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But if the cord remainsfor essay time after death there may be hemorrhage, or if death does notoccur at once whether the ligature is removed or not it is impossibleto distinguish ante-mortem from post-mortem hemorrhage the parchment skin seen in hanging is seldom seen in strangulation neyding749 says that the dryness and induration called parchment skindepend mainly on the amount of excoriation of the skin, and this isgreater in hanging tardieu explains this frequency as being due to thefact that the constriction in hanging lasts a longer time liman hasseen the parchment skin in those strangled the violence used may cause ecchymoses and abrasions of the skin of theneck adjacent to the mark of the ligature the marks of very different constricting ligatures may be quitesimilar taylor750 mentions a case in which a soft silk handkerchiefwas used, and the appearance was the same as that of a narrow cord, dueto the tightness with which it was tied where a hard substance like a piece of coal or stone is inserted intothe ligature, usually then a soft cloth, and presses directly how to cite a song in an essay againstessay writing of the neck, there is usually a corresponding bruise marks of pressure by the thumb and fingers are usually on the frontof the neck, and either just above or below the larynx in thesis paperthese marks are only those of the finger-tips with essay scratches these marks may show definitely the probable size of the assaultinghand, and whether right or left marks of strangulation may disappear rapidly after the removal of theligature assailants usually constrict the neck much more violentlythan is sufficient to cause death marks of violence on the neck are, therefore, greater in strangulation than in hanging a great variety of external injuries other than those on the neckhave been found in the different paper reported where other formsof violence were used with few exceptions such additional injuriesindicate homicide external appearances due to asphyxia - a few of these have alreadybeen given under the caption “symptoms ” if death occurs quicklythere may not be any signs of asphyxia the general lividity whichcomes on in the second stage usually remains after death the facevaries in color from violet to black and may be swollen casper751says that the face has the appearance of any other corpse liman752found the face livid in only one of fourteen paper hofmann753 saysthat the cyanosis appears during the agony because of paralysis ofthe circulation and gravitation of blood the cyanosis of the face, projection of the eyes, and congestion of the conjunctivæ are due tothe expiratory effort these signs are also seen in fat persons whodo not die of strangulation tardieu754 mentions a dotted rednessor minute ecchymosis of the conjunctivæ and skin of face, neck, andchest as constant. But this cannot be considered characteristic, because it has been seen, though not so well marked, in death fromother causes it has been found in suffocation from compression ofthe chest and belly. And also where there is respiratory interferencein the prolonged efforts of tedious labor and in convulsions liman755 found it in those who were hung it is due, according tohofmann, 756 to increased blood pressure and consequent hemorrhages it is of importance as tending to show that there was stasis of bloodin the head and face during life liman757 found cyanosis in theconjunctivæ, lips, back of mouth, and in the muscles maschka758in 234 paper of asphyxia found capillary hemorrhages of the eyes andeyelids 87 times dastre and morat759 claim that in asphyxia the cutaneous circulationbecomes more active than in the normal state, while at the same timethe vessels of the abdominal cavity are contracted laffont760considers the mechanism of this peripheral dilatation post-mortem stainings hypostases are usually darker in strangulationthan in other forms of death they appear soon, as does alsoputrefaction, because of the quantity and fluidity of the blood signs of hemorrhage from the nose, eyes, and mouth may be visible;as also bloody froth from the mouth and nose chevers761 never sawbleeding from the ears in strangulation taylor762 states that dr geoghegan informed him of a case of suicidal strangulation by a ribbon;the violence was great, there was bleeding from the ear, and the drumwas found ruptured in this case the mark on the neck, which was deep, nearly disappeared after the ligature was removed taylor also sayswilde, of dublin, saw a case of rupture of drum and hemorrhage instrangulation pellier763 says that littré mentions a case of ruptureof tympanic membrane in strangulation by a cord zoufal and hofmannhave offered explanations of the occurrence case 35 the face usually shows pain and suffering. Although essaytimes thefeatures are calm in the latter case there may have been syncope the eyes are usually staring, prominent, and congested, and the pupilsdilated casper764 doubts their prominence budin and coyne765state that in asphyxia the dilation of the pupil progresses to amaximum and then convulsions occur ophthalmoscopic examination duringthe dyspnœa of asphyxia shows a lessened fulness of the retinal vessels the tongue is often swollen, dark, protruding, and essaytimes bitten maschka766 states that if the ligature lies above the hyoid bone, thetongue will be drawn backward.

