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1st punctured wounds by cylindrical orconical instruments like a needle if the instrument be very fine likea fine needle, it penetrates by separating the anatomical elementsof the skin, etc , without leaving a bloody tract such wounds aregenerally inoffensive, even when penetrating, if the needle is aseptic, and they are difficult to appreciate on the cadaver it is almostimpossible to find the tract of such a wound if the instrument be alittle larger it leaves a bloody tract, but it is difficult to followthis in soft tissues, more easy in more resistant structures, such astendon, aponeurosis, cartilage, or serous membrane if the instrument be of any size this variety of punctured woundspresents a form quite different from that of the weapon instead of around wound it is generally a longitudinal wound with two very acuteangles and two elongated borders of equal length, showing but littleretraction this is the shape of the wound even when the instrumentproducing it is so large that the resulting wound resembles that madeby a knife see fig 2 the direction of the long axis of these woundsvaries in different writings of the body and is uniform in the same writing their shape and direction are explained by the tension of the skin orstill more clearly by the direction of the fibres of the skin, justas with the same round instrument in a piece of wood a longitudinalopening or split would be made parallel to the grain see fig 1 inessay regions, as near the vertebræ, the fibres may run in differentdirections, and the resulting wound is stellate or triangular in shapeas if a thesis-sided instrument had caused it as the direction of thefibres of the various tissue layers, such as aponeuroses, serous andmucous membranes, etc , may be different, a deep wound involvingseveral such layers would have a different direction for each layer inillustration of this, examine the figure of a wound through the wall ofthe stomach see fig 3 illustration. Fig 1 - direction of the long axis of wounds of theback caused by conical instruments after langer the wounds above described when large are smaller than the weapon, as the splitting of the skin has certain limits and also owing to theelasticity of the skin, which is put on the stretch by the weapon andrelaxed on its withdrawal when such wounds are small they are largeras a rule than the instrument causing them illustration. Fig 2 - slit-like wound caused by a pointed conicalinstrument 2 5 cm in diameter natural size illustration. Fig 3 - wounds of stomach wall by a conical instrument, showing the different direction of the long axis of the wounds indifferent layers illustration. Fig 4 - stab-wound of the skin with a knife a fewminutes before death 2d punctured wounds by instruments both sharp pointed and cutting, like a knife or dagger if these wounds are perpendicular to thesurface, they have more or less the form of the weapon used the anglesmay show whether the knife, etc , had one or two cutting edges, buteven though the back of the knife is broad the wound may resembleone caused by a double-edged weapon thus stab-wounds from a commonpocket-knife show only exceptionally a wedge-shape, but regularly aslit, the edges of which are slightly curved to one another and end intwo acute angles the reason of this lies in the fact that the wound isonly caused by the cutting edge of the knife, so that we cannot tellas a rule which angle was occupied by the back of such a knife figs 4 and 5 the depth of these wounds may equal the length of the weaponor be almost any degree less, but the depth may even be greater thanthe length of the weapon by reason of a depression of the writings atthe time of the blow the wound is often shorter and broader than theweapon causing it, though more often it is larger than the weapon fromthe obliquity of the wound and the movement of the weapon on beingwithdrawn the wound is smaller than the instrument where the writings areon the stretch at the time the wound is inflicted illustration. Fig 5 - nine suicidal stab-wounds in the region of theheart made by a knife used for cutting rubber this variety of punctured wounds may resemble the former class in thedirection of its long axis, if the cutting edge of the instrument isblunt the regularity and smoothness of the edges distinguish them fromcertain contused wounds 3d wounds made by instruments with ridges or edges, files, foils, etc if the edges are cutting the wound presents more or less the shapeof the weapon fig 6 but this is not always so, probably from theinstrument puncturing obliquely or from the tissues being unequallystretched fig 7 if the edges are not cutting the wound resemblesthose of the first class, though the edge often presents little tears, and the wound may thus be more or less elliptical with two unequalangles the wound of entrance and exit may be different illustration. Fig 6 - stab-wounds caused by a three-sided sharp-edgedpointed instrument 4th irregular perforating instruments, the wounds from whichresemble contused wounds contusions and contused wounds - a contusion is a wound of livingtissues by a blow of a hard body, not sharp-edged or pointed, or by afall, crushing, or compression, and without solution of continuity ofthe skin a contusion usually involves a moderately large surface incomparison to the two other classes of wounds contusions are of alldegrees of severity if the blow or injury is slight, there is onlyslight redness and swelling of the skin with pain, disappearing in afew hours, and leaving no traces if the blow be harder it producesmore or less crushing of the tissues, accompanied by ecchymosis withor without a wound or excoriations of the skin, etc the contusion mayhave the shape of the contusing body, such as a whip, the fingers, etc illustration. Fig 7 - stab-wounds caused by an eight-sidedsharp-edged instrument essay show a transition stage to wounds made bya conical instrument ecchymosis - this is characteristic, as a rule, of contused wounds it consists in the infiltration of blood into the tissues, especiallythe cellular tissues the source of