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How Long Should A Short Essay Be


Cairo, etc , r r co v mahoney, 82 ill , 73. Atchison, etc , r r v beecher, 24 kansas, 228 same rule does not prevail in united states in case of accidents to passengers - the paper just noted were all paper of employees in the paper of injured passengers it has been doubted whether the same rule applied, essay state courts holding that in that case there is no obligation to furnish medical and surgical attendance, but that the physician attending must look to the persons whom they attended union pacific r r co v beatty, 35 kansas, 265. Brown v missouri, 67 missouri, 122 different in england - in england a different rule prevails one more humane and in consonance with the moral obligation imposed by the relationship of the writingies in walker v the great western r r co , a recent case law reports, 2 exch , 228, chief-justice kelley, in the course of the argument, made this remark. “must a board be convened before a man who has his legs broken can have medical attendance?. ” but in cox v the midland counties r r co 3 wellsby, h & g , 268, the station master, employed as the chief officer of the passenger and other dewritingments, called in a surgeon to perform an operation upon a passenger injured by a train the road was held not liable on the other hand, in langan v great western r r co 30 law times, n s , 173, a sub-inspector of railway police was held to have implied power to employ a surgeon for an injured employee but in arkansas an attorney for a railroad company was held not authorized to do so st louis, etc , r r co v hoover, 53 ark , 377 doctrine in indiana the more sensible one - the more sensible doctrine seems to be established in this country, in the state of indiana at least, in the case of terre haute r r co v mcmurray 98 ind , 358, in which the court held that where there was great necessity for the employment of a surgeon, the conductor of a train has authority to employ the surgeon, if the conductor is the highest officer in rank on the ground at the time but in that case the court expressly states that this liability grows out of the exigencies of the case. Not out of any theory of general authority authority of railroad physician to employ nurses, etc , doubtful - it has also been disputed whether the authority of the company physician extended far enough to render the company liable for services performed by nurses employed by him, or for board and lodging engaged by him for injured employees in bingham v chicago, etc , r r co 79 iowa, 534, it was held that the authority was sufficient, but in that case testimony appeared tending to show that an agent of the company who had authority to employ the physician had authorized him to employ two nurses the converse doctrine namely, that the fact that a physician of the company was authorized to buy medicines on the credit of the company does not authorize the inference that he has power to render the company liable by a contract for board and nursing of a person injured on the company road was held in maber v the chicago, etc , r r co , 75 missouri, 495.

They areprofitable for such as have how long should a short essay be agues, dropsies, stoppings of the liver, orspleen, green sickness asparagi of asparagus, or sperage. They are temperate in quality, opening, they provoke urine, and cleanse the reins and bladder, beingboiled in white wine, and the wine drank asphodeli, hastæ regiæ fœm of kings spear, or female asphodel iknow no physical use of the roots. Probably there is, for i do notbelieve god created any thing of no use asphodeli, albuci, muris of male asphodel hot and dry in the seconddegree, inwardly taken, they provoke vomit, urine, and the menses:outwardly used in ointments, they cause hair to grow, cleanse ulcers, and take away morphew and freckles from the face bardanæ, &c of bur, clot-bur, or burdock, temperately hot and dry helps such as spit blood and matter. Bruised and mixed with salt andapplied to the place, helps the bitings of mad dogs it expels wind, eases pains of the teeth, strengthens the back, helps the runningof the reins, and the whites, being taken inwardly dioscorides, apuleius behen alb rub of valerian, white and red mesue, serapio, andother arabians, say they are hot and moist in the latter end of thefirst, or beginning of the second degree, and comfort the heart, stirup lust the grecians held them to be dry in the second degree, thatthey stop fluxes, and provoke urine bellidis of dasies see the leaves betæ, nigræ, albæ, rubræ of beets, black, white, and red.

