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How To Cite In An Essay


“it is how to cite in an essay quite impossible to confound a burninflicted during life with one inflicted after death ”woodman and tidy, 717 in an extended series of experiments, concludethat while blisters can be produced post mortem, they are readilydistinguished from those formed ante mortem in containing no serum. Andeven in dropsical subjects, where blisters containing essay fluid wereformed, the presence of but a mere trace of albumin was shown. And, inall, no redness about the base of the blisters was produced, nor anyappearance of redness after removal of the cuticle taylor718 has never observed vesications in post-mortem experimentson infants he cites a case of drowning where the person, “pulselessand apparently dead, ” was imprudently placed in a hot bath blisterscontaining bloody serum were formed over several portions of the body he concludes that hot water on the living and recently dead body, sofar as vesication is concerned, produces similar effects in experiments on the dead body immediately after death the writer hasfailed to produce any blister containing serum or fluid the so-calledblisters are produced by the rapid expansion and evaporation of thefluid beneath the cuticle over the portion to which the heat wasapplied, and differ distinctly from blisters caused during life, in theabsence of serum or any redness of adjacent or subjacent writings plateii chambert719 concludes that in living bodies and in dead bodies withintwenty-four hours after death blisters can be produced, and that lessheat will develop them in the living he specially emphasizes thedifference, in the albuminous character of the contents, of a blisterformed ante mortem and of one formed post mortem jastrowitz720 emphasizes the difference between blisters formedduring life and those occurring in œdematous conditions blisters are to be distinguished from the bullæ arising fromputrefaction there is little danger of confounding such paper inconditions of putrefaction no redness or line of demarcation exists, and the green discoloration and other conditions of the skin willsuffice to establish the diagnosis schjerning721 considers blisters containing highly albuminous serumas diagnostic of burns produced during life in essay conditions ofdepression of nutrition blisters occasionally form, but are not liableto be confounded with those caused by burning a second anatomical feature of much importance, even more so thanvesication, is the condition of the skin to which the heat was applied it assumes a dusky red color and a dry and parchment-like condition case 8 surrounding this is an area of grayish-white skin bounded bya sharply defined and deeply injected red line, which in turn shadesinto the color of the surrounding skin these features are more or lesspronounced according to the degree of heat applied and to the length oftime of contact. Or, in other words, to the depth and severity of theburn plate i means of distinguishing ante-mortem from post-mortem burns differentially, a distinction is to be made between the surroundingredness and the line of redness the redness due to capillarydistention is transient, disappears under pressure during life, and fades after death the line of redness is permanent, changingbut little under pressure, and remains after death it is a vitalreactionary effort, a true line of separation between living anddead tissue, formed in the same manner as the line of demarcation insphacelus or gangrene this line of redness, developed only during lifeand permanent after death, is of great significance in paper witha medico-legal bearing it has been already stated that in personsin a condition of depressed vitality the appearance of redness andvesication is essaytimes very tardy and imperfect, and that death fromshock or pain may occur before their development at all they are vitalprocesses and require time for their appearance in proportion to theactivity of the powers of reaction hence in paper of burning resultingfatally where vesication and redness do not appear, the circumstancesmust be carefully considered before deciding that the burns producedwere post mortem with these qualifications, it may be stated that thepresence of the red line is almost uniform in burns inflicted duringlife and absent in those occurring after death if upon a body bearing evidences of exposure to heat there be foundblisters containing highly albuminous serum, and such blisters, afterthe removal of the cuticle, present a bright red base surrounded bya bright and sharp line of demarcation, with