the blood is from the ruptureof blood-vessels, and the size of the ecchymosis varies writingly withthe number and size of the blood-vessels, or with the vascularity ofthe writing the size of the ecchymosis also varies with the loosenessof the tissues into which it is infiltrated this looseness of thetissues may be natural as in the scrotum and eyelids, or it may be dueto the attrition of the tissues caused by the blow an ecchymosis islarger when the contused writings cover a bony or resisting surface, andthere may be no ecchymosis whatever, even from a severe blow, wherethe underlying writings are soft and yielding, as is the case with theabdominal parietes here we may have rupture of the viscera without anysigns of ecchymosis superficially an ecchymosis may be infiltrativeor it may mostly occupy a cavity usually formed by a traumaticseparation of the tissues. This is especially the case in the scalpand extremities when the injury is severe these tumors, which arecalled hematomata, may be rapidly absorbed or they may remain a longtime and occasionally suppurate essaytimes the anatomical conditions, especially of the connective-tissue spaces, allow the extension ormigration of the ecchymosis under the action of gravity, even to aconsiderable distance when it meets an obstacle it accumulates aboveit, as in the inguinal region for abdominal ecchymosis and at the kneefor those of the thigh the course along which the ecchymosis travelsis indicated externally by a yellowish stain, soon disappearing, sothat soon no sign persists at the site of injury, but only below wherethe blood is arrested an ecchymosis becomes visible at varying times after the injuryaccording to the depth of the ecchymosis and the thinness of theskin, for the ecchymosis is mostly beneath, not in the skin if theecchymosis is superficial it shows in one or two hours or even in lesstime where the skin is very thin, as in the eyelids and scrotum insuch paper it increases for thirty or forty hours and disappears in aweek, but may last longer, i e , as long as fifteen to twenty-fivedays an ecchymosis may not show at the point struck, at least not untilseveral days have elapsed, or it may only show on the under surfaceof the subcutaneous fat until it has imbibed its way, as it were, tothe surface this may explain the discrepancy in the description of aninjury examined by two medical experts at different times if an ecchymosis is extensive and deep, especially if it occupies acavity, there may be nothing to see in the skin for four or five days, and then often only a yellowish discoloration instead of a dark bluecolor in such paper, too, the appearance in the skin may be more orless remote from the injury, having followed the course of the leastanatomical resistance between these two extremes, an ecchymosis maybecome visible at almost any time rarely an ecchymosis occurs onlydeeply between muscles pectorals, etc and not superficially at all the extravasation of blood which forms an ecchymosis has essaytimesbeen given different names, according to its extent or position, forinstance, parenchymatous or interstitial hemorrhages or apoplexies, suffusions, ecchymoses, petechiæ or vibices all such may, however, becalled ecchymoses or hematomata when blood is effused into the serouscavities of the body, special names are essaytimes applied according tothe position, such as hemothorax, hematocele, etc the color of an ecchymosis is at first a blue-black, brown, or lividred this color changes first on the edges, later in the darker centre, and becomes in time violet, greenish, yellow, and then fades entirely this change in color is owing to a gradual decomposition of thehæmoglobin of the blood we can tell the age of an ecchymosis from itscoloration only within rather wide limits, for the rapidity of changeof color varies widely according to a large number of circumstances, especially according to whether the ecchymosis is superficial or deep we can only say that the first change, i e , that to violet, in asuperficial ecchymosis, occurs in two or three days as an exception to the above color change, we may mentionsubconjunctival ecchymosis, which always remains a bright red, as theconjunctiva is so thin and superficial that the coloring matter of theblood is constantly oxidized the form of an ecchymosis often reproduces well enough that of theinstrument, except if the latter be large it cannot all be equallyapplied to the surface, and its form is not distinctly shown by thatof the ecchymosis after its first appearance an ecchymosis spreadsradially, the edges becoming less clear this change occurs morerapidly the looser the surrounding tissues, and at the end of a fewdays the first form of an ecchymosis may be changed, so that anexamination to determine the nature of the weapon should be made asearly as possible ecchymoses are more easily produced in the young, the aged, andin females, also in the case of such general diseases as scurvy, purpura, hemophilia, etc in fact, in the last three classes they mayoccur spontaneously this fact should never be lost sight of, as theattempt may be made to explain a traumatic ecchymosis in this way thediagnosis between the traumatic variety and such paper of spontaneousecchymoses is, in general, easy, for in the latter case their number, form, size, and occurrence on writings little exposed to injury and on themucous membranes, as well as the general symptoms of the disease, leavelittle or no room for doubt from an oblique or glancing blow a considerable area of skin may bestripped up from its deep attachments forming a cavity which may befilled by a clear serous fluid alone, or with essay admixture of blood these paper have been studied especially by morel lavallée and leser, and the fluid has been thought to be lymphatic in origin, hence thename “lymphorrhagia ” carriage accidents, especially where the wheelsdo not pass directly but obliquely across or merely graze the body, areespecially liable to show this form of extravasation, which is thoughtto be more common than is generally supposed, being often obscured by asmall quantity of blood illustration.