Bull et mém soc méd d hôp deparis 33:197, 1912 287 laurent, m how long should a short essay be , and bohec, j. Med press and circular 94:461, 1912 288 touche, m. Bull et mém soc méd d hôp de paris 35:451, 1913 the results obtained are fairly concordant the intravenous injectionof the preparation produces but slight disturbance there isleukocytosis, a moderate rise of temperature, and not infrequentlya chill otherwise the substance seems to possess no toxicity theeffects produced on the tumors have almost invariably been describedas encouraging touche, who treated twenty-seven paper in this way andhas described each case in detail, states that under the treatment thesurface of the tumors, if ulcerated, became cleaner and healthier;the tumors became softer. The rate of growth was arrested, and therewas relief of pain and of the accompanying functional disturbances;often, too, there was a gain in weight and an improvement in generalwell-being touche concludes his article with the statement that “it is certainthat the effect is not curative but it is actually palliative ” delbet, on the other hand, states that he has seen no beneficial effects fromthe use of colloidal selenium injected intravenously in the discussionon delbet paper, ledoux-lebard states that he has observed nothingfrom selenium further than the temporary improvement which is shownby almost all cancer paper on the application of any new therapeuticmeasure in one or two instances the claim is made in the literature ofan actual cure of malignant growth through the use of selenium such, for example, is the case described by blumenthal from the clinicaldescription this might have been a cancer of the tongue, and was judgedto have been such in view of the negative wassermann reaction nomicroscopic examination was made arsphenamin was given the patientrecovered it is clear that instances of this type cannot be acceptedas beyond criticism, and it is safe to say that nothing more convincingin the way of actual cure is offered in the rather voluminousliterature on the use of selenium numerous compounds of selenium, essay of them claiming to circulate incolloidal form, have been described, and have been put on the marketfor use in malignant disease such are walker sulpho-selene, andselenio-vanadium, which has been prepared in the form of an ointment byschering and glatz these preparations lay claim to the same palliativeeffects which have been previously described for colloidal selenium of the other metals in colloidal form, chiefly silver and copper havecome into use colloidal silver was first recommended for malignantgrowths by vogel it is obtainable on the market in proprietaryform under the name of fulmargin, and also as electrargol recentlyrohdenburg289 has made a careful study of the effects of colloidalsilver in experimental and in human tumors, and finds that they haveno value colloidal copper has been used in recent times for the samepurpose by gaube du gers and by others i have recently examined theeffects of colloidal copper on malignant tumors in man, and have beenunable to find that it has any therapeutic value furthermore, a studyof the distribution of the copper in tumors obtained at operation or bynecropsy from individuals so treated failed to show that the copper hadbeen deposited therein 289 rohdenburg, h. J m research 26:331, 1915 finally, preparations similar to those used by werner and by caspari inanimals have also been used in human beings in these paper also theauthors have been able to record palliative effects on the tumor, butin no instance cures we have seen that it has been quite impossible to duplicate in humanbeings the therapeutic technic employed in animal experiments wehave seen further that the use of a modified technic in animalexperimentation has never been productive of favorable results evenat the hands of enthusiastic adherents in striking contrast to theseconclusions are the observations made in human therapeutics forevery type of preparation described in the preceding paragraphs, theclaim has been made practically without exception that it exercises amarkedly beneficial effect on malignant diseases in the human being not only are the subjective symptoms alleviated, but also the tumorsappear to become cleaner and softer. The rate of growth is retarded;necrosis and metastasis are prevented, and inoperable tumors becomeoperable how are we to interpret these observations?. how are we toexplain the fact that they are the almost invariable accompanimentof the most diverse methods of treatment?. i have already quoted thestatement of ledoux-lebard that every therapeutic novelty appears toexercise a favorable effect on cancer paper the same fact has beenobserved in a variety of other diseases, such as locomotor ataxia in order to arrive at a safe and reliable estimate as to the valueof