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“phœbus, the hair unshorn, dispels the clouds of disease ”thus the last great system into which the ancient philosophy developedwas attended by the unfortunate result of a very material increaseof how much should i pay someone to write my essay superstition in the healing art this recrudescence of medicalsuperstition was by no means a transitory one, but proved exceedinglypersistent. In fact, we may unhesitatingly maintain that from thattime superstition never again disappeared from our science this isprincipally the fault of the position which christianity took withregard to demonology and the other fantastic ideas of neo-platonism early christianity, from the outset, was subjected to the influenceof ancient false ideas on the subject of demons without making anymodifications whatever, it had appropriated this false doctrine, andhad deduced from it the same medical notions as paganism had done the new testament exhibits numerous examples of a prevailing beliefthat supernatural beings i e , demons were frequently the cause ofbodily ailments. And as christ and his disciples had often cured suchpatients, it follows that the belief in demons and their relations topathology must have been widely disseminated among the christians ofthat period the church fathers also bear witness to this fact, asthey, in their writings, acknowledge, in plain terms, the belief indemons as causes of disease justin martyr, tatian, tertullian, origen, augustin, all mention demons and their power over the human body compare harnack, chapter v , page 68, etc , where these conditionsare most lucidly depicted thus, for instance, st augustine says:“accipiunt scilicet dæmones enim sæpe potestatem et morbos immittereet ipsum aerem vitiando morbidum reddere ”and, indeed, early christianity not only accepted pagan demonologyunchanged, it even increased the therapeutic aspect of this delusion ina most regrettable manner this belief in demons, under the influenceof christian doctrines, developed into an epidemic of insanity whichprevailed unrestrictedly for two or three centuries, and which wasagain awakened in the late middle ages, to grow at last into one of themost terrible aberrations of the human mind into the belief in witches this epidemic derangement of the mind, to which the belief in demonstended, under the influence of christian doctrines, culminated in thepatient manifest idea that he was possessed of a demon the mentaldisturbance set in with wild, spasmodic attacks of excitement, and, asit occurred not only in individual paper, but was also contagious, wemust not hesitate to designate this belief of the first three centuriesin demoniac possession an epidemic disease it was an affection, the mental substratum of which consisted in a mixture of overheatedreligious sentiment and unrestrained medical superstition the extentto which this belief in demoniac possession was disseminated during thefirst centuries of the christian era is shown by the fact that a numberof persons busied themselves with the cure of this affection in thefirst place, most christian communities owned an exorcist, or officialcaster-out of demons it seems that this profession of exorcists formeda clerical order of its own.

Chloral, camphor, menthol, iodin, and oil of gualtheria, incorporated in a fatty base each ounce contains fifteen grains of chloral hydrate, nine grainsof resublimed iodine ” “no 2” was said to have the same compositionas “no 1” except that the oil how much should i pay someone to write my essay of gaultheria had been omitted themedical supply company was informed that the rules of the councilrequired declaration of the amounts of each therapeutic constituentof pharmaceutical mixtures and that, therefore, in addition to theinformation furnished the amounts of camphor, menthol and oil ofgualtheria should be given for “no 1” and the amount of camphor andmenthol for “no 2 ” the following reply was received. “l o compound no 1 equals to each tube, chloral hydrate gr 15 camphor gr 22 menthol gr 7-1/2 iodin resublime gr 3-2/3 oil of gaultheria m 3 petrolatum, q s oz 1 l o compound no 2, the same as above formula for l o c no 1, except the oil of gaultheria which is omitted ”it should be noted that when the preparations were submitted each ounceof the preparation was claimed to contain 9 grains of iodin, whilein the subsequent letter the company declares that they contain only3-2/3 grains to the ounce if it be assumed that the unit intendedis the avoirdupois ounce, the preparation should contain 2 06 percent of iodin according to the first statement and 0 84 per cent ofiodin according to the second statement while the dark color of thepreparations suggested the presence of appreciable amounts of freeiodin, the a m a chemical laboratory reported that an examination ofthe specimens submitted by the medical supply company showed that “no 1” and “no 2” each contained but 0 033 per cent of free iodin. Henceboth preparations are in conflict with rule 1 for both preparations the labels suggest their use for the treatmentof “septic wounds, burns, pustular processes of all varieties, andespecially bronchial troubles ” this constitutes a conflict with rule4 regarding no 1 the advertising circular included with the tradepackage asserts. “its merits have been practically demonstrated in the following conditions we invite your especial attention to its use in diseases of the thoracic cavity, especially bronchitis and pneumonia, rheumatism, lumbago, migraine, neuralgia, orchitis, balanitis, enlarged glands or any disturbance of the lymphatic system, anti-galactagogue, or wherever analgesic action is required ”“no 2” is said to be especially adapted to the needs of the surgeon, it “can be applied in any wound either aseptic or infected ” it isasserted that the usual method of preparing patients for operation maybe discarded and that patients may be operated on after application ofthis ointment. “ we have no other preparation to-day which serves the purpose of l o compound in operative and post operative treatment “it is a powerful antiseptic and germicide combining anesthetic, analgesic and alterative properties ”after attempting to discredit the approved methods of preparing thefield for surgical operations, the advertising circular continues. “method of today.