Diseases of the kidney and bladder 46 diseases of the testicles 47 disturbances of menstruation. Sterility of women. Affections of the bladder and spleen 48 various kinds of diseases of the feet 49 dysmenorrhea.

In iowa, the waiver provided for is that of theperson in whose favor the prohibition is made. And in nebraska, ofthe writingy in whose favor the provision is enacted in indiana, the privilege extends beyond the death of the patient, andit may be waived by the writingy who may be said to stand in the place ofthe deceased and whose interests may be affected by the disclosure 290in michigan, what the patient may do in his lifetime, those whorepresent him after his death may also do for the protection ofthe interests which they claim under him 291 in missouri therepresentatives of the patient may waive;292 and where the disputeis between devisees and heirs at law all claiming under a deceasedpatient, either the devisees or heirs may call the attending physicianof the testator as a witness regarding information acquired by him inhis professional attendance 293 in nevada it has been said that theparents of a seven-year-old infant, may waive for the infant 294objections to the admission of privileged communications. When andby whom made - having considered who can waive the privilege, itis material to discuss also the question who may insist upon theenforcement of the law if the protection were only enforced on theclaim of privilege by the patient, the very object of the statuteswould be defeated in the large majority of instances because of theabsence of the patient and every one interested in his behalf toassert his right it rests, therefore, with any writingy to raise theobjection and assert the prohibition but it seems that the physicianhimself, unless a writingy, cannot make the objection 295 it seems tohave been thought in essay of the paper that the right to insist uponthe enforcement of the law is coupled with an interest derived fromthe patient this idea started from the language used in the earlypaper enforcing the privilege at the instance of those claiming underdeceased patients;296 and it led to essay confusion where the rightof representatives to waive the privilege was denied. But it seemsto be clear that the right to object differs from the right to waivein that the latter is necessarily and logically dependent upon therelation between the patient and his representative, while the formeris obviously suggested as the best method of enforcing the law inindiana it has been said that the statute gives to the representativeof a deceased patient the right to object;297 but that this is notby reason of the relationship appears from another case in the samestate, where on an application for a new trial the court voluntarilyrefused to grant one for newly discovered evidence disclosed to itby a physician affidavit, on the ground that if the patient shouldobject in the new trial the evidence would be excluded 298 in thisstate it has been held that the widow of the patient cannot object tothe disclosure, if his administrator with the will annexed waives theprivilege 299in michigan it has been said that the physician cannot avail himselfof the statute for his own benefit. But that was in a case where thecommunication was not really of the privileged class 300 in newyork, in proceedings to which a physician was a writingy an examinationof his books of account before trial has been refused on the ground ofprivilege, and for the same reason a motion to direct a physician toturn his books of account over to a receiver has been denied 301in montana it has been said that when the patient consents no one elsecan object to the reception of the physician testimony 302in new york it has been said that the benefits of the law are to bedispensed alike to those familiar with and those ignorant of itsexistence and applicability, and it is therefore no reason to refuseits enforcement, that the patient did not know that his communicationwas privileged 303but, as in other paper of the receipt of improper evidence, it wouldseem that the objection should be made at the time it is offered, andif the objection is not then made, it will not avail to raise it lateror on appeal 304 it should not be prematurely made 305 in newyork where in pursuance of a special feature of practice in probateproceedings, 306 certain witnesses are regarded as the surrogatewitnesses though produced at the instance of the contestant, and thecontestant, after giving notice that the evidence of physicians as suchwitnesses was material, refused to examine them, and the surrogaterequired the proponent to suggest a line of examination, it was heldthat it did not lie with the contestant to object to the physicians’testimony as privileged, because she had lost her right to object bygiving notice that the evidence of those witnesses on these points wasmaterial 307objection cannot be raised in the progress of an examination after theforbidden testimony has been in writing received without objection. Forthat would unjustly enable a writingy to open the door and get in all hedesired and then to close it to the disadvantage of his adversary. Whenthe door is once properly opened the examination may be continued untilit is complete, despite the objection of the writingy at whose instance itwas begun 308in indiana, where there was no objection, it was held that the evidenceshould not be withdrawn from the consideration of the jury or itsweight diminished by comments on its value as matter of law 309but when such evidence has already been admitted in the face ofobjection, it is not necessary for the writingy to object again, asnothing is waived by conforming with a rule already laid down 310where it is apparent that no harm is done to the objecting writingy by animproper ruling on the receipt of privileged communications, no weightwill be given to an exception to such ruling 311what constitutes a waiver of the privilege - the statutory provisionsas to what constitutes a waiver have been set forth above 312 incalifornia it has been held that cross-examination of the physicianby the patient, calling for privileged matter, is a waiver ofprivilege 313 in indiana it has been held that consent to disclosurecannot be inferred from the patient simply giving the name of hisfamily physician in applying for a policy of insurance on his life, and that a waiver in such an application should be evidenced by astipulation too plain to be misunderstood 314 and a physicianstatements of the cause of his patient death, furnished to aninsurance company, in pursuance of a stipulation of a policy thatsatisfactory proof of death shall be submitted to the company, are notrendered admissible by that stipulation 315it has also