very effectual to expel the tooth ache, and theashes of the burnt herb to cleanse the gums, and make the teeth white the herb bruised and applied to the place grieved with the kingevil, helps it in nine or ten days effectually monardus saith, it isa counter poison against the biting of any venomous creature, the herbalso being outwardly applied to the hurt place the distilled wateris often given with essay sugar before the fit of an ague, to lessenit, and take it away in three or four times using if the distilledfæces of the herb, having been bruised before the distillation, and notdistilled dry, be set in warm dung for fourteen days, and afterwardsbe hung in a bag in a wine cellar, the liquor that distills therefromis singularly good to use in cramps, aches, the gout and sciatica, and to heal itches, scabs, and running ulcers, cankers, and all foulsores whatsoever the juice is also good for all the said griefs, andlikewise to kill lice in children heads the green herb bruised andapplied to any green wounds, cures any fresh wound or cut whatsoever:and the juice put into old sores, both cleanses and heals them thereis also made hereof a singularly good salve to help imposthumes, hardtumours, and other swellings by blows and falls the tamarisk tree it is so well known in the place where it grows, that it needs nodescription time it flowers about the end of may, or june, and the seed isripe and blown away in the beginning of september government and virtues a gallant saturnine herb it is the root, leaves, young branches, or bark boiled in wine, and drank, stays thebleeding of the hæmorrhodical veins, the spitting of blood, the tooabounding of women courses, the jaundice, the cholic, and the bitingof all venomous serpents, except the asp. And outwardly applied, isvery powerful against the hardness of the spleen, and the tooth-ache, pains in the ears, red and watering eyes the decoction, with essayhoney put thereto, is good to stay gangrenes and fretting ulcers, andto wash those that are subject to nits and lice alpinus and veslingiusaffirm, that the egyptians do with good success use the wood of it tocure the french disease, as others do with lignum vitæ or guiacum. Andgive it also to those who have the leprosy, scabs, ulcers, or the like its ashes doth quickly heal blisters raised by burnings or scaldings it helps the dropsy, arising from the hardness of the spleen, andtherefore to drink out of cups made of the wood is good for spleneticpersons it is also helpful for melancholy, and the black jaundice thatarise thereof garden tansy garden tansy is so well known, that it needs no description time it flowers in june and july government and virtues dame venus was minded to pleasure women withchild by this herb, for there grows not an herb, fitter for their usethan this is. It is just as though it were cut out for the purpose this herb bruised and applied to the navel, stays miscarriages.

And this is alsoan approved medicine it likewise cleanses and heals all foul ulcers, and sores whatsoever, and stays their inflammations by washing themwith the water, and laying on them a green leaf or two in the summer, or dry leaves in the winter this water, gargled warm in the mouth, and essaytimes drank also, doth cure the how to close an essay quinsy, or king evil in thethroat the said water applied warm, takes away all spots, marks, andscabs in the skin. And a little of it drank, quenches thirst when it isextreme lovage descript it has thesis long and green stalks of large winged leaves, divided into thesis writings, like smallage, but much larger and greater, every leaf being cut about the edges, broadest forward, and smallest atthe stalk, of a sad green colour, smooth and shining. From among whichrise up sundry strong, hollow green stalks, five or six, essaytimesseven or eight feet high, full of joints, but lesser leaves set onthem than grow below. And with them towards the tops come forth largebranches, bearing at their tops large umbels of yellow flowers, andafter them flat brownish seed the roots grow thick, great and deep, spreading much, and enduring long, of a brownish colour on the outside, and whitish within the whole plant and every writing of it smellingstrong, and aromatically, and is of a hot, sharp, biting taste place it is usually planted in gardens, where, if it be suffered, it grows huge and great time it flowers in the end of july, and seeds in