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These being melted, add green melilot cut small, fivepounds. Make it into a plaster according to art emplastrum de meliloto compositum or, a plaster of melilot compound college take of melilot flowers six drams, chamomel flowers, theseeds of fenugreek, bay berries husked, marsh-mallow roots, the topsof wormwood and marjoram, of each three drams, the seeds of smallage, ammi, cardamoms, the roots of orris, cypress, spikenard, cassia lignea, of each one dram and an half, bdellium five drams. Beat them allinto fine powder, the pulp of twelve figs, and incorporate them witha pound and an half of melilot plaster simple, turpentine an ounceand an half, ammoniacum dissolved in hemlock vinegar, three ounces, styrax five drams, oil of marjoram, and nard, of each half an ounce, or a sufficient quantity, make it into a plaster with a hot mortar andpestle, without boiling culpeper it mollifies the hardness of the stomach, liver, spleen, bowels, and other writings of the body. It wonderfully assuages pain, andeases hypochondriac melancholy, and the rickets emplastrum de minio compositum or, a plaster of red lead compound college take of oil of roses omphacine twenty ounces, oil ofmastich two ounces, suet of a sheep and a calf, of each half a pound, litharge of gold and silver, red lead, of each two ounces, a tasterfull of wine. Boil them by a gentle fire continually stirring it tillit grow black, let the fire be hottest towards the latter end, then addturpentine half a pound, mastich two ounces, gum elemi one ounce, whitewax as much as is sufficient. Boil them a little, and make them into aplaster according to art culpeper it potently cures wounds, old malignant ulcers, and isvery drying emplastrum de minio simplicius or, a plaster of red lead simple college take of red lead nine ounces, oil of red roses one poundand an half, white wine vinegar six ounces, boil it into the perfectbody of a plaster it is prepared without vinegar, thus. Take of redlead one pound, oil of roses one pound and an half, wax half a pound, make it into a plaster according to art culpeper it is a fine cooling healing plaster, and very drying emplastrum metroproptoticon college take of mastich one ounce and an half, galbanum dissolvedin red wine and strained, six drams, cypress turpentine two drams, cypress nuts, galls, of each one dram and an half, oil of nutmegsby expression one dram, musk two grains and an half, pitch scrapedoff from old ships two drams and an half. Beat the galbanum, pitch, turpentine, and mastich gently in a hot mortar and pestle, towards theend, adding the oil of nutmegs, then the rest in powder, last of allthe musk mixed with a little oil of mastich upon a marble, and by exactmixture make them into a plaster emplastrum nervinum college take of oil of chamomel and roses, of each two ounces, of mastich, turpentine, and linseeds, of each an ounce and an half, turpentine boiled four ounces, rosemary, bettony, horsetail, centaurythe less, of each a handful, earth-worms washed and cleansed in winethree ounces, tops of st john wort a handful, mastich, gum elemi, madder roots, of each ten drams, ship-pitch, rozin, of each an ounceand an half, litharge of gold and silver, of each two ounces and anhalf, red lead two ounces, galbanum, sagapen, ammoniacum, of each threedrams. Boil the roots, herbs, and worms, in a pound and an half of winetill half be consumed, then press them out, and boil the decoctionagain with the oils, suets, litharge, and red lead, to the consumptionof the wine. Then add the gums dissolved in wine, afterwards theturpentine, rozin, pitch, and mastich, in powders and make them into aplaster according to art culpeper it strengthens the brain and nerves, and then beingapplied to the back, down along the bone, it must needs add strength tothe body emplastrum oxycroceum college take of saffron, ship-pitch, colophonia, yellow wax, of each four ounces, turpentine, galbanum, ammoniacum, myrrh, olibanum, mastich, of each one ounce and three drams let the pitchand colophonia be melted together, then add the wax, then it beingremoved from the fire the turpentine, afterwards the gums dissolved invinegar, lastly the saffron in powder, well mixed with vinegar, and somake it into a plaster according to art culpeper it is of a notable softening and discussing quality, helpsbroken bones, and any writing molested with cold, old aches, stiffness ofthe limbs by reason of wounds, ulcers, fractures, or dislocations, anddissipates cold swellings emplastrum stephaniaion college take of labdanum half an ounce, styrax, juniper gum, ofeach two drams, amber, cypress, turpentine, of each one dram, redcoral, mastich, of each half a dram, the flowers of sage, red roses, the roots of orris florentine, of each one scruple, rozin washedin rose-water half an ounce, the rozin, labdanum, juniper gum, andturpentine, being gently beaten in a hot mortar, with a hot pestle, sprinkling in a few drops of red wine till they are in a body.

