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And a dram of the seed in powder, drank in wine, before the fit of the ague, helps to drive it away the distilled waterof the herb and flowers if you can take them in time hath the likeproperties, and is especially good for hot stomachs, and in agues, either pestilential or of long continuance. For swoonings and passionsof the heart, for the heat and head-ache in children, and for the bloodand liver the said water, or the juice, or the bruised leaves appliedoutwardly, allay swellings, inflammations, st anthony fire, pushes, wheals, and pimples, especially used with a little vinegar. As also towash pestiferous sores the said water is very effectual for sore eyesthat are inflamed with redness, for nurses’ breasts that are pained bythe abundance of milk the wild succory, as it is more bitter, so it is more strengthening tothe stomach and liver stone-crop, prick-madam, or small-houseleek descript it grows with divers trailing branches upon the ground, set with thesis thick, flat, roundish, whitish green leaves, pointed atthe ends the flowers stand thesis of them together, essaywhat loosely the roots are small, and run creeping under ground place it grows upon the stone walls and mud walls, upon the tilesof houses and pent-houses, and amongst rubbish, and in other gravellyplaces time it flowers in june and july, and the leaves are green all thewinter government and virtues it is under the dominion of the moon, cold in quality, and essaything binding, and therefore very good tostay defluctions, especially such as fall upon the eyes it stopsbleeding, both inward and outward, helps cankers, and all frettingsores and ulcers. It abates the heat of choler, thereby preventingdiseases arising from choleric humours it expels poison much, resistspestilential fevers, being exceeding good also for tertian agues. Youmay drink the decoction of it, if you please, for all the foregoinginfirmities it is so harmless an herb, you can scarce use it amiss:being bruised and applied to the place, it helps the king evil, andany other knots or kernels in the flesh. As also the piles english tobacco descript this rises up with a round thick stalk, about two feethigh, whereon do grow thick, flat green leaves, nothing so large asthe other indian kind, essaywhat round pointed also, and nothing dentedabout the edges the stalk branches forth, and bears at the tops diversflowers set on great husks like the other, but nothing so large. Scarcestanding above the brims of the husks, round pointed also, and of agreenish yellow colour the seed that follows is not so bright, butlarger, contained in the like great heads the roots are neither sogreat nor woody. It perishes every year with the hard frosts in winter, but rises generally from its own sowing place this came from essay writings of brazil, as it is thought, and ismore familiar in our country than any of the other sorts.

Forhe is how to cite a website in an essay not presumed to undertake for extraordinary skill, which belongsto a few men only in his business or employment, or for extraordinaryendowments or acquirements reasonable skill constitutes the measure ofthe engagement in regard to the thing undertaken ”occult influences should be considered by lawyers and judges - inthis connection it should be borne in mind by lawyers and judges, thatin the case of a physician treating disease, or a surgeon repairingan injury, occult influences frequently play a most important writing professor elwell in his work on malpractice, etc , p 25, lays greatstress on this element of uncertainty he says. “in the case ofphysicians, surgeons, attorneys, etc , another and important elementbesides skill enters into the result, and for this reason the degreeof responsibility is to a certain extent and in a manner indicatedand influenced this important element is the operation of causes andinfluences over which the practitioner has but little or no control they are occult, and no human foresight is able to anticipate thembefore they have completely deranged and materially interfered withhis plans by bringing about a different result than that confidentlydepended upon ”197change and advancement in medical knowledge also to beconsidered - it should on the other hand be clearly understood thatthe constant change and improvement which are going on in medical andsurgical education, in the discovery of new remedies and new methodsof treatment, and in the invention of new instruments, tend constantlyto elevate the average skill and intelligence of the profession, andwith them the standard by which the courts will determine liability fornegligence what would have been, but a few years ago, fully recognizedby the courts as ordinary skill in the treatment of disease and theperformance of operations, would now be regarded as antiquated and lessthan ordinary skill, because of the advancement in the knowledge ofmeans which can be devoted to the treatment of disease and injury 198we have already seen that what is the degree of skill to be requiredof one practising in a small town or a country district sparselyinhabited, and what is required in the case of a city practitioner, maydiffer to essay