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The bark of the root is less sharp and hot, but more bitter, and hath essay astriction withal whereby it is effectual to break thestone, and good to open obstructions of the liver, spleen, and otherinward writings, which bring the jaundice, dropsy, &c the berries arevery effectual against all poison of venomous creatures, and the stingof wasps and bees. As also against the pestilence, or other infectiousdiseases, and therefore put into sundry treacles for that purpose. Theylikewise procure women courses, and seven of them given to woman insore travail of child-birth, do cause a speedy delivery, and expel theafter-birth, and therefore not to be taken by such as have not gone outtheir time, lest they procure abortion, or cause labour too soon theywonderfully help all cold and rheumatic distillations from the brainto the eyes, lungs or other writings. And being made into an electuarywith honey, do help the consumption, old coughs, shortness of breath, and thin rheums. As also the megrim they mightily expel the wind, andprovoke urine. Help the mother, and kill the worms the leaves alsowork the like effect a bath of the decoction of leaves and berries, issingularly good for women to sit in, that are troubled with the mother, or the diseases thereof, or the stoppings of their courses, or for thediseases of the bladder, pains in the bowels by wind and stoppage ofthe urine a decoction likewise of equal writings of bay-berries, cumminseed, hyssop, origanum, and euphorbium, with essay honey, and the headbathed therewith, wonderfully helps distillations and rheums, andsettles the pallate of the mouth into its place the oil made of theberries is very comfortable in all cold griefs of the joints, nerves, arteries, stomach, belly, or womb, and helps palsies, convulsions, cramp, aches, tremblings, and numbness in any writing, weariness also, andpains that come by sore travelling all griefs and pains proceedingfrom wind, either in the head, stomach, back, belly, or womb, byanointing the writings affected therewith.

As morochtus break the stone. As lapis lyncis, lapis judaicus, lapis sponge retain the fruit in the womb. As ætitis, jasper provoke the menses ostracites stones altering by a hidden property as they call it, arebezoar, topaz, lapis colubrinus, toadstone, emerald, alectorius, calcidonius, amethist, saphyr, jasper, lapis nephriticus, lapistibernum, lapis, spongites, the stone found in the maw of a swallow, load-stone, lapis vulturis, merucius, coral, lynturius, jet, ætites, the stones of crabs, amber, crystal, &c the load-stone purges gross humours lapis armenius and lapis lazuli, purge melancholy pyrites heat and cleanse, take away dimness of sight dioscorides lapis asius binds and moderately corrodes and cleanses filthy ulcers, and fills them up with flesh. Being mixed with honey, and applied tothe place, is an admirable remedy for the gout chrystal being beaten into very fine powder, and a dram of it takenat a time helps the bloody-flux, stops the fluor albus, and increasesmilk in nurses mathiolus lapis samius is cooling and binding, it is very comfortable to thestomach, but it dulls the senses, helps fluxes of the eyes and ulcers geodetes binds and drys, being beaten into powder and mixed withwater, and applied to the place, takes away inflammations of thetesticles pumice-stone being beaten into powder and the teeth rubbed with it, cleanses them dioscorides jet, it is of a softening and discussing nature, it resists the fitsof the mother lapis arabicus being beaten into powder, and made into an ointmenthelps the hemorrhoids ostracites, a dram of it taken in powder provokes the menses. Beingtaken after that purgation, causes conception, also being made into anointment, helps inflammations of the breast myexis being borne about one takes away pains in the reins, andhinders the breeding of the stone lapis armenius purges melancholy, and also causes vomiting, i holdit not very safe for our english bodies, and therefore i will speak nomore of it explanation of certain vacuations the five opening roots smallage, sparagus, fennel, parsley, knee-holly the two opening roots fennel, parsley the five emolient herbs marsh-mallows, mallows, beets, mercury, pellitory of the wall, violetleaves the five capillary herbs maidenhair, wall rue, cetrach, hart-tongue, politricum the four cordial flowers borrage, bugloss, roses, violets the four greater hot seeds, carminative, or breaking wind annis, carraway, cummin, fennel the four lesser hot seeds bishop weed, amomus, smallage, carrots the four greater cold seeds citrul, cucumber, gourds, melon the four lesser cold seeds succory, endive, lettice, purslain five fragments of precious stones granite, jacinth, sapphire, sardine, emerald the right worshipful, the college of physicians of london in their new dispensatory give you free leave to distil these common waters that follow, but they never intend you should know what they are good for simple distilled waters of fresh roots ofbriony, onions, elecampane, orris, or flower-de-luce, turnips of flowers and buds ofsouthernwood, both sorts of wormwood, wood sorrel, lady-mantle, marsh-mallows, angelica, pimpernel with purple