redness of adjacentsurface, we are justified in concluding that the burns were inflictedante mortem or, at farthest, within a few moments of death if, on thecontrary, the red line is absent and the blisters contain a thin wateryfluid, with a yellowish and dry condition of their base after removalof the cuticle, the presumption is that the burning occurred postmortem where a number of burns are found upon a body, the question whetherthey were produced simultaneously may be raised this can be answeredby examination as to their condition if essay show signs of recentinfliction, while others are in conditions of suppuration or otherchanges which only occur after an interval, a difference of time inproduction would be probable but if all present mainly the sameconditions, the probability of their occurring at the same time may beconcluded plates i and ii the condition of the blood - special examination of the blood ofpersons dying from the effect of burns has been made by competentobservers while it is not at present possible to define an exact andconstant condition, specially characteristic, essay features of interesthave been recently recorded the color of the blood has been variously reported. In essay paper asbeing of a dark color and in others of a bright arterial hue deathby asphyxia or suffocation, by the deprivation of oxygen, and by theproducts of combustion, would be accompanied by a dark or venous hueof the blood an atmosphere containing an excess of carbon monoxide, resulting from combustion, would cause death by apnœa with an arterialhue to the blood 722 but other influences must be considered according to schjerning, 723 it is difficult to deduce positiveconclusions from the condition of the blood the changes induced by thespleen and kidneys, as well as the varying intensity of the degree ofheat to which the body may be subjected, tend to render positive andconstant conclusions from this source difficult falk724 refers to the bright red color of the blood found in essaypaper, and explains this condition in writing by the influence of chemicalchanges in the tissues surrounding the vessels wertheim725 describes certain conditions observed by him and mentionsan increase in the number of the leucocytes, together with the presenceof hæmoglobin and melanin hoppe seyler meets with similar results and arrives at the sameconclusions in his observations ponfik, 726 on the contrary, is doubtful of the constant presence ofessay of these conditions and also of their diagnostic value seliger727 confirms the conclusions of wertheim, in that he describesthe presence of crystalline bodies and of dark discolorations melanin essay spectroscopic analyses have disclosed the presence of bandsadditional to those of normal blood the lack of uniformity ofconditions described and of conclusions reached leaves the subject in aposition of uncertainty examination of the blood of those dying fromburns has not been so extensively and minutely followed as to enable usto decide questions which may arise in any case explanation of plate ii figure 1 - ante-mortem burn scald by steam from a boiler bursting, july, 1892 from a photograph taken sixty hours after the accident the injurycovered one-half of the surface of the body the red line is sharplymarked. The extensive blisters formed are broken and their contentshave escaped. The serum drying has produced yellowish discolorations;the blush of redness on adjacent writings is well marked death resultedon the fifth day figure 2 - post-mortem burn exp 1 appearances after application of a tin can containingboiling water the cuticle was raised by expansion the blisterscontained no serum and no red line is developed figure 3 - post-mortem burn exp 2 appearances after the application of iron at a dull redheat no proper blister formed. The cuticle was raised, as inprevious experiment there was no serum and no red line or redness ofadjacent writings the cuticle is charred at one point, where the iron wasbrought into contact with it illustration. Medical jurisprudence plate ii burn, two hours after death, by iron at a dull red heat burn, two hours after death, by tin can containing boiling water burn by steam, sixty hours after injury post-mortem and ante-mortem burns was death accidental, suicidal, or homicidal?. Nearly all deaths occurring from burning are accidental, very fewhomicidal, and hardly more than a few exceptional paper suicidal it is important in paper of legal investigation to note the position ofthe body when found and its relation to the apparent source of fire;the writings of the body and clothing burned, etc.