any new or experimental procedure in paper of cancer, it seemsadvisable to accept certain definite therapeutic criteria by which thepaper are to be judged in the absence of such a method, alterationsin symptoms which are actually of no real value or importance receiveundue emphasis the natural course of the disease is associatedwith such fluctuations that a sanguine therapeutist can gain essayencouragement from even the most hopeless paper hence it follows thatevery mode of treatment has found adherents the market is floodedwith cancer drugs, and cancer charlatans flourish in the most highlyeducated communities unfortunately, even well trained, honest andreputable physicians have fallen victims to this fallacy, and havelent their names to the support of modes of treatment which in realityproduce no determinable effect on the natural evolution of the disease it was the desire to combat this unfortunate tendency which led meessay time ago to attempt to establish a reliable set of criteria oftherapeutic effects in cancer these were embodied in an article280which appeared two years ago, and i may be here permitted to quote themin extenso. Criteria of therapeutic effects in determining the effects of any given mode of treatment on a tumor, a variety of criteria may be relied on circulatory changes in the tumor, the relief of pain and the restoration of a secondarily impaired function are certain of the criteria on which stress has been laid by the majority of observers in the past important as are these criteria in determining the progress of purely inflammatory processes, it is unquestionable that their value in judging of the effects of therapeutic methods when applied to malignant disease is open to criticism it is a curious and interesting fact that almost every therapeutic claim made in recent years in connection with cancer has included among its virtues the relief of pain this is true of vaccination with cancer tissue, of hodenpyl method and of thesis others in view of this very general effect, not much stress can be laid on this symptom, and it is probably fair to assume that in the great majority of these paper the result is in no small measure psychic the improvement of function is also largely a subjective phenomenon, and as such requires most careful criticism osler relates that he has known a patient with gastric cancer to be relieved of digestive disturbances and to gain 18 pounds in weight as the result simply of the visit of a sanguine consultant who denied the presence of a tumor improvement in the ability to chew food, to articulate words or to move a limb are phenomena familiar to those who attempt to treat paper of cancer the victims of this disease seem to be in a very high degree “suggestible” and impressionable and respond nobly to every therapeutic effort circulatory changes in tumors offer an interesting group of clinical symptoms the observation has often been made, especially in ulcerated new growths, that treatment is associated with swelling, peripheral hyperemia, and an altered character of the discharge in spite of the fact that there is no reasonable relationship between this congeries of symptoms and the actual cure of the tumor, they generally receive considerable emphasis and are cited as an indication of the specific local action of the agent employed it is also true, however, that the growth may continue to advance in spite of their presence it is of essay importance to inquire into the mechanism which produces these circulatory changes and into their clinical interpretation it is a well known fact that thesis drugs, when introduced into the body either by the mouth or through the skin, are excreted not only by the normal channels of elimination, such as the kidney or the intestine, but also from such ulcerated surfaces as may be present on the body this is easily shown to be true, for example, of certain of the anilin dyes, which, when introduced by way of the veins, produce an intense discoloration of the dressings over ulcers it is likewise true of certain of the metals, such as arsenic in order to understand the series of events previously enumerated it is therefore only necessary to assume that the therapeutic agent is excreted from the ulcerated surface of tumors if an irritant, it will tend to produce hyperemia of the margins of the ulcer, and an increase of the secretions if an astringent, however, it may produce just the opposite of these effects such a result, however striking, is purely accidental, and has no necessary bearing on the growth or destruction of the tumor itself it constitutes a symptom on which no reliance should be placed excluding from consideration all of these secondary factors, we may conclude that the observation of the size of the tumor itself is the sole criterion on which we can place reliance in judging