flowers, smallage, columbines, sparagus, mouse-ear, borrage, shepherd purse, calaminth, woodbine or honey-suckles, carduus benedictus, our lady thistles, knotgrass, succory, dragons, colt-foot, fennel, goat rue, grass, hyssop, lettice, lovage, toad-flax, hops, marjoram, mallows, horehound, featherfew, bawm, mints, horse-mints, water cresses, english tobacco, white poppies, pellatory of the wall, parsley, plantain, purslain, self-heal, pennyroyal, oak leaves, sage, scabious, figwort orthroatwort, house-leek, or sengreen, the greater and lesser mother oftime, nightshade, tansy, tormentil, valerian of flowers oforanges, if you can get them blue-bottle the greater, beans, water-lilies, lavender, nut-tree, cowslips, sloes, rosemary, roseswhite, damask, and red, satyrien, lime-tree, clove-gilliflowers, violets of fruits oforanges, black cherries, pome citrons, quinces, cucumbers, strawberries, winter cherries, lemons, rasberries, unripe walnuts, apples of writings of living creatures and their excrementslobsters, cockles, or snails, hartshorn, bullocks dung made in may, swallows, earthworms, magpies, spawn of frogs * * * * * simple waters distilled, being digested before-hand of the fresh roots of nettles of the leaves of agrimony, wild tansy, or silverweed, mugwort, bettony, marigolds, chamomel, chamepitys, celandine, pilewort, scurvy-grass, comfry the greater, dandelyon, ash-tree leaves, eyebright, fumitory, alehoof, or ground ivy, horsetail, st john wort, yarrow, moneywort, restharrow, solomon seal, res solis, rue, savin, saxifrage, hart tongue, scordium, tamarisk, mullin, vervain, paul bettony, mead-sweet, nettles of the flowers of mayweed, broom, cowslips, butter-bur, peony, elder of the berries of broom, elder culpeper then the college gives you an admonition concerning these, which being converted into your native language, is as follows we give you warning that these common waters be better prepared for time to come, either in common stills, putting good store of ashes underneath, the roots and herbs being dryer, &c or if they be full of juice, by distilling the juice in a convenient bath, that so burning may be avoided, which hitherto hath seldom been but let the other herbs, flowers, or roots, be bruised, and by adding tartar, common salt, or leven be digested, then putting spring water to them, distil them in an alembick with its refrigeratory, or worm, till the change of the taste shew the virtue to be drawn off. Then let the oil if any be separated from the water according to art into the number of these waters may be ascribed the tears of vines, the liquor of the birch-tree, may dew culpeper that my country may receive the benefit of these waters, i shall first shew the temperatures, secondly, the virtues of themost usual and most easy to come by. If any should take exceptionsthat i mention not all, i answer first, i mention enough secondly, who ever makes this objection, they shew extreme ingratitude. For hadi mentioned but only one, i had revealed more to them than ever thecollege intended they should know, or give me thanks for doing the qualities and appropriation of the simple distilled waters simple distilled waters either cool or heat. Such as cool, either coolthe blood or choler waters cooling the blood lettice, purslain, water lilies, violets, sorrel endive, succory, fumitory waters cooling and repressing choleric humours, or vapours in the head nightshade, lettice, water lilies, plantain, poppies, viz theflowers both of white black and red poppies, black cheries the breast and lungs violets, poppies all three sorts, colt-foot in the heart sorrel, quinces, water lilies, roses, violets, green orunripe walnuts in the stomach quinces, roses, violets, nightshade, houseleeks, orsengreen, lettice, purslain in the liver endive, succory, nightshade, purslain, water lilies in the reins and bladder endive, succory, winter cherries, plantain, water lilies, strawberries, houseleek or sengreen, black cherries in the womb endive, succory, lettice, water lilies, purslain, roses simple waters which are hot, concoct either flegm or melancholy waters concocting flegm in the head, arebettony, sage, marjoram, chamomel, fennel, calaminth, rosemary-flowers, primroses, eye-bright in the breast and lungs maiden-hair, bettony, hysop, horehound, carduus benedictus, scabious, orris, or flower-de-luces, bawm, self-heal, &c in the heart bawm, rosemary in the stomach wormwood, mints, fennel, chervil, time, mother oftime, marigolds in the liver wormwood, centaury, origanum, marjoram, maudlin, costmary, agrimony, fennel in the spleen water-cresses, wormwood, calaminth in the reins and bladder rocket, nettles, saxifrage, pellitory ofthe wall, alicampane, burnet in the womb mugwort, calaminth, penny-royal, savin, mother of time, lovage waters concocting melancholy in the head, arehops, fumitory the breast bawm, carduus benedictus the heart borrage, bugloss, bawm, rosemary the liver endive, chicory, hops the spleen dodder, hart-tongue, tamarisk, time having thus ended the appropriation, i shall speak briefly of thevirtues of distilled waters lettice water cools the blood when it is over-heated, for whenit is not, it needs no cooling. It cools the head and liver, stayshot vapours ascending to the head, and hinders sleep.