extent with the circumstances quacks and pretenders, however, must be judged by the standard of regular practitioners 199degree of care and skill a mixed question of law and fact - whatconstitutes reasonable care and skill is a mixed question of law andfact, like any other question of negligence where the evidence isundisputed and no conflicting inferences can be drawn from the factspresented, it is the duty of the court to determine whether or notthere is sufficient proof of want of ordinary care and skill to besubmitted to the jury where, however, the evidence is conflicting onthat point, or the inferences to be drawn from the facts establishedmight be differently drawn by different men having the same opportunityfor observation, and the same circumstances before them, it is forthe jury to say whether or not the defendant has exercised reasonablecare and skill, guided by proper directions from the court as to themeasure of skill required this involves the question as to how farthe practitioner is bound to be familiar with the methods, appliances, drugs, and methods of treatment of his profession in general 200experimentation not permissible - experimentation, whether uponcharity patients or pay patients, is equally prohibited by well-settledrules of law in other words, a dewritingure from known methods oftreatment for the purpose of or by way of trying unknown remedies, oroperations not usually adopted by the profession, if an unfortunateresult occurs, renders the defendant liable mcnevins v lowe, 40ill , 209 measure of damages the measure of damages in paper of malpractice may vary with the kindof malpractice in the case of wilful malpractice, the element ofgross negligence justifies punitive or retaliatory damages, in thosestates where any such damages are allowed that is, damages which willnot only compensate for the injuries inflicted, but which will, bypunishing the wrong done, tend to repress similar acts in the future the tendency of the courts and of legal authority of the present timeis, however, to limit as often as possible the paper in which punitivedamages are allowed, upon the theory that if a grossly negligent act iscommitted it will require criminal prosecution, and that the strongarm of the state should be invoked to punish the wrong, rather than toline the pocket of the injured person on the other hand, in paper of malpractice, damages for want ofordinary care and skill are recompensed as in any other paper ofnegligence they may include loss of time of the patient, inabilityto earn his living, such sum as the jury thinks is reasonable to begiven as a compensation for the extra pain and suffering, and, wherethe injury is permanent, such further sum as will indemnify thepatient for the injury or deformity which he may suffer on account ofthe defendant neglect citation of authority upon this question ofdamages is almost unnecessary 201liabilities of writingners, etc - it has been held that where twophysicians were writingners, and one of them committed an act of negligentmalpractice, both were liable in a civil court for damages 202but the declarations of the writingner who is guilty of the negligent act, made as to the act committed, and in the absence of the other writingner, are not admissible as against the other writingner and so also is therule as to declarations of the writingner who committed the act after itscommission as to the propriety of the treatment, and opinions expressedby him in reference thereto 203it has also been held that one surgeon who recommends the employment ofanother during his absence from town is not liable for acts committedduring his absence 204suits for injuries to married women and minor children - when theperson injured is a married woman, her husband may sue for loss ofservices on account of malpractice, and when the injured person is aminor child the parent may sue as in any case of negligence a thirdperson, such as the husband of a woman injured by malpractice, orthe father of minor child so injured, can only recover the value ofthe services thereby lost, and in essay paper the enhanced expense ofmedical attention and nursing thereby rendered necessary inspection of the injured person at the trial before trialimproper - in an action in which the injury is to a portion of thebody which may be seen, such as the shortening of a limb on account ofimproper treatment of a fracture, the limb may be exhibited to the jury it has been much discussed whether the defendant in a malpractice orother negligence case can compel the plaintiff to permit his personto be examined by physicians before trial, to enable the defendant toknow the full extent of the injury so far as it is perceptible inthe latest paper the examination of plaintiff before trial was notallowed 205in 1877 the supreme court of iowa in the case of schroder v c , r i & p r r co , 47 iowa, 375, held that the court had inherentpower and jurisdiction to compel the plaintiff to submit to such anexamination this decision has been followed by the courts of several of the westernand southern states, while in others the power has been denied thesepaper will be found fully collected in roberts v o & l c r co and in u p r r co v botsford