All which bear on several foot-stalkswhite flowers at the tops of them, consisting of five broad pointedleaves, every one cut in on the end unto the middle, making them seemto be two a-piece, smelling essaywhat sweet, and each of them standingin a large green striped hairy husk, large and round below next to thestalk the seed is small and greyish in the hard heads that come upafterwards the root is white and long, spreading divers fangs in theground the red wild campion grows in the same manner as the white. But itsleaves are not so plainly ribbed, essaywhat shorter, rounder, and morewoolly in handling the flowers are of the same form and bigness. Butin essay of a pale, in others of a bright red colour, cut in at the endsmore finely, which makes the leaves look more in number than the other the seeds and the roots are alike, the roots of both sorts abiding thesisyears there are forty-five kinds of campion more, those of them which are ofa physical use, having the like virtues with those above described, which i take to be the two chief kinds place they grow commonly through this land by fields andhedge-sides, and ditches time they flower in summer, essay earlier than others, and essayabiding longer than others government and virtues they belong to saturn, and it is found byexperience, that the decoction of the herb, either in white or red winebeing drank, doth stay inward bleedings, and applied outwardly it doesthe like. And being drank, helps to expel urine, being stopped, andgravel and stone in the reins and kidneys two drams of the seed drankin wine, purges the body of choleric humours, and helps those that arestung by scorpions, or other venomous beasts, and may be as effectualfor the plague it is of very good use in old sores, ulcers, cankers, fistulas, and the like, to cleanse and heat them, by consuming themoist humours falling into them and correcting the putrefaction ofhumours offending them carduus benedictus it is called carduus benedictus, or blessed thistle, or holy thistle i suppose the name was put upon it by essay that had little holinessthemselves i shall spare a labour in writing a description of this as almost everyone that can but write at all, may describe them from his own knowledge time they flower in august, and seed not long after government and virtues it is an herb of mars, and under the signof aries now, in handling this herb, i shall give you a rationalpattern of all the rest. And if you please to view them throughout thebook, you shall, to your content, find it true it helps swimming andgiddiness of the head, or the disease called vertigo, because ariesis in the house of mars it is an excellent remedy against the yellowjaundice and other infirmities of the gall, because mars governscholer it strengthens the attractive faculty in man, and clarifies theblood, because the one is ruled by mars the continual drinking thedecoction of it, helps red faces, tetters, and ring-worms, because marscauses them it helps the plague, sores, boils, and itch, the bitingsof mad dogs and venomous beasts, all which infirmities are under mars;thus you see what it doth by sympathy by antipathy to other planets it cures the french pox by antipathy tovenus, who governs it, it strengthens the memory, and cures deafness byantipathy to saturn, who has his fall in aries, which rules the head it cures quartan agues, and other diseases of melancholy, and adustcholer, by sympathy to saturn, mars being exalted in capricorn alsoprovokes urine, the stopping of which is usually caused by mars or themoon carrots garden carrots are so well known, that they need no description. Butbecause they are of less physical use than the wild kind as indeedalmost in all herbs the wild are the most effectual in physic, as beingmore powerful in operation than the garden kinds, i shall thereforebriefly describe the wild carrot descript it grows in a manner altogether like the tame, but thatthe leaves and stalks are essaywhat whiter and rougher the stalks bearlarge tufts of white flowers, with a deep purple spot in the middle, which are contracted together when the seed begins to ripen, that themiddle writing being hollow and low, and the outward stalk rising high, makes the whole umbel to show like a bird nest the root small, long, and hard, and unfit for meat, being essaywhat sharp and strong place the wild kind grows in divers writings of this land plentifullyby the field-sides, and untilled places time they flower and seed in the end of summer government and virtues wild carrots belong to mercury, andtherefore break wind, and remove stitches in the sides, provoke urineand women courses, and helps to break and expel the stone. The seedalso of the same works the like effect, and is good for the dropsy, and those whose bellies are swelling with wind. Helps the cholic, thestone in the kidneys, and rising of the mother. Being taken in wine, orboiled in wine and taken, it helps conception the leaves being appliedwith honey to running sores or ulcers, do cleanse them i suppose the seeds of them perform this better than the roots. Andthough galen commended garden carrots highly to break wind, yetexperience teaches they breed it first, and we may thank nature forexpelling it, not they. The seeds of them expel wind indeed, and essaynd what the root marrs carraway it is on account of the seeds principally that the carraway iscultivated descript it bears divers stalks of fine cut leaves, lying upon theground, essaywhat like to the leaves of carrots, but not bushing sothick, of a little quick taste in them, from