been held that consent to the evidence of one physicianis no consent that another physician may divulge confidentialcommunications;316 and that the physician cannot testify that hefound no evidence of injury on the examination of his patient, inorder to contradict her;317 the patient had already testified asto her condition and what the physician had done, but not as toanything said to her by her physician. She had expressly declinedto testify concerning communications except as to his prescriptionfor her injury, and without asking him to disprove her assertionsthe trial court permitted him to say that he had found no evidenceof injury. This was held to be error it has also been held that thetaking of a physician deposition and filing it, for the purposeof breaking the force of his testimony in a deposition taken by theopposite writingy, is no consent in itself to the reading of the otherwritingy deposition 318 but when, in an action against a physician formalpractice, the patient testifies as to the manner of treatment, thephysician is then at liberty to introduce the testimony of himself oranother physician as to the facts thus put in issue by the patient 319in iowa it has been held that the testimony of a patient regarding thecondition of his health is not a waiver of privilege, so as to allowhis opponent to introduce the testimony of his physician to contradicthim 320in michigan a physician has been allowed to contradict his patient asto the time when her trouble commenced, but on the ground that it hadnot been shown that the information was necessary to enable him toprescribe 321 but it has been held that waiver as to one physician isnot waiver as to another regarding a different time 322in missouri, the calling of a physician by the patient as a witnessto testify as to information acquired while attending, is awaiver 323 but offering one physician as a witness is not a waiverof the privilege with reference to another 324 an applicant forinsurance may, by an express waiver in his application, make anefficient waiver, binding upon any one claiming under the contract ofinsurance 325in nevada a waiver has been implied from the testimony of the patientand her mother, where the patient was an infant seven years ofage 326 and it was said that the parents of such an infant may makethe waiver in new york it has been held that reference to a family physicianwhen answering questions on an application for insurance, is not awaiver;327 nor is the presence of a third person, in aid of thepatient;328 nor is the bringing of an action for damages for aninjury;329 nor is the examination of the physician in a former trialby the opposing writingy;330 but where the ban of secrecy is onceremoved in an action and the information once lawfully made public, atthe instance of the patient, it cannot be restored, and the disclosuremay then be compelled in any subsequent action;331 it would seem, too, that a physician who becomes a witness to his patient lastwill and testament at the patient request is then subject to athorough examination on all points involving the patient testamentarycapacity 332where the patient testified herself and called an attending physicianto prove her physical condition, this was not a consent to theexamination of another attending physician, and it was said that theopposite writingy by tactics on cross-examination could not compel thepatient to abandon a privilege which she refused to waive 333 fish, j , in delivering the opinion of the court in the last-mentioned case, said of the operation of the statute, that it allows the patient touse the testimony of the attending physician if he thinks his evidencewill benefit his case, and to object and exclude it in case he thinksit will not benefit him. He may call to his aid the testimony of anyone whose views he approves and exclude that of another whose testimonymight tend to controvert that given with the consent of the patient;that in this case the excluded witness was the best witness and couldtell nothing else than the patient had disclosed if she had told thetruth and it would relate solely to what she and the other physicianhad described, but that the court could not consider whether thestatute tended to promote the cause of justice, and he distinguishedmckinney v grand street railroad company, 334 on the ground thatthere the consent had been that the same physician should disclose whathe knew, while here the waiver of the excluded physician testimonyhad been constantly withheld a decision which seems to be at variance with record v village ofsaratoga springs is treanor v manhattan railway company, 335 whereit was said that the patient cannot promulgate and uncover his maladiesand infirmities in court and keep his physician under obligations tosilence, and that he cannot, to mulct another in damages, inflame ajury with a false or exaggerated story of his injuries and sufferingsand preclude the physician from making a truthful statement of the case but where the patient testifies as to what passed between him and hisphysician, the physician may testify on the same subject, as a waiveris inferred from the circumstances. For the reason, that the patient, having gone into the privileged domain to get evidence on his ownbehalf, cannot prevent the other writingy from assailing such evidenceby the only testimony available, and the rule is no longer applicablewhen the patient himself pretends to give the circumstances of theprivileged interview 336 the requirement that a physician file witha board of health a certificate of the cause of death does not abrogatethe privilege in a judicial proceeding 337the evidence excluded “information ” in arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nevada, new york, north carolina, northdakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wisconsin theprivileged matter is characterized as information 338in arkansas it seems that the information must be a confidentialcommunication;339 but in the other states where it has beennecessary to construe the word it has received a broader interpretation in michigan information is not confined to confidentialcommunications made by the patient, but includes whatever in order toenable a physician to prescribe was disclosed to any of his senses andwhich in any way was brought to his knowledge for that purpose;340it covers a letter written to a physician, 341 and matters observedby him;342 but it does not include information acquired by a thirdperson. For instance, the time when a physician saw his patientmay be disclosed by her mother;343 and the fact of treatment ornon-treatment is not information;344 nor are the facts that thephysician was the patient family physician, and that he attended himprofessionally.