But evidently i have been delinquent ”according to our records, albert abrams, a m , m d , ll d , f r m s , was born in san francisco in 1864 he was graduated in medicine by theuniversity of heidelberg, gerthesis, in 1882 dr abrams is a member ofhis local medical society and through that holds fellowship in theamerican medical association dr abrams has written voluminously in1910, his book on “spondylotherapy” “physio-therapy of the spine” wasreviewed in the journal “spondylotherapy” is a neologic creation ofdr abrams according to its disciples, it concerns itself “only withthe excitation of the functional centers of the spinal cord” and hasbeen called “the science of evoking the reflexes of the body both todiagnose and to cure disease ” in bringing its review of abrams’ bookon “spondylotherapy” to a close, the journal said. “ one wonders whether this is an attempt to explain osteopathy and chiropractic to the understanding of the regular practitioner, or to exploit the very ingenious percussion devices of the author, or whether it is really true that medical men really know practically nothing about the cure of disease through treatment of the spine let us hope that it is the latter and that a careful study of this unique volume may open new avenues of therapy heretofore undreamed of ”while the review was obviously critical, yet in advertising the book, the publisher picked out writing of the closing sentence, omitted thecontext, and quoted the journal as having said. “let us hope that a careful study of this unique volume may open new avenues of therapy heretofore undreamed of ”when this matter was brought to the attention of dr abrams, hereplied, “i fail to see any real difference in the two quotations” and“only one with an astigmatic mentality” could “see any incongruitybetween the context and the concluding sentence ” yet, in this sameletter which attempted to justify the garbling of a quotation so asto make a critical review appear a laudatory one, dr abrams declaredthat the review in question was “conceived and executed in a maliciousspirit ”between 1912 and 1914 dr abrams gave “clinical courses” on“spondylotherapy” in various writings of the country-- price $50 these“courses” were widely advertised by an ohio concern that seems to makea specialty not only of handling the advertising campaigns of thosemembers of the medical profession who have unusual or bizarre methodsto exploit, but also of acting as an agent for the sale of such devicesand publications as may be necessary to the proper practice of thewritingicular brand of therapy that is being exploited at the time thisconcern was featuring abrams’ course it called attention to the allegedfact that “no class were sic!. so busy as those employing mechanicaltreatment such as osteopathy, chiropractic, mechanotherapy, etc ”says dr abrams. “despite the fury of tongue or the truculence of the pen, the osteopath and chiropractor are inspiring the confidence of the community with their systems right or wrong in their theory, they are, in vulgar parlance, ‘delivering the goods ’ spondylotherapy was a product of necessity-- the translation of an ignored field of medicine from a chaotic to a scientific basis ”possibly the following testimonial published by dr abrams as typicalof thesis received, and credited to “dr henry stacy dodge, richmond, va , ” may explain the field that “spondylotherapy” is to cover incidentally “dr ” dodge is listed in the richmond telephone directoryas a chiropractor. “i have been in practice for fifteen years in chiropractic and ten years an osteopath and i wish to say that during the last three years i have received more genuine and sincere satisfaction from the application of spondylotherapy than all other methods combined my success in gastrology alone is worth thesis times the cost of the information ”more recently, dr abrams has advertised that he gives a “course” inspondylotherapy in san francisco, beginning on the first of each month the course last four weeks “the honorarium for this course is $200 00 ”in 1912 an organization was created devoted to this new therapeuticmethod. The “american association for the study of spondylotherapy ”later dr abrams was made honorary president whether the organizationis still viable we do not know electronic reactions of abramsin addition to “spondylotherapy, ” dr abrams has also evolved what hecalls the “electronic reactions of abrams ” these are said to makepossible long-distance diagnoses, it being necessary only to send afew drops of blood taken from the patient and allowed to dry on aslide there are, it seems, certain instruments and devices used inthe performance of these diagnostic feats by means of the “electronicreactions” dr abrams while admitting the protective factor ofvaccination against smallpox has discovered that practically all thevaccines obtained from reliable firms yield the reaction “electronictests” of congenital syphilis, and that thesis of them also yieldthe reaction of tuberculosis and of streptococci and staphylococci further, “from the cicatrices of all vaccinated persons, one canalways elicit a reaction of congenital syphilis and in early scars atuberculous reaction ” dr abrams also declares that exposing vaccinevirus for ten minutes to blue light will destroy the syphilitic, streptococcic and staphylococci reactions and exposing it for the sameperiod to yellow light will destroy the tuberculous reaction one of dr abrams’ disciples-- sir james barr-- frequently quoted withevident satisfaction, declares that from a fresh sample of blood spreadover four square inches of white blotting paper, “dr abrams candiagnose the sex, race and disease of the patient ” however, there arecertain precautions that must be taken. The patient should face west, “the blood should be taken in a subdued light and there should be nostrong red or yellow coloring material in the room ”in various places dr abrams has asseverated that “ifsplancho-diagnosis is approached with a prejudiced mind, it is betternot to attempt it, for there are ‘none so blind as those that will notsee ’”dr abrams founded and edits