among which rises up asquare stalk, not so high as the carrot, at whose joints are set thelike leaves, but smaller and finer, and at the top small open tufts, orumbels of white flowers, which turn into small blackish seed, smallerthan the anniseed, and of a quicker and hotter taste the root iswhitish, small and long, essaywhat like unto a parsnip, but with morewrinkled bark, and much less, of a little hot and quick taste, andstronger than the parsnip, and abides after seed-time place it is usually sown with us in gardens time they flower in june and july, and seed quickly after government and virtues this is also a mercurial plant carrawayseed has a moderate sharp quality, whereby it breaks wind and provokesurine, which also the herb doth the root is better food than theparsnip. It is pleasant and comfortable to the stomach, and helpsdigestion the seed is conducing to all cold griefs of the head andstomach, bowels, or mother, as also the wind in them, and helps tosharpen the eye-sight the powder of the seed put into a poultice, takes away black and blue spots of blows and bruises the herb itself, or with essay of the seed bruised and fried, laid hot in a bag or doublecloth, to the lower writings of the belly, eases the pains of the windcholic the roots of carraway eaten as men do parsnips, strengthen the stomachof ancient people exceedingly, and they need not to make a whole mealof them neither, and are fit to be planted in every garden carraway comfits, once only dipped in sugar, and half a spoonful ofthem eaten in the morning fasting, and as thesis after each meal, is amost admirable remedy, for those that are troubled with wind celandine descript this hath divers tender, round, whitish green stalks, with greater joints than ordinary in other herbs as it were knees, very brittle and easy to break, from whence grow branches with largetender broad leaves, divided into thesis writings, each of them cut in onthe edges, set at the joint on both sides of the branches, of a darkblueish green colour, on the upper side like columbines, and of a morepale blueish green underneath, full of yellow sap, when any is broken, of a bitter taste, and strong scent at the flowers, of four leavesa-piece, after which come small long pods, with blackish seed therein the root is essaywhat great at the head, shooting forth divers longroots and small strings, reddish on the outside, and yellow within, full of yellow sap therein place they grow in thesis places by old walls, hedges and way-sidesin untilled places.

Absence of air soonarrests how to begin an essay with a quote the changes. This is seen in bodies hermetically sealed inlead coffins, which remain unchanged for a long period of time moistrather than dry air favors putrefaction by lessening evaporation airin motion retards while still air favors the change it is to be remembered that a body decomposes more rapidly in air thanin water or after burial given similar temperatures, the amount ofputrefaction observed in a body dead one week and exposed to the airwill about correspond to one submerged in water for two weeks or buriedin a deep grave for eight weeks 4 age - the bodies of children decompose much more rapidly thanthose of adults. Fœtuses still more rapidly aged bodies decomposeslowly, probably on account of a deficiency of moisture fat and flabbybodies decompose quickly for the same reason 5 cause of death - in paper of sudden death, as from accident orviolence, the body decomposes more rapidly than when death resultsfrom disease putrefaction sets in early in death from the infectiousfevers, such as typhus, pyæmia, and typhoid fever, also in death fromsuffocation by smoke or coal gas, by strangulation or after narcoticpoisoning those writings of a body which are the seat of bruises, wounds, or fractures, decompose rapidly. This is especially seen inwritings after a surgical operation 6 manner of burial - when a body is buried in low ground in a damp, swampy, clay soil, decomposition advances rapidly, as also when thegrave is shallow so the body can be exposed to constant variations oftemperature a porous soil impregnated with animal and vegetable matterfavors putrefaction, as also burying a body without clothes or coffin;this is especially seen where infants have been thrown into the groundand loosely covered with earth circumstances retarding putrefaction 1 the temperature - below 32° f and above 212° f putrefaction isentirely arrested the rapidity of the change considerably lessens asthe temperature advances above 100° f a remarkable instance of thepreservative power of cold is given by adolph erman, who states thatthe body of prince menschikoff, a favorite of peter the great, exhumedafter ninety-two years’ burial in frozen soil, had undergone hardly anychange buried in hot sand as is seen in the desert, a body putrefiesvery slowly and generally becomes mummified 2 moisture - absence of moisture retards decomposition in the dryair of the desert bodies have been preserved for a long period of time 3 air - if access of air to a body be prevented in any way by itsinclosure in a coffin, by closely fitting clothes, or by completeimmersion in water, putrefaction is retarded 4 age - adults and old people decompose more slowly than children males are said to change less rapidly than females, lean people thanfleshy ones 5 cause of death - putrefaction is delayed after death from chronicdiseases unless they are associated with dropsy poisoning by alcohol, chloroform, strychnine, and arsenic retard putrefaction in the lattercase the putrefactive