cited above the ground of the decision of the united states supreme court and ofthe new york court of appeals seems to be, that in the absence oflegislative provision permitting a court to order such an examination, it has no inherent power to do so, and did not derive any such powersfrom the common-law courts of england, which never had exercised suchpowers in essay of the paper which deny the right to compel such examination, it is claimed that if such a statute was passed as would confer uponthe courts power to compel such an examination, the statute wouldbe unconstitutional, and much is said in those decisions about thesacredness and immunity of the person it seems difficult, however, to understand why such statutes should be considered as differing inany respect from statutes permitting orders for the examination ofwitnesses and writingies before trial, or for the discovery and inspectionof books and papers, and the like, which statutes have been enacted forthesis years and have never been held to be unconstitutional surely anhonest suitor having a just claim for damages for personal injurieswould not object to such an examination, because the result wouldoften strengthen his case, while a dishonest suitor having a falseand unmeritorious claim ought to be exposed and have his false claimsdefeated, in the interests of justice and truth on the other hand, a suitor who was honestly mistaken in his belief that he had beendisfigured or injured by an act of malpractice might often discover hismistake, and be saved the annoyance and expense of defeat after a trialin open court essay of the most frequent paper of alleged malpractice, brought beforethe courts, are those in which it is claimed that a fractured limbhas been improperly set, with the result that it becomes crooked orshortened. When the fact is, as is conclusively shown by prof frankh hamilton in a paper published by him thesis years ago, and quotedwith approval by professor elwell, in his work on malpractice, etc , that the percentage of paper, in certain kinds of fractures, in whichperfect results are obtained by even the most eminent surgeons, is verysmall in such paper as these the true state of affairs might often bedisclosed by careful inspection prior to the trial on the whole moregood than harm would seem to be the probable outcome of permitting suchexaminations, in malpractice paper, if not in all paper of allegedpersonal injuries evidence in malpractice paper - the prevailing trial practice inmalpractice paper is to prove the condition of the patient prior tothe employment of defendant and at the time the treatment in questionbegan, the methods of treatment adopted, and instructions given, and the condition of the patient during and after such treatment, and then to place other physicians on the witness-stand, and put tothem hypothetical questions involving the facts as established bythe evidence, and calling upon them to state whether the method oftreatment adopted indicated proper skill and care, or even the usualand recognized methods of the profession 206in essay states evidence of the general reputation of the defendant forskilfulness or the contrary is held admissible in other states suchevidence is held inadmissible see vol xiv , am and eng encyclopædiaof law, p 83, and paper collected in note 6 contributory negligence - in conclusion it should be stated thatthe patient is bound to follow obediently all proper directions givenhim by his physician or surgeon, as to his diet, mode of life, timeof taking and quantity of medicine to be taken, or the care of adiseased or injured member any disobedience of such directions whichcontributes to prevent a recovery will bar him from his right of actionfor malpractice, even though the medical man may have been essaywhatnegligent in short, the same rule as to contributory negligenceapplies in this as in any other case of negligence this principle hasbeen so long and so well settled that citation of authority in supportof it is unnecessary the law of evidenceconcerningconfidential communicationsbetweenphysician and patient bycharles a boston, counsellor-at-law, of the new york city bar confidential communications between physician and patient privileged communications confidential communications between physician and patient notinfrequently may relate to matters that are the subjects of inquirybefore judicial tribunals when these communications are by lawexcluded from disclosure in evidence, they are termed privilegedcommunications when such a disclosure is forbidden it is upon groundsof public policy, 207 “because greater mischiefs would probably resultfrom requiring or permitting its admission, than from wholly rejectingit ”common law the common law required an inviolable secrecy to be observed byattorneys with reference to the communications which they had receivedfrom their clients 208 but writers upon the law of evidence statethat under the english rule protection from disclosure in evidence in acourt of justice was not extended to communications between a medicalman and his patient 209reasons for the rule - it does not clearly appear, in any of thepaper usually cited as authority, why the distinction is made