“no therapeutic fact is more conspicuously and decisively established than that a radical cure of syphilis can be effected by the continuous administration, from the period of development, of a proper combination of mercury with iodine ”continuing, it is admitted how to begin a scholarship essay that mercury is the most efficacious drug inthe primary and secondary stages of syphilis and iodin in the tertiarystage, but it is asserted that. “ it is now granted by all syphilologists that the antiluetic action of these drugs is immeasurably augmented by properly combining them, and that the best results are obtained when they are conjunctively administered throughout the entire course of the disease ”arguing along the same lines, this circular continues. “ it was not until mercury and iodine in the form of pil mixed treatment chichester was evolved that the marked advantages of the combined employment of these drugs in the various stages of syphilis became a scientific certainty ”further we are asked to believe that. “because of the greatly increased potency of mercury and iodine when combined, as in pil mixed treatment chichester, the foremost syphilologists are now agreed that the employment of these drugs in such form should be enjoined as soon as the disease develops, and should be thus continued until a cure has been effected. In other words, pil mixed treatment chichester should be made the sole antisyphilitic medication throughout all stages of the disease ”the circular illustrates the extent to which our knowledge of drugs maybe distorted and misrepresented and the public health jeopardized inthe exploitation of a proprietary medicine illustration. One reason scientific medicine lags uncritical medicaljournals perpetuate-- for a price-- the use of nostrums proprietary claimsin its advertising, the hillside chemical co claims that pil mixed treatment chichester both as to formula and method ofpreparation “in the incapsulated powder form” was “brought to thenotice of the profession by dr w r chichester of new york, aneminent syphilographer and recognized authority in the therapeuticsof syphilis ” it is claimed that this pill “is perfectly soluble, tasteless, nonirritant, and therefore well adapted to a sensitivestomach ” it is claimed that the pill “is always preferable to oneextemporaneously prepared, which, even if identical in composition, often gives negative results ”an examination made in the chemical laboratory of the association todetermine if the product now marketed contains the claimed amount ofpotassium iodid indicated that this was the case the chemist who madethis examination commented as follows on the claim that in this pill, potassium iodid is rendered tasteless, that the pill is “perfectlysoluble” and that extemporaneous pills of “identical compositionoften give negative results ”“that the potassium iodid has been rendered tasteless is false, naturally. The pills when placed in the mouth, after removal of thecoating, have the characteristic taste of alkali iodids the claimthat the pills are entirely soluble is incorrect. They contain a largeamount of insoluble material, probably kaolin the assertion that anextemporaneous compound prescription even if identical in compositionwith the chichester pill is often inert, is absurd and a reprehensibleattack by suggestion of the ideal that the physician shall write hisprescription to meet the individual needs of his patient and that thepharmacist shall compound the prescriptions of the physician as theyare required it should also be pointed out that while much is saidabout the potassium iodid in the chichester pill being in powderedform, the pill mass is solid and very slowly soluble and the claim ofbeing in powdered form is, if immaterial, also incorrect ”as to the asserted standing of the alleged discoverer of the formulafor pil mixed treatment. Dr william r chichester appears to havelived and practiced in new york since 1886 or longer, but the claimthat he is an “eminent syphilographer” seems to have originated withthe exploiters of “pil mixed treatment ” search failed to show thename of w r chichester among authors of textbooks of syphilis or anyother branch of medicine or among authors of contemporary literature inthe index medicus from 1907 down to the present. Nor did a search ofthe catalogue to the surgeon-general library reveal w r chichesteras ever having published anything on syphilis or any other subject pil mixed treatment chichester is sold under therapeutic claimswhich are unwarranted and misleading the preparation well illustratesthe abuses which are connected with the exploitation as proprietariesof established drugs or mixtures of established drugs -- from thejournal a m a , oct 22, 1921 atophan omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following