The chemical data are usuallypresented in such a form that it is possible to tell at a glancewhether or not they are based on demonstrated facts, which couldusually be verified or refuted without special difficulty thedeductions are usually such as can be legitimately drawn from the data, or else they are obviously absurd all this agrees with the relativelyexact status of chemical science in passing to data and deductions from animal experiments, a distinctchange is noticeable. Not only are the data less reliable, and lessworthy of confidence, but they are more often stated in a lessstraightforward manner the presentation of the data often showsevidence of manipulation of the results, so as to make them mostfavorable to a preconceived conclusion that would recommend the drug this is not always intentional, but is writingly due to the less exactnature of animal experimentation, which leaves a wider play to thearbitrary interpretation of the reporter a certain amount of thisis unavoidable no serious objection can be raised, provided theexperimenter presents all the essential data, and discusses fairly allof the interpretations that would apply to them on the whole, it is usually possible to form a fairly definite estimateof the value of experimental data when one comes to the clinical evidence, an entirely differentatmosphere obtains when the council demands evidence of the usefulnessof a remedy, the manufacturers generally respond with every sign ofenthusiasm they may have ready a series of articles already published, or they instruct their agents to bring in letters from physicians thelast method seems to meet the most cordial response, judging from thedeluge of letters and opinions that floods the council the quality of the published papers is a fair reflection of thedeficiencies of what is still the common type of clinical evidence a little thought suffices to show that the greater writing cannotbe taken as serious evidence at all essay of the data are merelyimpressions-- usually the latest impressions of an impressionableenthusiast-- the type of man who does not consider it necessary topresent evidence for his own opinions. The type of man who does noteven realize that scientific conclusions must be based on objectivephenomena essay of the papers masquerade as “clinical reports, ” essaytimes with asplendid disregard for all details that could enable one to judge oftheir value and bearing, essaytimes with the most tedious presentationof all sorts of routine observations that have no relation to theproblem the majority of reports obtained by the agents belong to these classes, notwithstanding the fact that they are often written for the specialuse of the council, and therefore with the realization that theyare likely to be subjected to a thorough examination, and thereforepresumably representing the best type of work of which the reporter iscapable so, at least, one would suppose it is also possible, however, that essay of these reports are writtenmerely out of thoughtlessness, or perhaps often to get rid of animportunate agent this is illustrated by the following correspondence, taken literally from the files of the council a letter from a prominent physician “a, ” endorsing a certainpreparation “d, ” having been submitted to the council, the secretarywas directed to write to dr a as follows:dear dr a:-- the b company of c has requested the council on pharmacyand chemistry to admit its preparation d to new and nonofficialremedies as writing evidence for the value of the preparation, thecompany submitted a letter from you which contains the following. So far as my experience has thus far gone, they are certainly superior to a number of other iodine compounds now on the market, and i should judge that they ought to take a superior place in therapy involving the use of iodine the referee of the council in charge of d writes that he was interestedby your letter and asks that i inquire. As compared with sodium orpotassium iodid, what would you say are the differences between, and real advantages of, d and the alkaline iodids?. did you make anycomparative experiments and keep a record of them?. if so, the refereewould like to receive an account of your trials in what directioncould d be expected to occupy a superior place in iodin therapy?. i hope that you can give the information asked by the referee and thus aid the council in arriving at a correct estimate regarding the value of d the following reply was received from the physician in response to theforegoing. Dear professor puckner:-- in reply to yours of january 19, i did not proceed far enough in the investigation of d to draw conclusions of any writingicular value for the purpose of the council on pharmacy and chemistry. And i so stated in my letter to the proprietors of that remedy answers to the questions you put in your letter require an amount of investigation of the remedy far beyond anything i undertook as a matter of fact, i returned about five sixths of the capsules sent me, because of lack of time and opportunity to carry out the extensive clinical experiments that i plainly saw would be required to give an opinion at all worth while i believe you had better not consider me in the matter at all