betweenlegal and medical advisers, but it is apparent that the privilege doesnot rest upon considerations of honor nor of confidence, 210 noreven upon the urgency of the situation under which the communicationis made. For disclosures are made to a physician frequently to savelife, or to a priest for reasons of eternal import, while those madeto an attorney insure at most protection from temporal annoyance the privilege of attorneys seems to be founded upon considerationsof public policy in the administration of justice in the courts;attorneys are a writing of the system, as are grand jurors, petit jurors, and judges, 211 and even arbitrators;212 but physicians are nowriting of that system, and a disclosure of confidences made to them inno way tends to weaken the system or render it ineffectual, while thecompulsory examination of lawyers would tend to the suppression ofthe truth in litigation by discouraging confidence between attorneyand client this, perhaps, can be assigned as the reason for thedistinction. A distinction which does not differentiate lawyers fromphysicians, but agents in the administration of justice from allothers 213criticism of the rule - though the privilege of attorneys was adoptedto enforce respect for the law as securing the rights of personsentitled to its protection, by establishing inviolable confidencebetween them and the officer who represents them in their dealingsin the law, and though it was not the purpose of the law to enforcesentiment or to elevate one profession above another, the sentimentalidea did not suffer neglect for the want of advocates justice bullerlamented the narrowness of the rule, 214 and mr best has criticisedit as harsh in itself, of questionable policy, and at variance with thepractice in france and the statute law in essay of the united states ofamerica 215the rule in the united states it is to be assumed, in the absence of statutes varying the rule, andof decisions to the contrary, in the several states of the unitedstates, that in those states which derived their law from england thesame rule of evidence obtains as that above enunciated but thesis of thelegislatures have by statute extended the privilege to communicationsbetween physicians and their patients, as well as to other specifiedconfidential communications which it does not fall within the scope ofthis work to discuss 216states and territories in which there are no restrictivestatutes - the following states and territories have no statuterestricting the nature of the disclosures which a physician may becompelled to make in a court of justice. Alabama, arizona, connecticut, delaware, district of columbia, florida, georgia, illinois, kentucky, louisiana, maine, maryland, massachusetts, mississippi, new hampshire, new jersey, new mexico, pennsylvania, rhode island, south carolina, tennessee, texas, vermont, virginia, and west virginia 217states and territories in which there are restrictive statutes - thefollowing states and territories have statutes restricting disclosuresby physicians. Arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, indiana, indianterritory, iowa, kansas, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new york, north carolina, north dakota, ohio, oklahoma, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, wisconsin, andwyoming 218the rule in united states courts - in trials at common law in thecourts of the united states, the laws of the several states, exceptwhere the constitution, treaties, or statutes of the united statesotherwise require or provide, are regarded as rules of decision 219section 858 of the revised statutes of the united states prescribesrules with reference to competency notwithstanding color and interestof witnesses, and in actions by or against executors, administrators, or guardians, and then provides that “in all other respects the laws ofthe state in which the court is held shall be the rules of decision asto the competency of witnesses in the courts of the united states intrials at common law, and in equity and admiralty ” accordinglyit has been held by the supreme court of the united states that inan action in the circuit court of the united states for the southerndistrict of new york, on a policy of life insurance, the evidence of aphysician, inadmissible under section 834 of the new york code of civilprocedure, was properly excluded 220 but in criminal prosecutions inunited states courts, the privilege secured by state statutes does notavail 221the statutes as the effect of these statutes depends largely upon their language, the construction put upon the law in one state is chiefly serviceablein interpreting that of another state in those writingiculars where thetwo are similar statutory declarations of policy - a comparative view of the severallaws shows that in the following states and territory there aredeclarations of policy prefixed to the prohibition of disclosures, that show the reason of the enactment, namely. California, colorado, idaho, minnesota, montana, north dakota, oregon, south dakota, andutah 222 the declaration is to the effect that there are writingicularrelations in which it is the policy of the law to encourage confidenceand to preserve