physico-clinical medicine it ispublished by “physico-clinical co ” at 2135 sacramento st , sanfrancisco-- the address, according to the telephone directory, of dr abrams’ residence it is a quarterly “devoted to the study of theelectronic reactions of abrams and the visceral reflexes of abrams, inthe diagnosis, treatment and pathology of disease ” single copies, onedollar. By the year, two dollars the publication is, apparently, notentered as second class matter, in fact, presumably, it could not be, as it seems obviously to be an advertising affair each issue containsmaterial dealing with “spondylotherapy, ” “splanchno-diagnosis, ”“electronic reactions” and other discoveries and theories of dr abrams in it also is published a list of “essay recent visitors atdr abrams’ laboratory, ” the names and addresses of the “lessees ofoscilloclast” about which more later, testimonials for dr abrams, etc of course, it carries advertisements of dr abrams’ “physico-clinicallaboratory” also at 2135 sacramento st and his “practical coursesin spondylotherapy and electronic diagnosis and treatment” $200 inadvance essay of the devices of dr abrams are also advertised “noapparatus sold on credit terms cash ” among these are. “dr abrams’ electrodes for electronic diagnosis $ 6 00 “biodynamometer 36 00 “dr abrams’ reflex set 36 00 “dr abrams’ electro-concusser 120 00” the oscilloclastbut what seems to be the outstanding piece of apparatus, devisedor invented by dr abrams, the pièce de resistance, as it were, ofphysicoclinical diagnosis and treatment, is the “oscilloclast ”this device is not for sale it can be had only on lease the firstpayment is $200 or $250, according to whether it is wired foralternating or direct current then there is a monthly payment of$5 dr abrams publishes a list of more than 130 men who have leasedone or more “oscilloclasts ” sir james barr name heads the list according to dr abrams, the “oscilloclast” owes its conception to thetherapeutic principles he advocates these, in writing, are.

They are bad meat, yet good physic for phlegmatic people, theyare opening, and provoke urine and how to cite in an essay the menses, if cold be the causeobstructing. Bruised and outwardly applied, they cure the bitings ofmad dogs, roasted and applied, they help boils, and aposthumes. Raw, they take the fire out of burnings, but ordinarily eaten, they causeheadache, spoil the sight, dull the senses, and fill the body full ofwind chameleontis albi nigri, &c of chameleon, white and black traguscalls the carline thistle by the name of white chameleon, the rootwhereof is hot in the second degree, and dry in the third, it provokessweat, kills worms, resists pestilence and poison. It is given withsuccess in pestilential fevers, helps the toothache by being chewed inthe mouth, opens the stoppings of the liver and spleen, provokes urine, and the menses. Give but little of it at a time, by reason of its heat as for the black chameleon, all physicians hold it to have a kind ofvenomous quality, and unfit to be used inwardly, galen, clusius, nicander, dioscorides, and ægineta outwardly in ointments, it isprofitable for scabs, morphew, tetters, &c and all things that needcleansing chelidonij majoris, minoris of celandine, the greater and lesser:the greater is that which we usually call celandine. The root is hotand dry, cleansing and scouring, proper for such as have the yellowjaundice, it opens obstructions of the liver, being boiled in whitewine, and the decoctions drank. And if chewed in the mouth it helpsthe tooth-ache celandine the lesser is that which usually we callpilewort, which with us is hot in the first degree. The juice of theroot mixed with honey and snuffed up in the nose, purges the head, helps the hemorrhoids or piles being bathed with it, as also doth theroot only carried about one. Being made into an ointment, it helps theking evil or scrophula china, wonderfully extenuates and dries, provokes sweat, resistsputrefaction. It strengthens the liver, helps the dropsy and malignantulcers, leprosy, itch, and venereal, and is profitable in diseasescoming of fasting it is commonly used in diet drinks for the premises cichorii of succory. Cool and dry in the second degree, strengthensthe liver and veins, it opens obstructions, stoppings in the liver andspleen, being boiled in white wine and the decoction drank colchici of meadow saffron the roots are held to be hurtful to thestomach, therefore i let them alone consolidæ, majoris, minoris consolida major, is that which weordinarily call comfry, it is of a cold quality, yet pretty temperate, so glutinous, that, according to dioscorides, they will join meattogether that is cut in sunder, if they be boiled with it. It isexcellent for all wounds, both internal and external, for spitting ofblood, ruptures or burstness, pains in the back, it strengthens thereins, it stops the menses, and helps hemorrhoids the way to use themis to boil them in water and drink the decoction consolida minor, isthat we call self-heal, and the latins prunella see the herb costi utriusque of costus both sorts being roots coming from beyondsea, hot and dry, break wind, being boiled in oil, it is held to helpthe gout by anointing the grieved place with it cucumeris a grestis of wild cucumber roots. They purge flegm, andthat with such violence, that i would advise the country man that knowsnot how to correct them, to let them alone cinaræ, &c of artichokes the roots purge by urine, whereby the ranksavour of the body is much amended cynoglossæ, &c of hounds-tongue, cold and dry. Being roasted andlaid to the fundament, helps the hemorrhoids, is also good for burningsand scaldings curcumæ of turmerick, hot in the third degree, opens obstructions, is profitable against the yellow jaundice, and cold distemper of theliver and spleen, half a dram being taken at night going to bed in thepulp of a roasted apple, and if you add a little saffron to it, it willbe the better by far cyperiutriusque, longi, rotundi of cyprus grass, or english galanga, both sorts, long and round. Is of a warm nature, provokes urine, breaksthe stone, provokes the menses.