Withnitric acid it became violet turning to yellow, and with concentratedsulphuric acid and potassium nitrate it gave a yellowish green color, turning to violet and finally to a wine color all these reactions aretypical of colchicin from 1 gm of the powdered pills there was obtained 0 0425 gm of ash, or 4 25 per cent when the powdered pills were extracted with chloroform in a soxhletapparatus, a very uniform quantity of extract was obtained from 5 gm there was obtained, in one case, 0 581 gm. In another, 0 5755 gm , andin a third, 0 588 gm , the average being 0 5815 gm or 11 63 per cent on still further extracting with alcohol, a small amount of extractivewas obtained, the amount depending on the length of time the extractionwas continued on extracting with hot water the residue left after exhaustion withchloroform and with alcohol, a further extract was obtained in onecase, it amounted to 0 4763 gm or 9 53 per cent , and in another caseit amounted to 0 470 gm , or 9 40 per cent. Average 9 47 per cent in attempting to dry the pills or the above-mentioned chloroformicextract at 100 c , a crystalline sublimate was obtained which had theodor of benzoic acid the crystals were acid, their neutral solutiongave a flesh-colored precipitate with ferric chlorid, and they meltedat 120-121 c this crystalline substance appeared to be benzoic acid the quantity of benzoic acid in this extract was determined by heatingit to about 140 c a current of air was drawn through the flask andthe sublimed benzoic acid collected in a cooled tube the benzoic acidwas washed out of the tube with neutral alcohol, and the solution wastitrated with tenth normal potassium hydroxid in one case, 11 25 c c of tenth-normal alkali was used, indicating 0 1373 gm, of benzoic acid;in another, 12 27 c c , indicating 0 1498 gm of benzoic acid. Average0 1436 gm , or 2 87 per cent in a third case the temperature reached250 c , and there was essay decomposition of the fat in the flask andessay colored material distilled over for this sublimate 15 54 c c oftenth-normal alkali were required after evaporating the alcohol and acidulating the solutions obtainedin the previous experiments, the benzoic acid was extracted withchloroform in the first case, 0 1383 gm was obtained. In the second, 0 1541 gm. Average 0 1462 gm , or 2 92 per cent of benzoic acid when the original chloroformic extract was heated until all of thebenzoic acid had been driven off, the residue had the appearance of asemisolid fat it compared quite closely in color, odor, etc , with thefatty material obtained by extracting colchicum seed with chloroform, although the odor was more suggestive of oleic or stearic acid it wasdistinctly acid, which is also true of the fatty material obtained froma sample of colchicum seed the extract obtained with hot water was light yellow. Gummy, at first, but dried to a glass-like brittle mass it had a slight burned-sugarodor and taste, and was neutral in reaction it was stronglydextrogyrate and at once reduced fehling solution as well as alkalinesilver nitrate solution on boiling with potassium hydroxid solution, it turned deep red it also gave the molisch carbohydrate reaction, and the ozazone test in seventeen minutes as described in mulliken identification of pure organic compounds, ed 1, 1905, p 26 theseare all characteristic reactions of lactose or milk sugar from this examination we conclude that desanctis’ pills containpowdered colchicum seed, benzoic acid, and sugar of milk there is alsopresent fatty material which resembles the fat of colchicum seed, butmay be, in writing, added fatty acid the percentage of colchicin found 0 50 is about that of a good quality of colchicum seed, the u s pharmacopeial standard being not less than 0 45 per cent since thepills contain material other than colchicum seed, this assay wouldindicate a colchicum seed of high alkaloidal content, or the possiblereinforcement of the pills with colchicum extract or colchicin the amount of benzoic acid, 2 92 per cent , or about 1/7 grain perpill, is insignificant from a therapeutic standpoint, since an averagedose is 0 5 gm , or 8 grains fatty acids, and the fatty matter fromcolchicum seed are inert, at least in the quantities found here theonly office which fatty acids might perform, would be to give the pillsan enteric quality, preventing their absorption until they reach theintestine the sugar of milk, about 10 per cent , or 1/2 grain perpill, no doubt is simply an excipient desanctis’ pills are therefore essentially 5 grain doses of powderedcolchicum seed, of which the average