august government and virtues it is an herb of the sun, under the signtaurus if saturn offend the throat as he always doth if he beoccasioner of the malady, and in taurus is the genesis this is yourcure it opens, cures and digests humours, and mightily provokeswomen courses and urine half a dram at a time of the dried rootin powder taken in wine, doth wonderfully warm a cold stomach, helpsdigestion, and consumes all raw and superfluous moisture therein. Easesall inward gripings and pains, dissolves wind, and resists poison andinfection it is a known and much praised remedy to drink the decoctionof the herb for any sort of ague, and to help the pains and tormentsof the body and bowels coming of cold the seed is effectual to allthe purposes aforesaid except the last and works more powerfully the distilled water of the herb helps the quinsy in the throat, ifthe mouth and throat be gargled and washed therewith, and helps thepleurisy, being drank three or four times being dropped into the eyes, it takes away the redness or dimness of them. It likewise takes awayspots or freckles in the face the leaves bruised, and fried with alittle hog lard, and put hot to any blotch or boil, will quicklybreak it lungwort descript this is a kind of moss, that grows on sundry sorts oftrees, especially oaks and beeches, with broad, greyish, tough leavesdiversly folded, crumpled, and gashed in on the edges, and essay spottedalso with thesis small spots on the upper-side it was never seen to bearany stalk or flower at any time government and virtues jupiter seems to own this herb it is ofgreat use to physicians to help the diseases of the lungs, and forcoughs, wheezings, and shortness of breath, which it cures both in manand beast it is very profitable to put into lotions that are taken tostay the moist humours that flow to ulcers, and hinder their healing, as also to wash all other ulcers in the privy writings of a man or woman it is an excellent remedy boiled in beer for broken-winded horses madder descript garden madder shoots forth thesis very long, weak, four-square, reddish stalks, trailing on the ground a great way, veryrough or hairy, and full of joints. At every one of these joints comeforth divers long and narrow leaves, standing like a star about thestalks, round also and hairy, towards the tops whereof come forth thesissmall pale yellow flowers, after which come small round heads, green atfirst, and reddish afterwards, but black when they are ripe, whereinis contained the seed the root is not very great, but exceeding long, running down half a man length into the ground, red and very clear, while it is fresh, spreading divers ways place it is only manured in gardens, or larger fields, for theprofit that is made thereof time it flowers towards the end of summer, and the seed is ripequickly after government and virtues it is an herb of mars it hath an openingquality, and afterwards to bind and strengthen it is a sure remedyfor the yellow jaundice, by opening the obstructions of the liver andgall, and cleansing those writings. It opens also the obstructions of thespleen, and diminishes the melancholy humour it is available for thepalsy and sciatica, and effectual for bruises inward and outward, andis therefore much used in vulnerary drinks the root for all thoseaforesaid purposes, is to be boiled in wine or water, as the causerequires, and essay honey and sugar put thereunto afterwards the seedhereof taken in vinegar and honey, helps the swelling and hardnessof the spleen the decoction of the leaves and branches is a goodfomentation for women that have not their courses the leaves and rootsbeaten and applied to any writing that is discoloured with freckles, morphew, the white scurf, or any such deformity of the skin, cleansesthoroughly, and takes them away maiden hair descript our common maiden-hair doth, from a number of hard blackfibres, send forth a great thesis blackish shining brittle stalks, hardlya span long, in thesis not half so long, on each side set very thick withsmall, round, dark green leaves, and spitted on the back of them like afern place it grows upon old stone walls in the west writings in kent, and divers other places of this land. It delights likewise to grow bysprings, wells, and rocky moist and shady places, and is always green wall rue, or, white maiden-hair descript this has very fine, pale green stalks, almost as fine ashairs, set confusedly