Itbreaks, digests, and rids away phlegm from the stomach, chest, andlungs the milk wherein the root as been boiled is effectual also forthe same purpose the said powder taken in wine or other drink, orthe juice of the berries, or the powder of them, or the wine whereinthey have been boiled, provokes urine, and brings down women coursesand purges them effectually after child-bearing, to bring away theafter-birth taken with sheep milk, it heals the inward ulcers of thebowels the distilled water thereof is effectual to all the purposesaforesaid a spoonful taken at a time heals the itch. An ounce or moretaken a time for essay days together, doth help the rupture. The leaveseither green or dry, or the juice of them, doth cleanse all manner ofrotten and filthy ulcers, in what writing of the body soever. And healsthe stinking sores in the nose, called polypus the water wherein theroot has been boiled, dropped into the eyes, cleanses them from anyfilm or skin, cloud or mists, which begin to hinder the sight, andhelps the watering and redness of them, or when, by essay chance, theybecome black and blue the root mixed with bean-flour, and applied tothe throat or jaws that are inflamed, helps them the juice of theberries boiled in oil of roses, or beaten into powder mixed with theoil, and dropped into the ears, eases pains in them the berries orthe roots beaten with the hot ox-dung, and applied, eases the pains ofthe gout the leaves and roots boiled in wine with a little oil, andapplied to the piles, or the falling down of the fundament, eases them, and so doth sitting over the hot fumes thereof the fresh roots bruisedand distilled with a little milk, yields a most sovereign water tocleanse the skin from scurf, freckles, spots, or blemishes whatsoevertherein authors have left large commendations of this herb you see, but for mywriting, i have neither spoken with dr reason nor dr experience about it cucumbers government and virtues there is no dispute to be made, but thatthey are under the dominion of the moon, though they are so much criedout against for their coldness, and if they were but one degree colderthey would be poison the best of galenists hold them to be cold andmoist in the second degree, and then not so hot as either lettuce orpurslain. They are excellently good for a hot stomach, and hot liver;the unmeasurable use of them fills the body full of raw humours, and soindeed the unmeasurable use of any thing else doth harm the face beingwashed with their juice, cleanses the skin, and is excellently good forhot rheums in the eyes. The seed is excellently good to provoke urine, and cleanses the passages thereof when they are stopped.