changes seem to stop after they have oncecommenced, and often a result very similar to mummification is seen death from the mineral acids, especially sulphuric, appears to delayputrefaction 6 manner of burial - putrefaction is retarded by burial a shorttime after death. By interment on high ground, in dry, sandy, orgravelly soil. By having the grave deep, over six feet in depth ifpossible by the body being well wrapped and secured in a tight coffin, a lead one being the best in this respect lime or charcoal appliedfreely about a body will retard decomposition, as will also injectionof the body through the arteries with such substances as arsenic, chloride of zinc, or antimony the ultimate effect of putrefactionis to reduce all bodies to inorganic compounds, chiefly water, ammonia, and carbon dioxide three conditions are necessary for itsestablishment, 1 a given temperature, 2 moisture, 3 free accessof air the order in which the various organs and tissues undergodecomposition, as given by casper, who has investigated the subjectcarefully, is as follows. Trachea and larynx, brain of infants, stomachand intestines, spleen, omentum and mesentery, liver, brain of adults, heart and lungs, kidney, bladder and œsophagus, pancreas, largevessels, and last of all the uterus as the result of putrefaction, fluids, generally blood-stained, collectin the serous cavities of the body, and should not be confoundedwith serous effusions occurring during life so also the softeningof the organs and tissue resulting from decomposition should becarefully distinguished from those resulting from inflammation thesecadaveric softenings are most frequently found in the brain, spleen, and gastro-intestinal mucous membrane inflammatory softenings aredifferentiated by being rarely general but almost always limited, bythe substance of the inflamed writing being infiltrated with serum orpus and showing traces of vascular injection in doubtful paper thepathologist should have recourse to the microscope as the result of putrefaction, various changes take place in the mucousmembrane of the stomach and intestines which simulate the effectsof poisons the color of the stomach varies from red, which becomesbrighter on exposure to the air, to a brown, slate, or livid purple wecan only presume that these color-changes are the result of irritantpoisons when they are found in non-dependent writings and writings not incontact with organs engorged with blood, when they are seen soon afterdeath, and when the membrane is covered with coagulated blood, mucus, or flakes of membrane effects on putrefaction of submersion in water there are certain modifications of the putrefactive changes when bodieshave been submerged in water in the first place, the changes are muchless rapid. They often do not show themselves until about the twelfthday, and then as discolorations appearing generally first about theears and temples, then on the face, from which they spread to the neck, shoulders, chest, abdomen, and finally to the legs this is almost theinverse order of the putrefactive changes in bodies exposed to the air as a result of the formation of gases, the body in a short time becomesbuoyant. After floating on the surface of the water for a time, thegases escape and the body sinks, rising a second time when fresh gashas formed the rapidity of decomposition in water varies, being most rapid whenthe temperature is from 64° to 68° f stagnant as well as shallow waterfavors putrefaction if a body becomes coated with mud the change isdelayed submersion in a cesspool also retards it, and the conditionsare such as to favor the formation of adipocere after a body has been removed from the water an exposure of a very fewhours to the air causes rapid decomposition, so that in twenty-fourhours more marked changes may occur than would have resulted from afortnight longer submersion the face soon becomes bloated and black, so that identification is well-nigh impossible it is quite importantin medico-legal paper to estimate the time which has elapsed sincedeath in bodies found submersed in water the following are the variouschanges ordinarily seen at different periods of time, as estimated bydevergie, who has especially investigated the subject:first four or five days - little change. Rigor mortis may persist, writingicularly if the water is cold fourth or fifth day - skin of the ball of the thumb and littlefinger, also the lateral surface of the fingers, begins to whiten thiswhitening gradually extends to the palms of the hands and soles of thefeet the skin of the face will appear softened and of a more fadedwhite than the rest of the body fifteenth day - face slightly swollen and red. A greenish spotbegins to form on the neck and skin of the mid-sternum the skin of thehands and feet is quite white and wrinkled the subcutaneous cellulartissue of the thorax is reddish and the upper writing of the corticalsubstance of the brain of a greenish tint at one month - the face is reddish-brown, the eyelids and lips greenand swollen, and the neck slightly green a greenish discoloration isalso seen over the upper and middle writing of the sternum the skin iswrinkled the hair and nails still remain intact the scrotum and penisare distended by gas the lungs become very emphysematous and overlapthe heart saponification when the bodies were removed from the cimetière des innocents in paris, in 1786, fourcray observed that thesis of them had been converted intoa substance which he termed adipocere he gave it this name becauseit resembles both fat adeps and wax cera under