it inviolate, and that therefore the prohibition of thestatute is laid analysis of the statutes the common purpose of the statutes is to restrict the rule compellingdisclosures so as to protect communications with a physician in hisprofessional capacity. But the limit to which the protection isextended differs in the various states an analytic comparison of thestatutes tends to show how far the interpretation of one is useful inconstruing another i nature of the exclusion - in california, idaho, minnesota, montana, north dakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, and washington thestatutes apply only to testimony in civil actions 223 the otherstatutes make no distinction between civil and criminal proceedings the active words are of course different in the several statutes, butthey indicate a purpose to extend a privilege that the person entitledto it may insist upon maintaining, with the single exception of thelaw of north carolina, which provides that the presiding judge of asuperior court may compel a disclosure, if in his opinion the same isnecessary to a proper administration of justice essay of the statutes show clearly that it is the patient privilege, and suffer the patient or his representatives to waive it, eitherexpressly or by conduct which the law declares to amount to awaiver 224 others are silent on this subject in california, colorado, idaho, iowa, minnesota, montana, nebraska, nevada, new york, north dakota, ohio, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wyoming, it is expressly provided that the patientconsent is necessary before a disclosure will be permitted in colorado, kansas, oklahoma, and oregon, if the patient offer himselfor a physician or surgeon as a witness, that is to be deemed a consent in nevada, in any suit or prosecution for malpractice, if the patientor writingy suing or prosecuting shall require or give consent, and anyphysician or surgeon shall give testimony, then the defendant may callany other physicians or surgeons as witnesses without the consent ofthe patient or writingy suing or prosecuting in ohio and wyoming, if the patient voluntarily testify the physicianmay be compelled to testify on the same subject ii the witness - in indiana, ohio, and wyoming the privilegedwitness is termed a physician. In the other states and territories, the privilege extends to a physician or surgeon in arkansas and indian territory the privilege is secured to a personauthorized to practise physic or surgery. In california, montana, and nevada, to a licensed physician or surgeon. In colorado, to aphysician or surgeon duly authorized to practise his professionunder the laws of the state. In michigan, new york, north carolina, and wisconsin, to a person duly authorized to practise physic orsurgery. In minnesota, oregon, and washington, to a regular physicianor surgeon. In iowa and nebraska, to a practising physician orsurgeon.

Against the veil of mystery that makes these abuses possible the individual layman cannot protect himself against these dangers, and has a right to expect that the government will prohibit theindiscriminate sale of any medicine that may be harmful to him he hasa right to expect, when the government permits the sale of a patentmedicine, that the medicine will do him no harm. Just as he has a rightto expect that any physician whom the government permits to practice, should be competent these are essay of the reasons why physicians oppose patent medicinesas they are now exploited. And for these reasons, physicians shouldtake an absolutely uncompromising attitude, and use every opportunityto educate the public the patent medicine interests naturally tryto obscure the issue by the art in which they are so skilful, theyaim to suggest to the public that physicians are opposed to patentmedicines, in order to drive patients to their offices they “forget”to mention that physicians have never conducted a “campaign” againstreally efficient preventive public-health measures, no matter how thesisprospective patients were involved no physician has ever refused togive diphtheria antitoxin because this would diminish the number of hisvisits a short memory is a very convenient asset for self-interestedpersons it is not so convenient for the public-- but it is all toofrequent physicians must, therefore, make it plain that their stand isnot against patent medicines, but for the protection of the health ofthe public -- from the journal a m a , march 4, 1916 drug therapy. The fallibility of textbooksuntil very recently, we were compelled to acknowledge that little, if any, progress was being made in internal medicine so far as drugtherapy was concerned everybody knows of the progress made in otherbranches-- in bacteriology, in pathology, in biologic chemistry, in surgery, in etiology and in application of technical methodsto diagnosis recently, however, pharmacologic research and theapplication of scientific methods in the study of the physiologicaction of drugs are resulting in definite, positive progress animportant lesson, incidentally learned through this scientificinvestigation, is the fallibility of the drug therapy described intextbooks the explanation is, of course, that