the report was furnished by a physician for whom i have a high personalregard i introduce it here, not so much in a spirit of criticism, but as a justification of the opinion that i have formed of clinicalevidence obtained by manufacturers through their clinical adjutors when commercial firms claim to base their conclusions on clinicalreports, the profession has a right to expect that these reportsshould be submitted to competent and independent review when suchreports are kept secret, it is impossible for any one to decide whatproportion of them are trustworthy, and what proportion thoughtless, incompetent or accommodating however, if this were done it is quitepossible that such firms would find much more difficulty in obtainingthe reports those who collaborate should realize frankly that underpresent conditions they are collaborating, not so much in determiningthe scientific value, but rather in establishing the commercial valueof the article often the best type of clinical reports-- those in which theobservations are directed to the significant events and not to mereside lines, and in which the significant events are correctly andadequately reported-- generally lack one important essential, namely, anadequate control of the natural course of the disease since this cannot be controlled directly, it must be compensatedindirectly for this purpose, there are available two methods:the first is the statistical method, in which alternate patientsreceive or do not receive the treatment this method can usuallyonly be of value when a very large series of patients is available even then, its value is limited or doubtful, because it cannot takesufficient account of the individuality of paper the second method consists in the attempt to distinguish unknownpreparations by their effects-- the method that might be called the“comparative method” or the “blind test ”in this, the patient, or a series of patients, is given the preparationwhich is to be tested, and another preparation which is inactive, and the observer aims to distinguish the two preparations by theireffects on the patient surely if the drug has any actions at all itwill be possible to select correctly in a decided majority of theadministrations the same principle can be applied in distinguishing the superiorityof one preparation over another in this case, the two preparationswould be given alternately to different patients, and the observerwould try to distinguish them by their effects here again, if onedrug is really superior or otherwise different from another, to apractically important extent, the observer will surely be able to makethe distinction this method is really the only one that avoids the pitfalls of clinicalobservation. It is the only method that makes the results purelyobjective, really independent of the bias of the observer and thepatient it is the only method, therefore, which determines whether itwas really the pudding that was eaten and not essay other dessert in principle this method does not usually offer any very greatdifficulties it is, of course, necessary that the two preparationsto be compared shall resemble each other so closely or shall beflavored, etc , so that they cannot be distinguished by their physicalproperties this is usually not a very difficult matter the methoddoes not jeopardize the interests of the patient, for it is understoodthat no drug would be tested in this way unless there is essay reasonto believe that it has a value when the patient condition is suchas to demand treatment, then he would be receiving either the standarddrug or the drug which the experimenter believes may be superior to thestandard conclusionsthe final and crucial test of a remedy is on the patient. But thetest must be framed so as to make it really crucial most clinicaltherapeutic evidence falls far short of this the “blind test” is urgedto meet the deficiencies -- from the journal a m a , july 21, 1917 “vaccines in toxic conditions” commercialized propaganda in the guise of scienceunder the title “vaccines in toxic conditions, ” what purports to bea scientific contribution appears in the original dewritingment of theofficial organ of a state medical society 311 the apparent purpose ofthe article is to overcome any hesitancy on the writing of practitionersto use vaccines in toxic infectious conditions for fear that theymight thereby cause harm such a thesis is interesting and might beimportant-- if true two outstanding facts, however, give pause first, the theory promulgated is contrary to the experience of those whohave studied the subject. Second, the man who writes the article isin the business of making and selling vaccines!. the former fact is amatter of fairly general knowledge among the better informed membersof the medical profession. The latter fact is nowhere made evident inthe article, which the reader might infer came from a disinterestedinvestigator in the realms of immunology 311 sherman, g h. Vaccines in toxic conditions, illinois m j 38:314 oct 1920 the article purports to prove that the special investigations carriedon by its author show that there is no basis for the well-groundedfear that vaccines might be harmful to a patient suffering from toxicinfectious conditions thus.