with divers pale green leaves on every shortfoot stalk, essaywhat near unto the colour of garden rue, and not muchdiffering in form but more diversly cut in on the edges, and thicker, smooth on the upper writing, and spotted finely underneath place it grows in thesis places of this land, at dartford, and thebridge at ashford in kent, at beaconsfield in buckinghamshire, at wollyin huntingtonshire, on framlingham castle in suffolk, on the churchwalls at mayfield in sussex, in essayrsetshire, and divers other placesof this land. And is green in winter as well as summer government and virtues both this and the former are under thedominion of mercury, and so is that also which follows after, and thevirtue of both are so near alike, that though i have described them andtheir places of growing severally, yet i shall in writing the virtuesof them, join them both together as follows the decoction of the herb maiden-hair being drank, helps those that aretroubled with the cough, shortness of breath, the yellow jaundice, diseases of the spleen, stopping of urine, and helps exceedingly tobreak the stone in the kidneys, in all which diseases the wall rueis also very effectual it provokes women courses, and stays bothbleedings and fluxes of the stomach and belly, especially when theherb is dry. For being green, it loosens the belly, and voids cholerand phlegm from the stomach and liver. It cleanses the lungs, and byrectifying the blood, causes a good colour to the whole body the herbboiled in oil of camomile, dissolves knots, allays swellings, and driesup moist ulcers the lye made thereof is singularly good to cleansethe head from scurf, and from dry and running sores, stays the fallingor shedding of the hair, and causes it to grow thick, fair, and wellcoloured. For which purpose essay boil it in wine, putting essay smallageseed thereto, and afterwards essay oil the wall rue is as effectual asmaiden-hair, in all diseases of the head, or falling and recovering ofthe hair again, and generally for all the aforementioned diseases. Andbesides, the powder of it taken in drink for forty days together, helpsthe burstings in children golden maiden hairto the former give me leave to add this, and i shall say no more butonly describe it to you, and for the virtues refer you to the former, since whatever is said of them, may be also said of this descript it has thesis small, brownish, red hairs, to make up theform of leaves growing about the ground from the root. And in themiddle of them, in summer, rise small stalks of the same colour, setwith very fine yellowish green hairs on them, and bearing a small gold, yellow head, less than a wheat corn, standing in a great husk the rootis very small and thready place it grows in bogs and moorish places, and also on dry shadyplaces, as hampstead heath, and elsewhere mallows and marshmallows common mallows are generally so well known that they need nodescription our common marshmallows have divers soft hairy white stalks, rising tobe three or four feet high, spreading forth thesis branches, the leaveswhereof are soft and hairy, essaywhat less than the other mallow leaves, but longer pointed, cut for the most writing into essay few divisions, but deep the flowers are thesis, but smaller also than the othermallows, and white, or tending to a bluish colour after which comesuch long, round paper and seeds, as in the other mallows the rootsare thesis and long, shooting from one head, of the bigness of a thumbor finger, very pliant, tough, and being like liquorice, of a whitishyellow colour on the outside, and more whitish within, full of a slimyjuice, which being laid in water, will thicken, as if it were a jelly place the common mallows grow in every county of this land thecommon marsh-mallows in most of the salt marshes, from woolwich downto the sea, both on the kentish and essex shores, and in divers otherplaces of this land time they flower all the summer months, even until the winter dopull them down government and virtues venus owns them both the leaves of eitherof the sorts, both specified, and the roots also boiled in wine orwater, or in broth with parsley or fennel roots, do help to open thebody, and are very convenient in hot agues, or other distempers of thebody, to apply the leaves so boiled warm to the belly it not onlyvoids hot, choleric, and other offensive humours, but eases the painsand torments of the belly coming thereby.