reportexplaining why atophan has been omitted from new and nonofficialremedies schering and glatz, inc , the firm which markets thisbrand of cinchophen in the united states, has refused to placeeither the u s pharmacopeial name, “phenylcinchoninic acid acidumphenylcinchoninicum” or the n n r name, “cinchophen, ” on the labeland in the advertising matter so as to make the identity of the productclear to physicians furthermore, the product is sold under therapeuticclaims which the council holds to be exaggerated and unwarranted w a puckner, secretary commercial history of cinchophenthe substance, 2-phenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid, was described bydoebner and gieseke in 1887 ann d chem liebig 242:291 thetherapeutic properties of this compound were described by nicolaier anddohrn in 1908 deutsch arch f klin med 93:331 subsequentlythe product was placed on the market and extensively advertised by thechemische fabrik auf actien vorm e schering, berlin, gerthesis thisfirm also took out a patent in the united states on its productionand in 1911 secured a u s trademark on the name “atophan ” in1912 atophan was passed on by the council and admitted to new andnonofficial remedies when the government of the united states took charge of german-ownedpatents during the world war, the federal trade commission, andlater the chemical foundation, inc , issued licenses to americanfirms whereby these were authorized to manufacture the compound in the meantime, schering and glatz, inc , who had been the u s representatives for the chemische fabrik auf actien, also undertook tosupply the drug, but did not obtain a license from the boards in chargeof german patents also, this firm secured, in 1919, a trademark of theword “atophan, ” apparently after the german-owned trademark had beencanceled the drug “atophan” was admitted to the u s pharmacopeia as“phenylcinchoninic acid acidum phenylcinchoninicum ” as this nameproved too cumberessay, the council on pharmacy and chemistry coined theabbreviated name “cinchophen” for it, and this name is now used by allthe firms which are marketing the product in the united states, withthe exception of schering and glatz, inc , who use the term “atophan, ”first owned by the chemische fabrik auf actien atophan, a brand of cinchophenbecause of the confusion which is bound to arise from giving variousnames to one drug, the council selects a common name and providesstandards of identity, purity and strength for any drug which, byreason of the absence or lapse of patent rights or for other reason, is open to manufacture by more than one firm the council, then, willaccept such article only if it is marketed under the title adoptedfor new and nonofficial remedies the rules provide, however, thatwhen the council adopts a common name for an article that has beenadmitted under another name, such article will be retained in new andnonofficial remedies under the older name if the council name is givenprominence on the label and in the circulars and advertisements, inorder to avoid confusion accordingly, when the period of acceptancefor atophan in new and nonofficial remedies was about to expire, schering and glatz were notified that atophan could be retained inthat publication only on condition that the name, “cinchophen, ”or else the pharmacopeial name, “phenylcinchoninic acid acidumphenylcinchoninicum” be placed on the label and used in the circularsand advertising unwarranted therapeutic claims for atophanat the time that the council asked schering and glatz to adoptcinchophen or phenylcinchoninic acid as a synonym for atophan, thefirm was also requested to omit from future advertising a number oftherapeutic claims to which the council was obliged to take exception schering and glatz refused the first request and made no definitepromise with regard to the second the council, therefore, directed theomission of atophan from new and nonofficial remedies, 1921 the advertising to which the council took exception does not appear tobe distributed at present a pamphlet has been sent out, however, whichis equally objectionable it contains unwarranted therapeutic claimsand suggests that atophan be used in conditions in which it is notindicated for instance. “no longer the vague, hypothetical, ‘test-tube demonstrated’ principle of uric acid elimination by solution, but a definite, scientifically and clinically established, physiologic stimulation of the uric acid excretion performed innocuously and controllable to a nicety by dosage and by urine and blood tests ”the “innocuousness” of atophan has not been proved. On the otherhand there is evidence that it is not innocuous, as the recentinvestigations of hanzlik and scott and their collaborators cinchophen, neocinchophen and novaspirin in rheumatic fever, j a m a 76.