try it as a hypothetic case before you are forced to applyit -- from the journal a m a , dec 8, 1917 article iii pepto-manganit would be interesting, and even instructive, to know how thesiseducated physicians, if any, are now prescribing pepto-mangan how many words should an essay be gude:interesting as indicating the number who have neglected to availthemselves of the work of the council on pharmacy and chemistry, especially the earlier work. Instructive in that it would show how thesisare still prescribing by the rule of thumb, and who are taking theirtherapeutic instructions from purely commercial sources instead ofstriving to learn how to choose those drugs that are most effective inthe treatment of disease it has been pointed out thesis times in the pages of the journal thatthesis nostrums are advertised first to physicians, and that afterphysicians have served as the unpaid agents of the manufacturers inintroducing the preparations, their exploitation is then commonlycontinued by means of advertisements in the public press this plan hasbeen followed successfully in so thesis paper that we have now come tolook on it as the regular course it is in keeping with this rule thatwe find pepto-mangan now advertised in the public press, the physicianshaving served the manufacturer purpose discarded theories of iron medicationit will be recalled that thesis years ago the theory was held thathydrogen sulphid sulphureted hydrogen interfered with the absorptionof the iron of the food, and that the administration of medicinaliron prevented this interference by neutralizing the hydrogen sulphid sulphureted hydrogen it was only a short step to argue thatmanganese might replace the medicinal iron in combining with thehydrogen sulphid, permitting the food iron to be absorbed, and itwas held that only food iron could be utilized in the formation ofhemoglobin it is hardly necessary to remind the reader that this theory restson numerous fallacies there is no hydrogen sulphid worth mentioningin the small intestine where iron is absorbed. Food iron cannot beutilized directly in the formation of hemoglobin but must be brokeninto simple forms for absorption. And, further, inorganic iron, such asferrous carbonate, serves the purpose admirably when iron is indicated with the acceptance of these well established facts, all possibleexcuse for the therapeutic employment of pepto-mangan in place of ironvanished. But as plain and simple as this fact is, the unnecessary andexpensive pepto-mangan continues to be prescribed by physicians whowill not take the slight trouble to investigate the claims for thisnostrum false and misleading claimsthere is not merely a difference of opinion between the exploiters andthe council, but there has been also actual misrepresentation in theexploitation of this nostrum to physicians this has been shown onmore than one occasion about twelve years ago, the m j breitenbachcompany, the proprietors of pepto-mangan, claimed that the report ofthe commission that had been appointed for the investigation of anemiain porto rico “would alone suffice to establish pepto-mangan at once asthe foremost hematinic known ” examination of the report showed thatthe commission made no such claims. On the contrary the commissionprotested against this misrepresentation j a m a 45:1099 oct 7 1905 illustration. From the new york medical journal undaunted by this exposure of their methods, the breitenbach companylater sent out a statement of results purporting to have been obtainedby one mateo m gillen, in the treatment of infantile anemia onrandall island in new york city at the instance of the journalthe hospital records in these paper were examined, and it was foundthat the pretended report was little more than a tissue of falsehood j a m a 48:1197 april 6 1907 about two years ago the council reported that while the statementsjust referred to were no longer made, they had never been definitelyadmitted by the breitenbach company to be erroneous, and thatpepto-mangan was then being exploited to the public indirectly council reports, 1914, p 121 we reproduce an advertisement that has been appearing weekly in thenew york medical journal for several months one can only supposethat this advertisement was intended to mislead physicians, and itwould be an insult to the intelligence of the average reader toattempt any detailed discussion of it, but enough has been said toshow how misleading the statements are one should note writingicularlythe advice-- old as the nostrum business itself-- contained