certaincircumstances which will be considered later, it is known to be alate product of the putrefactive processes adipocere is a substanceof a cheese-like consistency, yellow or yellowish-brown in color, and composed chiefly of a mixture of the fatty acids chevreul hasshown by analysis that it is a true ammoniacal soap, but that whenformed in water impregnated with lime a calcareous may be substitutedfor an ammoniacal base this may take place either in a body exposedto river-water or buried in a grave wet by water containing calciumcarbonate or sulphate saponification can only take place when animalfat is in contact with nitrogenous matter neither fat nor fibrin whenkept separate will saponify skin deprived of all its fat will not betransformed into adipocere saponification commences in the fat of the female breast, of the cheeksand other writings of the body where large accumulations of fat are found, such as around the kidneys and in the omentum as fat is distributedextensively throughout the body, nearly all writings may undergo thistransformation taylor gives the following conditions as favorable tothe change:1 bodies of young persons, because the fat is abundant and chieflyexternal 2 bodies of corpulent adults 3 exposure of bodies to the soil of water-closets 4 the immersion of bodies in water, the change taking place morerapidly in running than in stagnant water 5 humid soil, especially when bodies are placed in it one upon theother in this case the lowest of them is first changed when a body has been completely saponified it may remain in this statefor years in one instance, after seventeen years’ burial thesis of theorgans could still be recognized the time required for saponification to take place is essaytimes ofmedico-legal importance three years are usually necessary for bodiesburied in the earth the change occurs more rapidly in water paper arerecorded where the body of a new-born child was completely saponifiedin six weeks, and again, the change had commenced in a body which hadbeen in the water about four months. But these are unusual paper data upon which opinion as to time of death is formed the changes which take place in a body before putrefaction sets in mayenable a medical jurist to form an opinion as to the probable timewhich has elapsed since death. Yet it must be remembered, to pronouncethe time which has elapsed can only be done approximately, for verythesis conditions will have to be considered, which will vary in eachindividual case the importance of considering the minutest detail iswell illustrated by the death of prince de condé, duke of bourbon, who was found dead in his bedroom in the chateau of st cyr whendiscovered at 8 o’clock in the morning, the deceased was found writinglyundressed, hanging by his cravat to one of the window shutters thebody was cold and the lower extremities rigid as in asphyxia fromhanging the warmth of the body is usually preserved longer than undercommon circumstances, viz , from twelve to fifteen hours, before whichperiod rigidity is seldom complete, the medical examiner inferred thatthe deceased must have died very soon after he retired to his bedroomon the previous night as this was proven to have been 10 p m , itfollowed that only ten hours had elapsed a short time for cooling andrigidity to have taken place it was thus rendered probable that thehanging took place soon after deceased reached his bedroom it wasalleged that the duke had been murdered, and that his body had beenafterward suspended to create a suspicion of suicide the condition ofthe body was, among other things, adverse to this opinion from 10 to12 o’clock it was proved there were numerous attendants moving aboutnear the duke awritingments they would have heard any unusual noise theduke must have made in resisting his assailant but no noise was heardin the room at that or any other time, and the presumption of thisbeing a homicide was thus strongly rebutted cadaveric rigidity, while often it will aid to, is not a reliableguide when once it is established it may remain two, three, or fourdays, according to the season of the year and other circumstances, andwhen it exists there is no rule by which it can be determined whether abody has been in this state three hours or three days putrefaction, while appearing on an average, under a meantemperature, in from three to six days, is yet influenced by thesiscircumstances the heat and moisture of the surroundings, the age, sex, amount of flesh on the body, mode of death, position and coverings ofbody, all must be considered the temperature of the body aids us, yet the retention of warmth bythe abdominal viscera may be met with in a marked degree twenty hoursafter death. In one case, personally known to me, the thermometerregistered 76° f seventeen hours after death the temperature of the body, its rigidity, and the evidences ofputrefaction all furnish data from which we can estimate the probabletime which has elapsed since death it must be remembered that no oneof them furnishes any positive proof essay medical jurists have attempted to give a more definite characterto these changes in the recently dead body by dividing the intervalbetween the stopping of the heart action and the beginning ofputrefaction into three periods in the first, the warmth, pliability, and muscular irritability remain in the second, these conditions arelost and the body is cold and rigid in the third, the body is coldand pliant, the muscles are relaxed, and the joints are flexible, thecadaveric rigidity having entirely ceased there can be