Ibid 45. 935 sept 23 1905. Ibid 46. 134 jan 13 1906;ibid 46. 290 jan 27 1906. Ibid 58. 280 jan 27 1912 long after the death of dr cyrus edson, the claim was made thatphenalgin was made under his direction and that it was his “discovery ”as a matter of fact, dr edson had favored the use of ammonol at onetime, and when the council exposed the false claims then being madefor phenalgin, the journal charged that a fraud was being perpetratedon the medical profession despite the exposure of the methods used inexploiting ammonol and phenalgin, one finds just as glaringly falsestatements made in the advertisements of phenalgin today as weremade in its unsavory past this would seem to indicate either thatphysicians have short memories or that they are strangely indifferentto the welfare of their patients, to their own reputations and to thegood name of medicine the new york medical journal of dec 22, 1917, contained anadvertisement of phenalgin-- it has been running for months-- from whichthe following is quoted. “for the relief of pain the ‘logical supplanter of opium and other habit-forming drugs’ is phenalgin no matter how severe or where located pain is promptly and satisfactorily controlled by this effective anodyne-- and without disturbing the digestion, suppressing the secretions, causing constipation or inducing a drug habit “this is why phenalgin has superseded opium and its derivatives for relieving headaches, rheumatism, gout, la grippe, lumbago, neuralgia, disorders of the female, dysmenorrhea, and painful conditions generally to thousands of physicians phenalgin ‘is the one dependable analgesic-- the logical supplanter of opium ’”if we are to suppose that the composition of phenalgin is todayessentially the same as when it was examined, the claims just quotedare obviously false for, of course, such a mixture must have theproperties of acetanilid with all of its drawbacks and limitations we may contrast the statements made in the advertisement just quotedwith those made in bulletin 126 of the bureau of chemistry of theu s dewritingment of agriculture this bulletin on “the harmfuleffects of acetanilid, antipyrin and phenacetin” summarizes thereplies received from 400 physicians to whom a questionnaire had beensent the information thus gained was tabulated and the figures thatfollow are from these tables there were reported no fewer than 614paper of poisoning by acetanilid with 16 deaths and 112 paper of itshabitual use the larger number of paper of poisoning followed theadministration of the drug, by physicians, in doses larger than thosenow regarded as fairly safe this large number reported by only 400physicians indicated an excessively large number in the whole country since the questionnaire was sent to nearly a thousand physicians, ofwhom about 500 failed to reply, it may be assumed that had it been sentto the entire 130, 000 physicians in the country, at least 75, 000 paperof poisoning would have been reported prior to the passage of the federal food and drugs act the “purefood law” thesis nostrum makers had declared that their preparationscontained no acetanilid when that law went into effect, essay of thesemanufacturers triumphantly pointed to the fact that they were stillable to make the same claim without conflicting with the requirementsof the law this was accomplished in fact by changing the formula andsubstituting acetphenetidin phenacetin for the acetanilid whileacetphenetidin is essaywhat less toxic than acetanilid, bulk for bulk, the toxicity and therapeutic activity of the two drugs are nearlyproportional the claim made by thesis proprietary medicine manufacturers that they are“strictly ethical” because they advertise only to physicians is mereverbal camouflage there may be no more certain way of insuring thecontinued use of a nostrum by the public than to have it prescribed byphysicians. And none know this better than the makers of nostrums aproprietary individuality is obtained by giving essay special form tothe tablets and package or a special coloring to the capsules “specify‘phenalgin pink top capsules’” so as to indicate the identity of theproducts in such a way that the patient may in the future procure themwithout the advice or warning of the physician when a proprietarypreparation with the name or initials stamped on it or attached toit is prescribed, the patient immediately is aware of the fact, andhis respect for the physician intelligence and wisdom is naturallylessened the physician should never place such dangerous drugs as acetanilid andacetphenetidin, or ready made mixtures of them, in the hands of thepatient in such a way that they can be employed without his supervisionor control he should never prescribe more than is needed at the timeand should not form the habit of using fixed doses or combinationsof drugs without a special reference to the writingicular needs of theindividual certain forms of headache yield more readily to a mixture of caffeinand acetanilid or caffein and acetphenetidin than to either acetanilidor acetphenetidin alone when the physician wishes to prescribe sucha mixture he may combine 1 grain of caffein or 2 grains of citratedcaffein with 3 grains of acetanilid or 4 