Its use in the latter conditionsis said to be the most promising it is claimed on very doubtfulgrounds to exert a essaywhat favorable effect in certain paper ofcancer -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 69 piperazine and lycetol omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of piperazine and lycetol has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary piperazine diethylenediamene and lycetol a methyl derivative ofdiethylenediamene were accepted for new and nonofficial remedies in1906 both piperazine and lycetol were asserted to be efficient uricacid solvents and efficacious remedies in the treatment of gout andrheumatism these products have been retained until now because therewas no investigation which definitely showed their uselessness as uricacid solvents, though their use is generally admitted to have beendisappointing from an exhaustive and critical study of the available evidence, hanzlik jour lab & clin med , february, 1917 concluded thatscientific evidence, though limited, and clinical opinion indicate thatpiperazine is valueless in gout and that there is sufficient scientificevidence to indicate the worthlessness of lycetol the referee in charge of piperazine and lycetol recommended that theseproducts be omitted from new and nonofficial remedies for the reasonthat they have been sufficiently tried to justify the conclusion thatthey are not of value the period of acceptance having expired, thecouncil directed that piperazine and piperazine tablets the bayercompany, inc and lycetol the bayer company, inc be omitted fromnew and nonofficial remedies -- from reports of council on pharmacyand chemistry, 1918, p 70 stanolind liquid paraffin omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryas explained in the report which follows, “stanolind liquid paraffin”was omitted from new and nonofficial remedies at the request of theproprietors announcement of this omission was made in the preface tonew and nonofficial remedies, 1918, but publication of the councilreport was postponed pending actual conflict with the rules thecouncil now authorizes publication of the report because a circularindirectly advertising the product to the public was found enclosedwith the trade package of stanolind liquid paraffin w a puckner, secretary stanolind liquid paraffin was admitted to new and nonofficial remediesin 1916, when its method of marketing conformed to the rules of thecouncil this brand of liquid petrolatum, by action of the council, has been omitted from new and nonofficial remedies on request of thestandard oil company of indiana, its manufacturer, who wrote to thesecretary of the council stating that. “in order that our facilities for the manufacture of this oil shall be constantly engaged, it will be necessary for us to find sales on a larger scale than in the past to do this under our present advertising and marketing arrangement we feel will be impossible ”this letter, in addition, suggested “that physicians are notprescribing stanolind liquid paraffin in any considerable proportionof their orders” and “that the situation which now confronts us wouldnot be materially helped if stanolind was specified in all suchprescriptions ” further, the council is asked to consider whetherit “might be willing to declare this preparation as not a councilproduct, ” on the alleged grounds that “liquid paraffin is not medicinalin its action and passes through the digestive tract in practicallyunaltered condition ”the council holds that stanolind liquid paraffin is a drug, and that, therefore, its direct advertising to the public is in contraventionof the council rules constipation should be treated by dietaryand hygienic means evacuants are only temporary measures liquidpetrolatum is medicinal. It greatly modifies the intestinal flora. Itacts as a lubricant and emollient. It modifies the absorptive powersof the intestinal mucous membrane. It is capable of influencing thedigestion of fats in short, liquid petrolatum, being a drug, itsindiscriminate and excessive use should not be encouraged -- fromreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 72 westerfield digitalis tablets report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary westerfield digitalis tablets the westerfield pharmacal co , dayton, ohio are claimed to represent a fat free tincture of digitalis and tobe “enteric coated ” it is claimed that because of this coating thesetablets pass the stomach unchanged and dissolve in the intestine, andthat this obviates any possibility of gastric disturbance the circular which sets forth the asserted advantages of the tabletsstates that digitalis contains a fat which is an irritant to thegastric membrane it also contains the following.