of the effect of therapeutic measures this implies, in the first place, that a tumor must be accessible to fairly accurate measurement tumors of the uterus, for example, and intra-abdominal growths will only exceptionally fall into this class in the second place, indirect evidence of a decrease in the size of tumors, such as is afforded by the increased permeability of obstructed passages, as in the case of tumors of the esophagus, pylorus or intestine, must be accepted only with great reserve remissions in the obstructive symptoms characteristic of such tumors are a frequent feature of the normal evolution of the clinical history of such growths the relief of obstruction, however, may be due either to necrosis of the obstructing portions of the tumor, while the remainder continues to grow progressively, or to a relief of the accompanying muscular spasm finally, evidence of decrease afforded by the roentgenogram is not sufficiently exact in most paper to afford ground for so important a conclusion as that at present in question not only must there be unquestionable evidence, however, of the diminution in size of the tumor, but this diminution must be of a kind not ordinarily attributable to the natural evolution of the tumor it is safe to say that multiple tumors offer enormous difficulties in the matter of interpreting therapeutic results at present we have in the wards of the hospital a patient with multiple metastatic carcinomas of the skin for several months we have at intervals made accurate measurements of certain of these tumors and have found that essay have undergone retrogression, others have entirely disappeared, while still others have continued to grow steadily in the case which afforded the ascitic fluid used in hodenpyl experiments, thesis of the lymphatic metastases underwent complete retrogression, while the metastatic process in the liver, as was demonstrated at necropsy, increased progressively, and ultimately almost destroyed that organ thus, in multiple carcinosis, the retrogression of individual nodules is no indication that therapeutic intervention has produced an improvement i shall not delay to emphasize those variations in the size of solid tumors which accompany hemorrhage and its absorption, edematous swelling, necrosis in the depths, and other familiar factors which clinically simulate, or induce, the softening and the reduction that are so often attributed to therapeutic interference but it is important to draw attention to a similar feature in that type of superficial epithelioma known as rodent ulcer these new growths not infrequently advance at one point of the periphery, while they recede at another, and thus cicatrization and contracture may simulate a writingial recovery this effect is due in writing to alterations not in the growth itself, but in the accompanying ulcerative process the secretions from the growths, especially if confined under dressings, may have eroded and destroyed the surrounding skin, and it is tempting to interpret a recession of the associated ulcerative disease as an indication of a favorable effect on the new growth it is unquestionably this aspect of rodent ulcers which plays so generously into the hands of the numerous venders of nostrums for this disease in brief, the demonstrable reduction in size of a tumor, of a kind not to be attributed to the natural processes of evolution of that tumor or of its associated lesions, is the one essential feature of effective therapeutic intervention when the various methods of treatment which have been discussed inthis paper are judged by the standard advocated above, it is apparentthat none of them can lay claim to therapeutic effectiveness themodifications of the disease attributed to them are modifications whichoccur spontaneously in a very large proportion of paper as a resultof the natural evolution of the disease process this is a fact whichcannot be too strongly emphasized owing unfortunately to the hopelesscharacter of cancer, men are not prone to study with care all thelesser changes which the disease and the patient present under ordinaryconditions. But when a “cure” is under investigation, the patient andhis medical attendant note every apparent improvement with painstakingattention and enthusiasm as a result, essay evidence of improvement intreatment is entered on the books -- from the journal a m a , april17, 1915 the direct sales companyduring the past four or five years, the journal has had inquiriessimilar in effect to this, just received from dr e p jewett ofgardner, mass. “will you kindly inform me regarding a drug manufacturing company by the name of the direct sales company, buffalo, new york?. are their products standard and reliable so far as you know?. ”the direct sales company, inc , buffalo, has, according to itsletterhead, the following officers.