dose is 0 2 gm , or 3 grains u s p ix, p 120 the journal in presenting the facts contained in the above report madethe following comments:“here then, we have sold for self-medication an extremely poisonousdrug, with no warning of the risk the public runs in using it whilethe directions call for “one pill every eight hours until relieved, ”it is notorious that the public takes the attitude toward “patentmedicines” that, if a little is good, more is better, and the averageuser of remedies for self-treatment is likely, unless there is essaywarning, to use his own discretion as to the amount taken “the individual dose is above that of the average recommended in theunited states pharmacopeia colchicum or its alkaloids-- or for thatmatter, any drug as toxic as colchicum-- have no place in preparationsof the home-remedy type in the case of all “patent medicines, ”public interest demands that the full quantitative formula of thetherapeutically active ingredients should be given on the label, forwhen the public prescribes for itself, it has a right to know what itis taking unfortunately, public interest clashes with vested interestsand, as usual, vested interests get the better of it in the case ofsuch dangerous preparations as desanctis’ pills, if their sale is tobe permitted at all, not only should the names and quantities of alltherapeutically active ingredients in the mixture be given, but thelaw should require that the word poison be plainly printed on thelabel ”-- abstracted from the journal a m a , july 19, 1919 iodex and liquid iodexthe a m a chemical laboratory examined iodex in 1915 213 theclaims made, at that time, by the exploiters, menley & james, wereshown to be contrary to facts in that iodex contained only traces offree iodin while they claimed “5 per cent therapeutically free iodin ”even the total quantity of iodin was shown to be only about one halfof the 5 per cent claimed to be present as free iodin 213 annual reports of the chem lab of the a m a , 1915, p 89 an examination of the advertising matter sent out by menley & jamesin 1919 showed that substantially the same claims were being made asin 1915 this at once suggested the inquiry. Since the claims are thesame as previously made, have the manufacturers altered the compositionto conform to the claims?. the answer is found in the results of theanalysis of two samples purchased in the open market early in 1919 this analysis shows conclusively that iodex is essentially the same asin 1915, that is, that it contains no free iodin and only about threefifths of the total amount of iodin claimed it would seem that iodex ung iodi , m & j is in obvious conflictwith section 7 of the food and drugs act while it is sold under a namerecognized by the u s pharmacopeia, namely, ung iodi , it does notconform to the standards of the u s pharmacopeia for that product iodin ointment u s p is made with 4 per cent of free iodin, 4 percent of potassium iodid, 12 per cent of glycerin, and a benzoinatedlard base it should then contain approximately 7 per cent of totaliodin it has been shown by warren214 that about 75 per cent of theiodin in the u s p ointment remains in the free state even aftermonths of standing ung iodi , u s p , then, should contain about 3per cent of free iodin iodex contains no free iodin, or but traces, and no potassium iodid furthermore, the iodex label declares thepresence of 5 per cent of “therapeutically free” iodin as a matter offact, the amount of iodin is variable, the highest amount found being3 5 per cent and samples containing as low as 2 63 per cent have beenexamined 214 warren, l e. Iodin ointment, am j pharm , august, 1917, p 339 it would seem further that iodex is misbranded under the sherleyamendment in that it is said that it “may be used externally withadvantage in all paper where the action of iodin is desired ” sinceit contains no iodin as such this cannot possibly be true it is alsostated in a circular accompanying the trade package that “thirtyminutes after inunction iodin can be found in the urine ” thisstatement has also been shown to be untrue -- annual reports a m a chem lab , 1915, p 89 details of analysisiodex -- this is a rather soft ointment, almost black but with adecided greenish cast in thin layers it is soluble in chloroformbut is only writingly saponified and dissolved by alcoholic potassiumhydroxid iodex has a distinct odor like oleic acid free iodin -- when examined by the method previously used215 onlyminute traces of free iodin were found 215 ibid , p 90 total iodin -- the methods employed were as follows.