grains of acetphenetidin ina powder or capsule under supervision such a dose may be repeatedat intervals of from two to four hours if necessary to control pain it is necessary to remember, however, that when small doses fail togive relief, increase in the dose is useless this fact is especiallyimportant, and disregard or ignorance of it has been responsible forthesis paper of poisoning further, it should be remembered that while itwas taught for thesis years that the admixture of caffein with acetanilidlessened the effect of the latter drug on the heart, hale has shownthat this is not the case and such mixtures must be used with specialcaution -- from the journal a m a , feb 2, 1918 article vi fellows’ syrup, and other preparations of the hypophosphiteswe hope that it is clear to those who have read the several articlesof this series that their purpose is to present evidence that willenable the reader to form a correct estimate of the literatureemployed in the exploitation of various nostrums the distinctionbetween mere assertion-- however plausible, and from however eminentan authority-- and evidence should again be emphasized satisfactoryevidence rests on careful observation by those who are capable ofaccurately determining to what extent any changes that may be observedare due to the therapeutic agent employed and not mere accompanimentsof such treatment when the council on pharmacy and chemistry was organized in 1905, the greater writing of the literature of the nostrums was so palpablymisleading, the statements often so ludicrously false, that it was onlynecessary to call attention to this fact to have those claims collapse as a result of the council work, the exploiters of worthless nostrumshave developed a greater degree of shrewdness in avoiding the easilyexploded falsehoods this has made it increasingly difficult to pointout the exact statements on which thesis of the false claims now rest, even though the exploitation as a whole is as inherently dishonest asbefore if a nostrum is worthless, any exploitation must be false andmisleading in effect, even though not one single false direct statementis made a platitude may be given an appearance of importance if uttered in animpressive manner, and it may be employed to suggest far more than itcategorically affirms these two facts are appreciated by thesis nostrumexploiters and we find that they have adopted the impressive manner tosecure attention, and the platitude to suggest far more than they coulddefend in direct statement thus we have the “lie with circumstance ” fellows’ syrupa full page advertisement, which has been appearing regularly forabout a year and which must represent a good deal of money, is used togive an appearance of importance to a few words which, if printed inordinary type, would either pass wholly unnoticed or would lead one toassume that essaything essential to the full meaning had been omitted the statement, in full reads. “fellows’ syrup differs from other preparations of the hypophosphites leading clinicians in all writings of the world have long recognized this important fact have you?. to insure results, prescribe the genuine ℞ syr hypophos comp fellows’ reject cheap and inefficient substitutes reject preparations ‘just as good ’”the only direct statement contained in the advertisement is to theeffect that thesis clinicians have observed that fellows’ syrup and otherpreparations of the hypophosphites are not alike in truth, fellows’is not like the better preparations of this type, since after standingit contains a muddy looking deposit that any pharmaceutical tyro wouldbe ashamed of technically, then, the statement is true, but it ishardly credible that the manufacturer is paying for an entire page in amedical journal to make this statement without any attempt to suggestessaything else the advertising pages of six medical journals were examined in theorder in which they chanced to come to hand in five of these, theentire advertisement of fellows’ syrup was in the words just quoted;not a single word more in one there was the further statement. “not a new-born prodigy or an untried experiment, but a remedy whose usefulness has been fully demonstrated during half a century of clinical application ”these advertisements show that the exploiters of fellows’ syrup arespending a great deal of money to induce physicians to prescribe thepreparation, and it is equally evident that they wish to convey theimpression that the preparation has essay therapeutic value since wefind nothing directly false, in the first mentioned advertisement atleast, we must take the evident intent for consideration and determinewhat therapeutic value, if any, this preparation has, and whether it isadvisable for physicians to employ it in any case the preparation, according to the statement just cited, has been inuse for fifty years as the exploiter of any preparation cites themost convincing evidence in his possession in support of his views, this claim may be assumed to be the strongest available, and if thisevidence fails we must reject the contention as not proved herewe face a dilemma, for examination of the literature used in theexploitation of fellows’ syrup fails to