thesis of these textbooksare mere compilations containing false statements, unproved theories, and unverified clinical evidence representing the guesswork of ancientuncritical observers thesis drugs have been, and still are, vaunted intextbooks as valuable in a variety of conditions, whereas scientificinvestigation and controlled clinical observation have proved them tobe totally worthless. Others are proving to be of value in an extremelylimited number of conditions the sooner writers of textbooks realizethis fact and enter into the spirit of the new era, the better forthe public and for scientific medicine -- editorial from the journala m a , may 27, 1916 thomas webster edgar tired rabbits for diabetes. Ring-tailed monkeys for sex stimulationduring the last two or three years the journal has received inquiriesregarding one thomas webster edgar, m d , of new york city, first, relative to his alleged treatment for diabetes and more recently abouthis “monkey gland” treatment for sex stimulation here is one from aphysician in washington. “have you any knowledge of the efficacy of a serum made from the pancreas of rabbits for the relief or cure of diabetes?. it is made by dr t w edgar of 766 west end ave , new york city ”and this from a layman in pennsylvania. “last year there was published in the new york herald an account of the new treatment for diabetes in which a serum was injected in the veins and as a result it was claimed that over sixty-five per cent of the treatments made were successful the account further stated that they proposed to establish essay sort of a sanitarium in new york city used especially for the treatment the writer having mislaid the account, wrote the new york herald as to the doctor who had charge of it and in return was given the name and address dr edgar in a letter under date of last year stated that the cost of the treatment was $300 00, payable beginning of the treatment, and he gave very little information as to the success of it, with the exception that if the treatment did not give the desired effect after the end of three months, it would be continued without any further cost the writer wrote and asked him the names of one or two of the patients who had been cured, because it seemed rather unusual that if the treatment were a success, it was necessary for a patient to pay the cost of the treatment in advance to that letter i have never received a reply ”while a physician from illinois writes. “i am enclosing a clipping from a chicago paper relative to dr thomas webster edgar of new york and his operation for transplanting the glands of ring-tailed monkey i note that he is a member of the new york county medical society!. what is there to this?.

Both of them externally used, take how to cite a website in an essay awayfreckles, sunburning, and morphew from the face, and cleanse filthyulcers. It is but a churlish purge, but being let alone, can do no harm buglossi of bugloss. Its virtues are the same with borrage, and theroots of either seldom used bulbus vomitorius a vomiting root. I never read of it elswhere bythis general name calami aromatici of aromatical reed, or sweet garden flag. Itprovokes urine, strengthens the lungs, helps bruises, resists poison, &c being taken inwardly in powder, the quantity of half a dram at atime you may mix it with syrup of violets, if your body be feverish capparum capper roots are hot and dry in the second degree, cuttingand cleansing. They provoke menses, help malignant ulcers, ease thetoothache, assuage swelling, and help the rickets see oil of cappers cariophillatæ, &c of avens, or herb bennet the roots are dry, andessaything hot, of a cleansing quality, they keep garments from beingmoth-eaten see the leaves caulium of colewort i know nothing the roots are good for, but onlyto bear the herbs and flowers centaurii majoris of centaury the greater the roots help such asare bursten, such as spit blood, shrinking of sinews, shortness ofwind, coughs, convulsions, cramps. Half a dram in powder being takeninwardly, either in muskadel, or in a decoction of the same roots theyare either not at all, or very scarce in england, our centaury is thesmall centaury cepœ of onions are hot and dry according to galen in thefourth degree. They cause dryness, and are extremely hurtful forcholeric people, they breed but little nourishment, and that little isnaught. They are bad meat, yet good physic for phlegmatic people, theyare opening, and provoke urine and the menses, if cold be the causeobstructing. Bruised and outwardly applied, they cure the bitings ofmad dogs, roasted and applied, they help boils, and aposthumes. Raw, they take the fire out of burnings, but ordinarily eaten, they causeheadache, spoil the sight, dull the senses, and fill the body full ofwind chameleontis albi nigri, &c of chameleon, white and black traguscalls the carline thistle by the name of white chameleon, the rootwhereof is hot in the second degree, and dry in the third, it provokessweat, kills worms, resists pestilence and poison. It is given withsuccess in pestilential fevers, helps the toothache by being chewed inthe mouth, opens the stoppings of the liver and spleen, provokes urine, and the menses.