Then take of this cassia so drawn, andboil it to its consistence, a pound, sugar a pound and a half, boilthem to the form of an electuary according to art culpeper you may take it in white wine, it is good for gentlebodies, for if your body be hard to work upon, perhaps it will notwork at all. It purges the reins gallantly, and cools them, therebypreventing the stone, and other diseases caused by their heat electuarium amarum magistrale majus or the greater bitter electuary college take of agarick, turbith, species hiera simplex, rhubarb, of each one dram, choice aloes unwashed two drams, ginger, crystal oftartar, of each two scruples, orris, florentine, sweet fennel seeds, of each a scruple, syrup of roses solutive as much as is sufficient tomake it into an electuary according to art electuarium amarum minus or the lesser bitter electuary college take of epithimum half an ounce, the roots of angelicathree drams, of gentian, zedoary, acorus, of each two drams, cinnamonone dram and an half, cloves, mace, nutmegs, saffron, of each one dram, aloes six ounces, with syrup of fumitory, scabious and sugar so much asis sufficient to make it into a soft electuary culpeper both these purge choler, the former flegm, and thismelancholy, the former works strongest, and this strengthens most, andis good for such whose brains are annoyed you may take half an ounceof the former, if your body be any thing strong, in white wine, if verystrong an ounce, a reasonable body may take an ounce of the latter, the weak less i would not have the unskilful too busy about purgeswithout advice of a physician diacassia with manna college take of damask prunes two ounces, violet flowers a handfuland an half, spring water a pound and an half, boil it according to arttill half be consumed, strain it, and dissolve in the decoction sixounces of cassia newly drawn, sugar of violets, syrup of violets, ofeach four ounces, pulp of tamarinds an ounce, sugar candy an ounce andan half, manna two ounces, mix them, and make them into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper it is a fine cool purge for such as are bound in the body, for it works gently, and without trouble, it purges choler, and maysafely be given in fevers coming of choler. But in such paper, if thebody be much bound, the best way is first to administer a clyster, andthen the next morning an ounce of this will cool the body, and keep itin due temper cassia extracta sine soliis senæ or cassia extracted without the leaves of sena college take twelve prunes, violet flowers a handful, frenchbarley, the seed of annis, and bastard saffron, polypodium of the oak, of each five drams, maiden-hair, thyme, epithimum, of each half ahandful, raisins of the sun stoned half an ounce, sweet fennel seedstwo drams, the seeds of purslain, and mallows, of each three drams, liquorice half an ounce, boil them in a sufficient quantity of water, strain them and dissolve in the decoction, pulp of cassia two pounds, of tamarinds an ounce, cinnamon three drams, sugar a pound, boil itinto the form of an electuary cassia extracta cum soliis senæ or cassia extracted with the leaves of sena college take of the former receipt two pounds, sena in powder twoounces, mix them according to art culpeper this is also a fine cool gentle purge, cleansing thebowels of choler and melancholy without any griping, very fit forfeverish bodies, and yet the former is gentler than this they bothcleanse and cool the reins. A reasonable body may take an ounce and anhalf of the former, and an ounce of the latter in white wine, if theykeep the house, or their bodies be oppressed with melancholy, let themtake half the quantity in four ounces of decoction of epithimum diacarthamum college take of diatragacanthum frigidum, half an ounce, pulp ofpreserved quinces an ounce, the inside of the seeds of bastard saffronhalf an ounce, ginger two drams, diacrydium beaten by itself threedrams, turbith six drams, manna two ounces, honey of roses solutive, sugar candy, of each an ounce, hermodactils half an ounce, sugar tenounces and an half, make of them a liquid electuary according to art diaphœnicon college take of the pulp of dates boiled in hydromel, penids, ofeach half a pound, sweet almonds blanched, three ounces and an half, toall of them being bruised and mixed, add clarified honey two pounds, boil them a little, and then strew in ginger, long pepper, mace, cinnamon, rue leaves, the seeds of fennel and carrots, of each twodrams, turbith four ounces, diacridium an ounce and an half, make ofthem an electuary according to art culpeper i cannot believe this is so profitable in fevers takendownwards as authors say, for it is a very violent purge diaprunum lenitive college take one hundred damask prunes, boil them in water tillthey be soft, then pulp them, and in the liquor they were boiled in, boil gently one of violet flowers, strain it, and with two pounds ofsugar boil it to a syrup, then add half a pound of the aforesaid pulp, the pulp of cassia, and tamarinds, of each one ounce, then mix with itthese powders following. Sanders white and red, spodium, rhubarb, ofeach three drams, red roses, violets, the seeds of purslain, succory, barberries, gum tragacanth, liquorice, cinnamon, of each two drams, thefour greater cold seeds, of each one dram, make it into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper it may safely, and is with good success, given in acute, burning, and all other fevers, for it cools much, and loosens the bodygently.