Provided that one or more members of the different schoolsof medicine represented in the state board of health shall also berepresented in the board of examiners 2 the affidavit of the applicant and holder of a diploma that he is theperson therein named, and is the lawful possessor thereof, is necessaryto verify the same, with such other testimony as the board may require diplomas and accompanying affidavits may be presented in person or byproxy if a diploma is found genuine and in possession of the person towhom it was issued, the board, on payment of the fee to its secretary, must issue a certificate if a diploma is found fraudulent or notlawfully in possession of the holder or owner, the person presentingit, or holding or claiming possession, is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable with a fine of from $20 to $100 3 the certificate must be recorded in the office of the county recorderin the county wherein the holder resides, within sixty days after itsdate should he remove from one county to another to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, his certificate must be recorded in the countyto which he removes the recorder must indorse upon the certificate thedate of record 4 any one failing to pass is entitled to a second examination withintwelve months without a fee. Any applicant for examination, by noticein writing to the secretary of the board, is entitled to examinationwithin three months from the time of notice, and the failure togive such opportunity entitles such applicant to practise without acertificate until the next regular meeting of the board the boardmay issue certificates to persons who, upon application, present acertificate of having passed a satisfactory examination before anyother state board of medical examiners, upon the payment of the feeprovided in sec 3 6, as amended c 66, laws 1888, 22 gen assembly the board may refuse a certificate to a person who has been convictedof felony committed in the practice of his profession, or in connectiontherewith. Or may revoke for like cause, or for palpable evidence ofincompetency, and such refusal or revocation prohibits such personfrom practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, and can only be madewith the affirmative vote of at least five physicians of the stateboard, in which must be included one or more members of the differentschools of medicine represented in the said board. The standing of alegally chartered medical college from which a diploma may be presentedmust not be questioned except by a like vote 7 definition, exceptions - any person is deemed practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or to be a physician, who publicly professesto be a physician, surgeon, or obstetrician, and assumes the duties, or who makes a practice of prescribing, or prescribing and furnishingmedicine for the sick, or who publicly professes to cure or heal by anymeans whatsoever. But the act does not prohibit students of medicine, surgery, or obstetrics from prescribing under the supervision ofpreceptors or gratuitous services in case of emergency.

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“we absolutely guarantee all preparations to be in exact accordance with the national pure food and drugs act, june 30, 1906 “we also absolutely guarantee all preparations bearing our label to be equal, if not superior, to any on the market ”in one of the quarterly bulletins of the state board of health of newhampshire, issued last year, this paragraph appeared. “the direct sales company, inc , buffalo, n y , is a pharmaceutical concern which until recently has done business direct with new hampshire physicians in two or three instances complaints have been received by this dewritingment that the preparations sold seemed to be lacking in potency essay time ago a physician sent us a specimen of codein sulphate tablets, one-fourth grain, concerning which he was suspicious, admission being made that the price paid was very much less than current quotations the amount of codein sulphate actually found per tablet proved to be but one-sixteenth grain later on, having subsequently received a new lot from this source, the same physician sent us a second sample, the composition of which was found to be practically identical with the first acting under the federal law, 500 lot packages of the following preparations were next purchased of the company direct, the analytical results indicating serious deficiency in every case, as follows. “tablets salicylic acid, 5 grains 1 72 grains found “tablets acetylsalicylic acid, 5 grains 2 31 grains found “tablets acetanilid, 3 grains 1 88 grains found “tablets codein sulphate, 1/4 grain 1/15 grain found “tablets nux and pepsin no 2, claiming pepsin 1 grain, extract nux vomica, 1/10 grain, found to have a gross average weight per tablet of only 1 17 grains, 0 54 grains of which was represented by sugar and other medicinally inert material “tablets infant anodyne waugh showed serious discrepancy from formula ”the bulletin added the statement that, as the company could not bereached under the new hampshire laws, the federal authorities wereappealed to the result of this appeal appeared in chemical supplement54, issued aug 21, 1918, by the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingment of agriculture this government bulletin contained noticeof judgment no 6193, which describes paper of adulteration andmisbranding of essay of the drugs put out by the direct sales company briefly, it may be said that essay 2 grain acetanilid