Phenomena of poisoning geissler. Gastric disturbances engelmann. Renal irritation steinhard. Unsuited for diabetics voit ”26 seifert, otto.

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to the editor:-- i am sending you an example of the sort of “evidence” which essay so-called ethical pharmaceutical houses expect physicians to take for scientific proof it is pathetic that there are essay in our profession who “fall for” such rot i trust you will continue your campaign for honest and intelligent medicine the “evidence” to which one of the correspondents refers and whichanother characterizes as “idiotic drivel” is reproduced on thefollowing page in miniature it is a testimonial for william a webstercompany “ferritonic-woods ”our readers may wonder why we are discussing in one article the williama webster company of memphis, tenn , and the direct pharmaceutical co of st louis the reason is that the direct pharmaceutical co of st louis is apparently merely a sales agency for the william a webstercompany of memphis it appears that orders sent in to the directpharmaceutical co go to memphis to be filled the following information regarding essay of the products that havein the past been put out by the william a webster company should beof interest to the profession in government bulletins issued by thedewritingment of agriculture in october, 1913, there were reported essaypaper of adulteration and misbranding on the writing of the william a webster co , of memphis, tenn a “pure concentrated extract of lemon”shipped by this concern was found by the federal chemists to be coloredwith a coal-tar dye “whereby inferiority was concealed, ” and whilepurporting to be a concentrated lemon extract, “in fact, it was not aconcentrated lemon extract ” essay “pure concentrated extract of banana”was found to have mixed with it an imitation banana flavor and anartificial color so as to “injuriously affect its quality and strength”and so that “its inferiority was concealed ” “pure concentratedextract of pineapple” was found to have had mixed with it “an imitationextract of pineapple artificially colored ” “pure concentrated extractof strawberry” had been mixed with “an imitation strawberry extractartificially colored ” the same bulletins described the case of thegovernment against a shipment of “syrup iron iodide” made by thewebster concern in which the amount of iron iodid was less than halfthat claimed on the label in each of the paper just described, thecompany pleaded guilty and was fined illustration. Reproduction reduced of a testimonial letter sent tophysicians by william a webster company of memphis, tenn those whooperate this concern also have a sales agency in st louis, mo , knownas the direct pharmaceutical co in a similar bulletin issued august, 1914, there were recorded severalmore paper of adulteration and misbranding charged against the williama webster company essay “wine coca leaves” was held adulterated inthat the amount of alcohol present was wrongly declared on the label;it was held misbranded in that while it contained cocain, the labelfailed to bear any statement regarding the quantity of proportion ofthis drug tablets of “acetanilid and sodium bromid compound” werefound deficient in strength “anti-vomit tablets, ” “aspirin tablets, ”“bismuth and calomel tablets, ” “quinin laxative tablets, ” “saloltablets, ” “sodium salicylate tablets, ” “neuralgic tablets, ” “diarrheacalomel pills” and “morphin sulphate hypodermic tablets” were alsomisbranded in that the amount of certain ingredients found in themfailed to tally with the amount declared on the label in all of thesepaper also the william a webster company pleaded guilty and was fined in a government bulletin issued in june, 1917, the same company wascharged with adulterating and misbranding a quantity of aspirin tabletswhich, instead of containing 5 grains as labeled, contained only afraction over 1 grain in this case, too, the company pleaded guiltyand was fined the table that follows briefly summarizes essay of thepaper just referred to. amount claimed amount found “syrup iron iodid, u s p ” ferrous iodid 10% 4 6% “acetanilid and sodium bromid tablets” acetanilid 3 50 gr 2 94 gr “anti-vomit tablets” bismuth subnitrate 2 50 gr 1 76 gr cerium oxalate 2 50 gr 1 78 gr cocain hydrochl 0 0833 gr 0 0637 gr “aspirin tablets” 5 0 gr 3 82 gr “bismuth and calomel comp tablets” bismuth subnitrate 0 1 gr 0 22 gr calomel 0 1 gr 0 22 gr “quinin laxative tablets” acetanilid 2 0 gr 1 69 gr “salol tablets” 