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If they will not, i cannot help it if any fancy not pottage, they may eat the herb as a sallad crosswort this herb receives its name from the situation of its leaves descript common crosswort grows up with square hairy brown stalksa little above a foot high, having four small broad and pointed, hairyyet smooth thin leaves, growing at every joint, each against other oneway, which has caused the name towards the tops of the stalks at thejoints, with the leaves in three or four rows downwards, stand small, pale yellow flowers, after which come small blackish round seeds, fourfor the most writing, set in every husk the root is very small, and fullof fibres, or threads, taking good hold of the ground, and spreadingwith the branches over a great deal of ground, which perish not inwinter, although the leaves die every year and spring again anew place it grows in thesis moist grounds, well in meadows as untilledplaces, about london, in hampstead church-yard, at wye in kent, andsundry other places time it flowers from may all the summer long, in one place orother, as they are more open to the sun. The seed ripens soon after government and virtues it is under the dominion of saturn this isa singularly good wound herb, and is used inwardly, not only to staybleeding of wounds, but to consolidate them, as it doth outwardly anygreen wound, which it quickly solders up, and heals the decoction ofthe herb in wine, helps to expectorate the phlegm out of the chest, and is good for obstructions in the breast, stomach, or bowels, andhelps a decayed appetite it is also good to wash any wound or sorewith, to cleanse and heal it the herb bruised, and then boiled appliedoutwardly for certain days together, renewing it often. And in the meantime the decoction of the herb in wine, taken inwardly every day, dothcertainly cure the rupture in any, so as it be not too inveterate. Butvery speedily, if it be fresh and lately taken crowfoot thesis are the names this furious biting herb has obtained, almost enoughto make up a welchman pedigree, if he fetch no farther than john ofgaunt, or william the conquerer. For it is called frog-foot, from thegreek name barrakion. Crowfoot, gold knobs, gold cups, king knob, baffiners, troilflowers, polts, locket gouions, and butterflowers abundance are the sorts of this herb, that to describe them all wouldtire the patience of socrates himself, but because i have not yetattained to the spirit of socrates, i shall but describe the most usual descript the most common crowfoot has thesis thin great leaves, cutinto divers writings, in taste biting and sharp, biting and blisteringthe tongue. It bears thesis flowers, and those of a bright, resplendent, yellow colour i do not remember, that i ever saw any thing yellower virgins, in ancient time, used to make powder of them to furrow bridebeds. After which flowers come small heads, essay spiked and rugged likea pine-apple place they grow very common every where. Unless you turn your headinto a hedge you cannot but see them as you walk time they flower in may and june, even till september government and virtues this fiery and hot-spirited herb of marsis no way fit to be given inwardly, but an ointment of the leaves orflowers will draw a blister, and may be so fitly applied to the nape ofthe neck to draw back rheum from the eyes the herb being bruised andmixed with a little mustard, draws a blister as well, and as perfectlyas cantharides, and with far less danger to the vessels of urine, whichcantharides naturally delight to wrong.