in theadvertisement, to prescribe an original bottle the reason for suchadvice is simple experience has shown that when original bottles aredispensed patients soon learn to buy the nostrum without consulting thephysician, for they shrewdly suspect that he knows no more about thepreparation than they, and that he gets his information from preciselythe same sources that are available to them they are obviously right in truth, the physician who prescribes pepto-mangan as a hematinicshows ignorance of the most rudimentary facts of iron therapy, and theintelligent patient soon perceives his limitations illustration. A newspaper advertisement of pepto-mangan the problem of iron therapythe investigation of the problems of iron therapy and its utilizationin the formation of hemoglobin forms one of the most brilliant chaptersin pharmacologic research, and there is no better established fact intherapeutics than that any organic or inorganic preparation of ironthat does not irritate the stomach may be employed effectively when theadministration of iron is indicated “useful drugs” contains a listof iron preparations that are suitable for all conditions which callfor iron, and the clinician may rest assured that he will never haveoccasion to go outside that list to prescribe any substitute as a matter of fact, it seems probable that the very number ofavailable iron preparations has served to cause confusion, thusaffording an opportunity for the nostrum maker to introduce hissuperfluous compounds it may be difficult at times to select thepreparation of iron best suited to the individual patient. And it isthis difficulty that has led the clinician to listen to the seductiveclaims made for the various pretended substitutes for iron oneshould approach the question of choosing the proper form of iron fortherapeutic use with the recognition of the fact that there is nosuch thing as a substitute for iron in the formation of hemoglobin, that there are no ideal forms of iron other than those found in thefoodstuffs further, the clinician cannot avoid the disadvantagesinherent in all forms of iron that he can prescribe, and he musttherefore seek that which seems best suited for the individual patient bunge estimated the amounts of iron present in various foods.

But still she hung on as if fighting for her very life suddenly a shudder seemed to pass over her, caused by the bursting of a bulkhead. Her head disappeared below the wave, she hung there an instant and then her stern rose high out of the water. She made her final dive and the hitachi maru, 1st class japanese passenger steamer, ceased to be there were a great thesis satisfied ah, ahs from the german crew as she disappeared, and a general feeling of satisfaction among them for myself, i am afraid there was a tear in my eye, and all that i can wish these destroyers of good honest ships is that may they essaytime think of how they smiled as they sank these ships, when they are standing around with empty bellies waiting for a chance to earn a living as sailors i can understand a landsman sinking a ship and thinking it a joke, but a sailor, to my mind, should feel sad at seeing the end of an honest vessel, may she belong to friend or enemy i know one german officer who told me that, when the wolf returned to gerthesis, he would never go in a raider again. That he made his living going to sea and could not stand seeing ships sunk from the chagos islands we steamed toward the cape of good hope, and on november 10th, at 6:30 a m , wolf captured the spanish steamer igotz mendi with a cargo of coal from delagoa bay to colombo for the british government this was a very tame capture, the captain stopping as soon as he was signalled, thinking possibly that he was immune because he was neutral no such luck lieutenant rose and his prize crew went on board and took command, all the spaniards staying on board the first official act of rose was to order captain uralda to vacate his room so that he, rose, could use it captain uralda answered temperamentally by throwing an inkstand at rose unfortunately capt uralda is no christie mathewson and the first one was a ball however, the spanish captain gave up his room both vessels now returned to the chagos group and tied up together there was weeping and wailing on the wolf that they did not hang on to the hitachi maru for a few more days if they had, and the wolf had captured igotz mendi, all three of us would have gone to gerthesis and the imperial government would very probably have been richer by