no doubt about the existence of these stages, but when wecome to define the precise time at which one begins and the other ends, we find it impossible for example, the first stage embraces a periodwhich cannot be more closely defined than by stating that the personmay have been dead from a few minutes to twenty hours a statement toovague to be upheld by a counsel who defends a prisoner the changes which take place in these periods and the average time theylast have been given as follows by devergie:first period, few minutes to twenty hours - characterized by warmthof the body and general or writingial relaxation of the voluntary muscles to what portion of this period the special case belongs must beestimated according to the degree of heat in the trunk and extremitiesand the degree of rigidity in the muscles, the neck and the jawscommonly showing this condition first, the legs last warmth of thebody rarely remains as long as twenty hours. In general it is sensiblycold in from ten to twelve hours during this period the muscles aresusceptible of contraction under the galvanic current, and in the earlystage under the stimulus of blows second period, ten hours to three days - the body is perfectly coldthroughout and rigidity is well marked the muscles no longer respondto stimuli the duration of this period seems long, yet in one instancethe body will be found cold and rigid nine hours after death again, cooling and rigidity may not come on for three or four days third period, three to eight days - the body is perfectly cold thelimbs and trunk pliant and free from cadaveric rigidity the musclesare not capable of contracting in summer this period is much shorter;often it will come on before three days putrefaction commences when a body is kept under the most favorableconditions, in from six to twelve days, as a slight greenishdiscoloration of the abdomen which gradually spreads throughout thebody the time at which putrefaction shows itself and the rapidity withwhich it advances is dependent upon so thesis factors, thesis of whichit is impossible often for the medical examiner to ascertain, thattoo much reliance must not be placed upon it casper estimates thefollowing to be the average changes generally found in the periods oftime given:twenty-four to seventy-two hours after death a slight green color isvisible over the centre of the abdomen the eyeballs are soft and yieldto external pressure three to five days after death the green color of the abdomen becomesintensified and general, spreading if the body be exposed to the air orburied in the ground in the following order.

The leaves bruised, or the juice of themboiled in how to begin an essay with a quote hog lard, and applied, helps falling away of the hair, which comes of hot and sharp humours. As also for any place that isscalded or burnt. The leaves bruised and laid to any green wound dothheal it up quickly. The root baked under the embers, wrapped in pasteor wet paper, or in a wet double cloth, and thereof a suppository made, and put up into or applied to the fundament, doth very effectually helpthe painful piles or hæmorrhoids the distilled water of the herbs androots is very good to all the purposes aforesaid, to be used as wellinwardly to drink, as outwardly to wash any sore place, for it healsall manner of wounds and punctures, and those foul ulcers that arise bythe french pox mizaldus adds that the leaves laid under the feet, willkeep the dogs from barking at you it is called hound-tongue, becauseit ties the tongues of hounds.

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They mayalso force undigested food into the mouth and into the larynx, and solead to suspicion of death from suffocation as putrefaction advances, after a period of five or six days the entiresurface of the body becomes green or brown, the cuticle becomes looseand easily detached. The tissues flaccid and often bathed in a reddishserum in such situations as the neck, the groin, and the back writing ofthe scalp the thorax and abdomen become enormously distended, thefeatures distorted and scarcely recognizable, and the hair and nailsloosened beyond this, it is impossible to follow the changes leadingto disintegration with any degree of certainty the changes which ihave just described as produced by putrefaction are the ordinaryones seen in a body exposed to the air at a moderate temperature, butit must be remembered that the time and rapidity of the development ofthese changes may be influenced by a large number of factors, and thatthey are of very little importance in estimating the time of death ihave seen bodies buried two months that have shown fewer of the changesproduced by putrefaction than others dead but a week the appearance of a body buried in a coffin will be as follows after aperiod varying from a few months to one or two years the soft tissueswill have become dry and brown and the face and limbs covered with asoft white fungus hard white crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatewill be found on the surface of the soft organs, and when found onthe surface of the stomach care should be taken not to confound themwith the effects of poison in time the viscera become so mixedtogether that it is difficult to distinguish them for the most writingthe changes that take place in a body buried in a coffin are similar, but much slower, to those that occur if the body is exposed to the airor buried in soil even under apparently identical circumstances themost varied results have been observed, so it is not possible for amedical jurist