tablets sold bythis concern were found by the government chemists to contain, roughly, about 1-2/3 1 61 grains. Essay 1/4 grain calomel tablets were foundto contain only about 1/6 0 163 grain. Essay 1 grain quinin sulphatetablets were found to have only about 2/3 0 63 grain. Essay 2-1/2grain salol tablets contained only about 1-1/3 1 39 grain. Essay 5grain sodium salicylate tablets contained less than half that amount 2 32 grain in addition, the federal chemists found that essay elixirof iron pyrophosphate quinin and strychnin elix ferr pyrophos quin et strych n f fell considerably below the standard ofstrength laid down by the national formulary by having less thanone-eighth the amount of quinin sulphate which the official standardcalls for, and only about one-fifth the amount of sugar, saccharine, which is not a normal ingredient of the official preparation, havingbeen substituted for writing of the sugar the chemists found, too, thatessay hydriodic acid sold by the same concern, instead of containing, asthe label declared and as the united states pharmacopeia requires, 1per cent of absolute hydriodic acid, contained less than one half of 1per cent the direct sales company pleaded guilty in this case and wasfined $700 -- from the journal a m a , sept 27, 1919 discoveries and discoverersin spite of the wonderful achievements of modern science, it seemsimpossible to get the public to think in scientific terms this isdoubtless due to a fundamental weakness in our educational system the tendency still is to think in terms of the eighteenth centuryrather than of the twentieth thesis times the journal has been chided, even by its friends, for failing to take seriously preposterousclaims made for alleged discoveries in medicine by well-meaning butself-deluded enthusiasts or by shrewd and conscienceless charlatans far too often the attitude is that any alleged discovery in medicine, no matter how bizarre or how humanly improbable, should be taken upin all seriousness and subjected to the tests of modern laboratorymethods it was only a few years ago that a quack of unsavoryantecedents brought forth an alleged cure for consumption-- a diseasethat for years has been the subject of study by the best brains in theworld-- and a medical college spent thousands of dollars “investigating”the “cure, ” thereby giving it a standing that it would never havereceived otherwise and incidentally obtaining for the school an amountof publicity that may or may not have been desired as the journalsaid at the time, it would have been just as pertinent for a body ofastronomers to determine by scientific methods whether or not the moonis really made of green cheese the point we would make is that the strides made by modern sciencehave practically eliminated the possibility of men without trainingor special knowledge evolving any epoch-making discovery in thisconnection an editorial in the scientific american of recent date, dealing with the mechanical sciences rather than the medical, is wellworth quoting in writing the editorial discussed the “garabed” incident “garabed, ” as our readers know, was a name given to a device which onegarabed t k giragossian claimed to have developed and which, so faras could be learned from the generalities in which mr giragossianindulged, would take energy out of the cosmos and transfer it directlyinto mechanical motion mr giragossian would give no details regardinghis “engine, ” but was so able to hypnotize congress into a belief thathe had essaything worth looking into that it passed a joint resolutioncalling for the appointment of five scientists to pass on the claimsfor garabed the investigation proved, as might have been expected, that the thing was unsound in principle and nonoperative as a device the methods by which garabed was brought before the public savoredstrongly of those used by quacks in the medical world, the onedifference being that giragossian was apparently perfectly sincereand unequivocally honest the point that we bring out, however, andwhich, as we have said before, was so well expressed by the scientificamerican, is the utter futility of wasting the time of scientificmen on alleged inventions or discoveries by men without trainingwho substitute secrecy and glittering generalities for facts andaccomplishments quoting the scientific american. Scientific discovery, once an open field for all comers, is today becoming more and more a matter calling for the most intensive special qualifications as the body of human knowledge broadens and deepens, it becomes increasingly difficult to make any material addition to it any one undertaking such a task must of necessity bring to it a long and careful training, acquired either in the refined atmosphere of the laboratory, or in the rougher school of close contact with the operation of apparatus constructed by those who have already qualified in writingicular, he must possess a carefully developed power of making accurate observations and drawing correct conclusions it is rather the habit to point to men like edison and maxim in refutation of these necessities. But they are not to be so refuted these men are examples, raised to the nth power, of the great inventor who has qualified in the university of hard knocks and long experience on these grounds, when a man comes before us in the self-assigned rôle of a great inventor, it is incumbent upon him to answer, not necessarily the bald question “who are you?. ” but certainly the more searching one, “what are your qualifications to undertake this work?.