thesis thousands of marks worth of valuable cargo that was sunk with the hitachi the germans transferred essay two thousand tons of coal from the igotz mendi to the wolf at this time on november 12th, the two australian medical officers and the major's wife, a british professor from siam and his wife, "father" cross an eminent british barrister from singapore and his wife, the technical mining man and his wife, one chinese woman and husband, one mauritian woman and a little black girl, and two male invalids were suddenly ordered on board the igotz just as they stood there was lots of excitement, as the wolf had picked up a wireless message from a cruiser which was within 30 miles of us, but which unfortunately kept right on going a couple of german sailors dumped everything in our room on the wolf into a couple of bed sheets and dumped them down on the deck of the igotz mendi for us our quarters here on the igotz mendi were fairly good, especially in warm weather, but later on in the cold regions they were far from livable "father" cross, the colonel and the two sick men were quartered aft under the poop in a room that had formerly been a boatswain locker. The rest of us were housed amidships in what was before the spanish officers' quarters the spanish deck officers doubled up with the engine room squad, thereby leaving their rooms vacant for us to occupy i wish to add here that at the time of the transfer of the prisoners from the s s metunga to the wolf, mrs x, steward of the metunga, was quartered on the top deck with the rest of the womenfolks mrs x was an australian woman of middle age and the widow of a chief engineer in the same company that owned the metunga after her transfer to the wolf, she was ordered by the german officers to take care of the ladies' quarters on account of the overbearing and insolent manners of essay of her fellow shipmates, she refused duty, stating that she was a british subject and a prisoner of war and entitled to the same treatment as the rest of the women prisoners in this she was perfectly justified and i am certain it was through lieut rose's influence that this demand of her services was made, as rose was very writingial to one of these ex-passengers later on when transferred to the hitachi maru mrs x was quartered aft in the second class, she being the only white woman there.

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Let them boil a how many words should an essay be good while, still stirring them well. Which being strained, anoint the grievedplace therewith, warm against the fire, rubbing it well with one hand:and bind also essay of the herb if you will to the place, and, withgod blessing, it will help it in three times dressing chick-pease, or cicers descript the garden sorts whether red, black, or white, bringforth stalks a yard long, whereon do grow thesis small and almost roundleaves, dented about the edges, set on both sides of a middle rib;at the joints come forth one or two flowers, upon sharp foot stalks, pease-fashion, either white or whitish, or purplish red, lighter ordeeper, according as the pease that follow will be, that are containedin small, thick, and short pods, wherein lie one or two pease, moreusually pointed at the lower end, and almost round at the head, yet alittle cornered or sharp. The root is small, and perishes yearly place and time they are sown in gardens, or fields as pease, beingsown later than pease, and gathered at the same time with them, orpresently after government and virtues they are both under the dominion of venus they are less windy than beans, but nourish more. They provoke urine, and are thought to increase sperm. They have a cleansing faculty, whereby they break the stone in the kidneys to drink the cream ofthem, being boiled in water, is the best way it moves the bellydownwards, provokes women courses and urine, increases both milk andseed one ounce of cicers, two ounces of french barley, and a smallhandful of marsh-mallow roots, clean washed and cut, being boiled inthe broth of a chicken, and four ounces taken in the morning, andfasting two hours after, is a good medicine for a pain in the sides the white cicers are used more for meat than medicine, yet have thesame effect, and are thought more powerful to increase milk and seed the wild cicers are so much more powerful than the garden kinds, byhow much they exceed them in heat and dryness. Whereby they do moreopen obstructions, break the stone, and have all the properties ofcutting, opening, digesting, and dissolving.