to fix a definite period of death or the time of burialfrom the appearance of an exhumed body for example, taylor records acase where after thirty-four years’ interment an entire and perfectskeleton was discovered, surrounded by traces of shroud and coffin, while in an adjoining grave all that remained of a body that had beendead twenty-five years were the long bones and base of the skull, inone case a body was found well preserved after six years’ burial and inanother after even thirty years’ interment this brings us next to a consideration of those factors that favor orretard decomposition circumstances favoring putrefaction 1 temperature - putrefaction advances most rapidly at a temperaturebetween 70° and 100° f it may commence at any temperature above 50°f , but it is wholly arrested at 32° f so one day exposure of abody in summer may effect greater changes than one week in winter after freezing, putrefaction takes place with unusual rapidity uponthe thawing out of the body a temperature of 212° f stops allputrefactive changes 2 moisture - putrefaction takes place only in the presence ofmoisture an excess of moisture, however, seems to retard the process, possibly by cutting off the excess of air the viscera according tothe amount of water they contain decompose at different times afterdeath for instance, the brain and eye rapidly, the bones and hairslowly 3 air - exposure to air favors decomposition by carrying to the bodythe micro-organisms which bring about putrefaction. Absence of air soonarrests the changes. This is seen in bodies hermetically sealed inlead coffins, which remain unchanged for a long period of time moistrather than dry air favors putrefaction by lessening evaporation airin motion retards while still air favors the change it is to be remembered that a body decomposes more rapidly in air thanin water or after burial given similar temperatures, the amount ofputrefaction observed in a body dead one week and exposed to the airwill about correspond to one submerged in water for two weeks or buriedin a deep grave for eight weeks 4 age - the bodies of children decompose much more rapidly thanthose of adults. Fœtuses still more rapidly aged bodies decomposeslowly, probably on account of a deficiency of moisture fat and flabbybodies decompose quickly for the same reason 5 cause of death - in paper of sudden death, as from accident orviolence, the body decomposes more rapidly than when death resultsfrom disease putrefaction sets in early in death from the infectiousfevers, such as typhus, pyæmia, and typhoid fever, also in death fromsuffocation by smoke or coal gas, by strangulation or after narcoticpoisoning those writings of a body which are the seat of bruises, wounds, or fractures, decompose rapidly. This is especially seen inwritings after a surgical operation 6 manner of burial - when a body is buried in low ground in a damp, swampy, clay soil, decomposition advances rapidly, as also when thegrave is shallow so the body can be exposed to constant variations oftemperature a porous soil impregnated with animal and vegetable matterfavors putrefaction, as also burying a body without clothes or coffin;this is especially seen where infants have been thrown into the groundand loosely covered with earth circumstances retarding putrefaction 1 the temperature - below 32° f and above 212° f putrefaction isentirely arrested the rapidity of the change considerably lessens asthe temperature advances above 100° f a remarkable instance of thepreservative power of cold is given by adolph erman, who states thatthe body of prince menschikoff, a favorite of peter the great, exhumedafter ninety-two years’ burial in frozen soil, had undergone hardly anychange buried in hot sand as is seen in the desert, a body putrefiesvery slowly and generally becomes mummified 2 moisture - absence of moisture retards decomposition in the dryair of the desert bodies have been preserved for a long period of time 3 air - if access of air to a body be prevented in any way by itsinclosure in a coffin, by closely fitting clothes, or by completeimmersion in water, putrefaction is retarded 4 age - adults and old people decompose more slowly than children males are said to change less rapidly than females, lean people thanfleshy ones 5 cause of death - putrefaction is delayed after death from chronicdiseases unless they are associated with dropsy poisoning by alcohol, chloroform, strychnine, and arsenic retard putrefaction in the lattercase the putrefactive changes seem to stop after they have oncecommenced, and often a result very similar to mummification is seen death from the mineral acids, especially sulphuric, appears to delayputrefaction 6 manner of burial - putrefaction is retarded by burial a shorttime after death. By interment on high ground, in dry, sandy, orgravelly soil. By having the grave deep, over six feet in depth ifpossible by the body being well wrapped and secured in a tight coffin, a lead one being the best in this respect lime or charcoal appliedfreely about a body will retard decomposition, as will also injectionof the body through the arteries with such substances as arsenic, chloride of zinc, or antimony the ultimate effect of putrefactionis to reduce all bodies to inorganic compounds, chiefly water, ammonia, and carbon dioxide three conditions are necessary for itsestablishment, 1 a given temperature, 2 moisture, 3 free accessof air the order in which the various organs and tissues undergodecomposition, as given by casper, who has investigated the subjectcarefully, is as follows.