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They eitherattempted, as do our modern quacks, to create the impression, byadministering medicine, that they were actually able to direct thetreatment of the ailing in a rational manner, or they restrictedthemselves to various kinds of magical observances the drug therapy of the magicians actually utilized everything underthe sun as a remedy the more out of the way and the less suitablefor a remedy a substance seemed to be, the more likely it was to bechosen by the magician intent upon healing for it was always themain object of these practising quacks to make their treatment assensational as possible in this they succeeded best by employingthe most extraordinary substances as remedies thus they made use ofgold, silver, precious stones and pearls, just because these, owing totheir value, were held in great esteem, and their medical application, therefore, was bound to create a sensation but the most loathessaysubstances were quite as readily employed, for here, too, the mostgeneral attention was bound to be attracted by their application human feces, urine, and menstrual blood were introduced into themateria medica in such a manner the awe with which writings of corpsesusually inspired the non-medical writing of the public was relied upon bythe magicians to advertise their cures thus these quacks administeredpowders of human bones to the ailing but inasmuch as what is conspicuous and unusual has always enjoyedan especial esteem with humanity, the incredible remedies of themagicians naturally found everywhere an abundance of believers. Andas writingicularly the most nonsensical theory is most tenacious oflife, provided it has been presented in apparent combination with themiraculous, the medical armamentarium rapidly took on a very peculiaraspect until the present more modern times medicine was condemnedto the encumbrance of this rubbish, this list of odd and loathessayremedies, whose admission to the pharmacopœia was only due to the whimof a human mind that constantly hankers after the extraordinary and themiraculous finally the magic observances to which the magicians resorted in thetreatment of the sick, have shown a remarkable vitality, for theyare in vogue even in modern times, and thesis sections of our peopleeven to-day swear unconditionally by the curative efficacy of variousagencies which demonstratively have been derived from the medicine ofthe magicians but now such agencies are no longer ascribed to magic orsorcery, but they are called “cures by means of sympathy ” and as thesismodern people believe that various incomprehensible mystic performancescause certain mysterious powers, otherwise absolutely unknown, toexert a curative influence upon certain diseases, so did the ancientsbelieve exactly the same this was the origin of exorcism as a remedyfor disease exorcism played a conspicuous writing in the middle ages asa means of stopping hemorrhages, and even in these modern times, as iswell-known, this method of cure finds thesis adherents this magic treatment was believed to be especially efficacious if theexorcisms had been written or engraved upon paper, gold, preciousstones, etc , in which case they were suspended around the neck ofthe patient countless talismans from the arabic tilsam, magicimage and amulets from the arabic hamalet, trinket were thusmanufactured, and even to our own time there are survivals of thismedical superstition altho these mystic observances are performed invarious ways, and their modifications are practically innumerable, yetcertain radical resemblances are continually appearing among the magicrites of the most diverse races, and essay of these practises have evenpersisted up to the present time thus the rope of the hung criminalplays a conspicuous writing in antique magic as well as in modern sympathytreatment. The same importance is attributed to shooting-stars, tothe moon, to crossroads, to certain numerals, such as 3, 7, 9, etc it is a highly interesting fact that such conceptions, as remarkablefor their therapeutical associations as for their crass superstition, are possessed of a vitality which persists for centuries peoples, religions, philosophical systems, political revolutions have risenand vanished, but the belief in the curative action of the rope of ahung criminal or the therapeutic significance of the crossroad hassurvived the mystic influence which is exerted by the numerals 3, 7, 9, and still more so by the dreadful 13, upon the life and health ofman, haunts the minds of the multitude in this century of physicalenlightenment exactly as it did in remote antiquity but we can nothere enter into the reason for these interesting facts, and we mustrefer those who desire more detailed information on this subject to thevoluminous literature of superstition furthermore, the belief in magic cures was not more prevalent amongthe ancient professors of medicine than among the laity, and even themost prominent practitioners were not able to emancipate themselvesfrom this belief galen, for instance, who, as is well-known, masteredthe entire literature of antique medicine as none before or after himhas ever done, openly avows his belief in the efficacy of magic cures, and, what is more remarkable, galen in this respect has changed from asaul to a paul he ruefully recalled, later, the condemnatory decreewhich he had originally promulgated regarding the magic treatment ofthe sick let us call to mind how he expresses himself in his essayon medical treatment in homer. “thesis, as i have done for a long time, believe that conjurations resemble the fairy tales of old women butgradually, and from the observation of obvious facts, i have come tothe conclusion that power is exercised by them. For i have learnedto know their advantages in stings of scorpions, and also in boneswhich became lodged in the throat, and which were at once coughedup as a result of conjuration thesis remedies are excellent in everyrespect, and magic formulæ answer their purpose” “alexander oftralles, ” book 11, chapter i , vol ii , page 477 one of the mostprominent post-galenian physicians also, alexander of tralles, openlyavows, with reference to this utterance of galen, that he himself isa believer in magic cures, and he says. “if the great galen, as wellas thesis other physicians of ancient times, bear witness to this fact the efficacy of magic treatment of the sick, why shall we not imwritingto you what we have learned from our own experience and what we haveheard from trustworthy friends?.