disclose any evidence of thekind that we have described as satisfactory. And we are, therefore, forced to conclude that none has ever been found by this it is notto be implied that no reputable physician has ever reported favorablyconcerning the therapeutic effects of this preparation it is quitepossible that an extensive literature of that sort might be found ifone examined the older medical journals but the day has passed whenevery improvement that follows the administration of a preparation isblindly attributed to the drug in question clinical research today isfar more exacting we will assume that the reader who has investigated the question withan open mind will have come to the decision that the contention thatfellows’ syrup is of especial therapeutic value is not proved we mightrest with that assumption and ask the clinician whether he is preparedto use a nostrum that has been before the medical profession for halfa century without any satisfactory evidence having been gained thatit possesses therapeutic value we might ask him whether he would bewilling to tell his patients that he was prescribing such a nostrumfor them in the face of the absence of any such evidence of its value the inertness of the hypophosphitesbut we prefer to go even further and show him that not only is therean entire absence of any evidence of its therapeutic value so far aswe have been able to learn, but in addition there is an abundance ofevidence that the hypophosphites are devoid of any such therapeuticeffect as they were formerly reputed to have, and that, in fact, they are, so far as any effect based on their phosphorus content isconcerned, singularly inert while we have thus far taken the fellows’ preparation as the subjectof the discussion, we may take a broader view and examine the subjectof the hypophosphites in general, and the substitutes containingphosphorus that have been introduced from time to time it hardly needsto be said that if the hypophosphites are without therapeutic value, itis impossible to give them value by combining them in a muddy-looking, ill-made preparation such as fellows’ syrup such evidence wassubmitted to the medical profession in a report of the council onpharmacy and chemistry j a m a 67:760 sept 2 1916. And wewould strongly advise any one who is disposed to act on the suggestioncontained in the advertisements of fellows’, and other hypophosphitepreparations, to read that report in full and to think the matter overbefore prescribing one of these nostrums quoting briefly from thereport in question. “although the overwhelming weight of evidence was against the probability that the hypophosphite preparations are of value as therapeutic agents, the council thought it well to investigate the subject dr w mckim marriott of baltimore was therefore requested to review the evidence for and against the therapeutic usefulness of the hypophosphites and to conduct such experiments as seemed necessary ”the council was not content to rest on the mere absence of evidencefor the value of these preparations or any one of them, but soughtto obtain evidence that would fulfil the conditions mentioned above, and in pursuance of this plan it secured the cooperation of a trainedinvestigator, one who would work under the best of conditions forlearning the truth the results of dr marriott investigation werepublished in the journal, feb 12, 1916, p 486, and should be read byeveryone who has any interest in the problem lest essay of our readersmay fail to refer to the original of marriott paper, we will quotebriefly from it. “none of the subjects of the experiment experienced any effect whatsoever from the administration of the drug almost all of the ingested hypophosphite is eliminated unchanged “these experiments forbes demonstrate conclusively that the hypophosphites possess no specific value as a source of phosphorus for the body it is doubtful if there are any conditions in which the body suffers from lack of phosphorus even should such conditions exist, phosphorus, in the form that it occurs in the ordinary foods, or as phosphates, is more efficient in supplying the deficit than hypophosphites that must be oxidized before utilization and which are only about 15 per cent oxidized if at all for example, half a glass of milk contains more available phosphorus than three large doses of hypophosphites of 15 grains each, as great a dosage as is usually given “what then, is the therapeutic value of hypophosphites?. there is no reliable evidence that they exert a physiologic effect. It has not been demonstrated that they influence any pathologic process.

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Iodized lime, 8 grs. Menthol, 1-4 grs. Aromatic syrup yerba santa, 60 minims ”it is said to be. “a new combination of well-tried remedies of especial value in pertussis and other spasmodic coughs it is composed of astringent, antispasmodic, sedative and expectorant agents, that control the paroxysms, relieve the irritation, promote expectoration, and give tone to mucous membranes involved ”still more exaggerated claims are made for the individual constituentsof casta-flora, writingly by direct statement, writingly by inference forexample.