2 50 gr 2 05 gr “sodium calicylate tablets” 5 0 gr 3 88 gr “neuralgic pills” morphin sulphate 0 05 gr 0 015 gr “diarrhea calomel pills” morphin sulphate 0 062 gr 0 05 gr “morphin sulphate hypodermic tablets” 0 25 gr 0 21 gr “aspirin tablets” 5 00 gr 1 13 gr x/-- from the journal a m a , oct 18, 1919 yeastfrom time to time yeast has attained a transitory popularity as atherapeutic agent its use in this way in practical medicine has beenbased essentially on empiric considerations yeast is rich in nucleicacid, but this has not found any special applications the fatlikesubstances obtainable from yeast have been recommended in certainalimentary conditions, without finding any widespread acceptance more recently yeast has acquired interest from essaywhat differentangles in these days of food shortage and enforced conservation, it has come to be realized that the minute yeast cells are endowedwith a remarkable capacity of synthesizing one of the most valuednutrients, namely, protein this substance can be built up out of thesimplest forms of nitrogenous compounds by yeasts, in contrast withthe incapacity of the higher organisms to construct protein out ofanything less complex than the ready made aminoacids it is reportedthat in europe yeast has actually been grown on a large scale insolutions of sugar, salt and simple nitrogenous compounds for thesake of securing the much desired proteins the utilization of yeastprotein for cattle feeding is a current practice abroad. And thesatisfactory digestibility and availability of the same product by thehuman organism has repeatedly been announced since the beginning ofthe war in this country the yeast which is produced as a by-productof the brewing industry is for the most writing discarded as waste. Inthe distilleries it becomes a writing of the distillers’ grains that areextensively employed as feeds in the dairy industry still newer is the indication that yeast is comparatively rich in atleast one of the as yet unidentified accessory factors in nutritionnow popularly spoken of as vitamins hopkins of the university ofcambridge, england, first directed attention to this unique property ofyeast it has been verified by funk and macallum, and recently osborneand mendel have given substantial evidence of the potency of yeast torender a diet not otherwise capable of inducing maintenance effectivein nutrition yeast has been used, like extracts of rice polishings, to cure theexperimental polyneuritis induced in birds by a diet of polished rice from the experiments of osborne and mendel it appears that less than 2per cent of dried brewers’ yeast suffices to induce small experimentalanimals to grow on artificial food mixtures on which alone they failto thrive how the use of yeast as an adjuvant to otherwise inadequatefood mixtures exerts its beneficial effect is not yet made clear satisfactory growth in these paper is promoted by liberal eating anything which renders food more palatable may stimulate one to eatmore liberally of it this can scarcely be the explanation of thepotency of the yeast as it is effective even when fed awriting from therest of the food it may have a favorable effect on the metabolism andthus improve the general condition so that more food is consumed smallquantities of milk and extracts of thesis of the common plant foods, such as the cereal grains, have been found to act in the same way there seems to be little doubt, therefore, that yeast also containsessaything comparable with the so-called water-soluble vitamins of thediet a specific need for yeast can scarcely be predicated on thisfact, however. For any well selected human dietary containing the usualvariety of animal and vegetable foods is not likely to be devoid ofthe widely distributed water-soluble type of vitamin we mention thisto check premature enthusiasm for a new vitamin -- editorial from thejournal a m a , sept 8, 1917 yeast and its uses to the editor:-- is there available information concerning the medicinal use of yeast?. how is it taken?. i should like to know whether the use of it would cause any digestive disturbance, and whether the flesh gained is normal and permanent s e l , bridgeport, conn answer -- yeast is one of those remedies that have undergone alternatingcycles of use and of disuse. Just at present it appears again to bein its ascendency no doubt, the reason for these cycles has beenexcessive praise and uncritical use, followed by disappointment andconsequent discard hawk and his associates hawk, p b. Knowles, f c.