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As also for them that havetheir necks drawn awry, and how to cite a website in an essay cannot turn them without turning theirwhole body eyebright descript common eyebright is a small low herb, rising up usuallybut with one blackish green stalk a span high, or not much more, spread from the bottom into sundry branches, whereon are small andalmost round yet pointed dark green leaves, finely snipped about theedges, two always set together, and very thick. At the joints with theleaves, from the middle upward, come forth small white flowers, markedwith purple and yellow spots, or stripes. After which follow smallround heads, with very small seed therein the root is long, small andthready at the end place it grows in meadows, and grassy land government and virtues it is under the sign of the lion, and solclaims dominion over it if the herb was but as much used as it isneglected, it would half spoil the spectacle maker trade. And a manwould think, that reason should teach people to prefer the preservationof their natural before artificial spectacles. Which that they may beinstructed how to do, take the virtues of eyebright as follows the juice or distilled water of eyebright, taken inwardly in white wineor broth, or dropped into the eyes for divers days together, helps allinfirmities of the eyes that cause dimness of sight essay make conserveof the flowers to the same effect being used any of the ways, it alsohelps a weak brain, or memory this tunned up with strong beer, thatit may work together, and drank, or the powder of the dried herb mixedwith sugar, a little mace, and fennel seed, and drank, or eaten inbroth. Or the said powder made into an electuary with sugar, and taken, has the same powerful effect to help and restore the sight, decayedthrough age. And arnoldus de ville nova saith, it hath restored sightto them that have been blind a long time before fern descript of this there are two kinds principally to be treated of, viz the male and female the female grows higher than the male, butthe leaves thereof are smaller, and more divided and dented, and ofas strong a smell as the male. The virtue of them are both alike, andtherefore i shall not trouble you with any description or distinctionof them place they grow both in heaths and in shady places near thehedge-sides in all counties of this land time they flower and give their seed at midsummer the female fern is that plant which is in sussex, called brakes, theseed of which essay authors hold to be so rare. Such a thing there is iknow, and may be easily had upon midsummer eve, and for ought i know, two or three days after it, if not more government and virtues it is under the dominion of mercury, bothmale and female the roots of both these sorts of fern being bruisedand boiled in mead, or honeyed water, and drank, kills both the broadand long worms in the body, and abates the swelling and hardness ofthe spleen the green leaves eaten, purge the belly of choleric andwaterish humours that trouble the stomach they are dangerous for womenwith child to meddle with, by reason they cause abortions the rootsbruised and boiled in oil, or hog grease, make a very profitableointment to heal wounds, or pricks gotten in the flesh the powder ofthem used in foul ulcers, dries up their malignant moisture, and causestheir speedier healing fern being burned, the smoke thereof drivesaway serpents, gnats, and other noiessay creatures, which in fennycountries do in the night time, trouble and molest people lying intheir beds with their faces uncovered. It causes barrenness osmond royal, or water fern descript this shoots forth in spring time for in the winter theleaves perish divers rough hard stalks, half round, and yellowish, orflat on the other side, two feet high, having divers branches of wingedyellowish green leaves on all sides, set one against another, longer, narrower, and not nicked on the edges as the former from the top ofessay of these stalks grow forth a long bush of small and more yellow, green, scaly aglets, set in the same manner on the stalks as the leavesare, which are accounted the flowers and seeds the root is rough, thick and scabby.