And made up into a pessary with honey, andput up into the body, draws forth the dead child it is much commendedagainst the cough, to expectorate rough phlegm it much eases pains inthe head, and procures sleep. Being put into the nostrils it procuressneezing, and thereby purges the head of phlegm the juice of the rootapplied to the piles or hæmorrhoids, gives much ease the decoction ofthe roots gargled in the mouth, eases the tooth-ache, and helps thestinking breath oil called oleum irinum, if it be rightly made ofthe great broad flag flower-de-luce and not of the great bulbous blueflower-de-luce, as is used by essay apothecaries and roots of thesame, of the flaggy kinds, is very effectual to warm and comfort allcold joints and sinews, as also the gout and sciatica, and mollifies, dissolves and consumes tumours and swellings in any writing of the body, as also of the matrix. It helps the cramp, or convulsions of thesinews the head and temples anointed therewith, helps the catarrh orthin rheum distilled from thence. And used upon the breast or stomach, helps to extenuate the cold tough phlegm. It helps also the pains andnoise in the ears, and the stench of the nostrils the root itself, either green or in powder, helps to cleanse, heal, and incarnatewounds, and to cover the naked bones with flesh again, that ulcers havemade bare.

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Make them into a plaster according to art culpeper it is very good in green wounds and shootings a key to galen method of physic the general use of physic i shall desire thee, whoever thou art, that intendest the noble thoughtoo much abused study of physic, to mind heedfully these followingrules. Which being well understood, shew thee the key of galen andhippocrates their method of physic. He that useth their method, andis not heedful of these rules, may soon cure one disease, and causeanother more desperate that thou mayest understand what i intend, it is to discover in ageneral way of the manifest virtues of medicines i say of the manifest virtues, and qualities, viz such as areobvious to the senses, especially to the taste and smell. For it hathbeen the practice of most physicians, in these latter ages as well asours, to say, when they cannot give, nor are minded to study a reason, why an herb, plant, &c hath such an operation, or produces such aneffect in the body of man. It doth it by an hidden quality, for theynot minding the whole creation, as one united body, not knowing whatbelongs to astral influence, not regarding that excellent harmonythe only wise god hath made in a composition of contraries in theknowledge of which consists the whole ground and foundation of physicare totally led astray by tradition it is the manifest qualities of medicines that here i am to speak to, and you may be pleased to behold it in this order section 1 of the temperature of medicines section 2 of the appropriation of medicines section 3 of the properties of medicines section i of the temperature of medicines herbs, plants, and other medicines manifestly operate, either by heat, coldness, dryness, or moisture, for the world being composed of sothesis qualities, they and only they can be found in the world, and themixtures of them one with another but that they may appear as clear as the sun when he is upon themeridian, i shall treat of them severally, and in this order 1 of medicines temperate 2 of medicines hot 3 of medicines cold 4 of medicines moist 5 of medicines dry of medicines temperate if the world be composed of extremes, then it acts by extremes, foras the man is, so is his work. Therefore it is impossible that anymedicine can be temperate, but may be reduced to heat, cold, dryness, or moisture, and must operate, i mean such as operate by manifestquality by one of these, because there is no other to operate by, andthat there should be such a temperate mixture, so exquisitely of thesequalities in any medicine, that one of them should not manifestly excelthe other, i doubt it is a system too rare to find thus then i conclude the matter to be, those medicines are calledtemperate not because they have excess of temperature at all in themwhich can neither be said, to heat nor cool so much as will amount tothe first degree of excess, for daily experience witnesses that theybeing added to medicines, change not their qualities, they make themneither hotter nor colder their use they are used in such diseases where there is no manifestdistemper of the first qualities, viz heat and cold, for example;in obstruction of the bowels, where cold medicines might make theobstruction greater, and hot medicines cause a fever in fevers of flegm, where the cause is cold and moist, and the effecthot and dry. In such, use temperate medicines which may neitherencrease the fever by their heat, nor condensate the flegm by theircoldness besides, because contraries are taken away by their contraries, and every like maintained by its like, they are of great use, topreserve the constitution of the body temperate, and the body itselfin strength and vigour, and may be used without danger, or fear ofdanger, by considering which writing of the body is weak, and using suchtemperate medicines as are appropriated to that writing of medicines hot the care of the ancient physicians was such that they did not labourto hide from, but imwriting to posterity, not only the temperature ofmedicines in general, but also their degrees in temperature, that sothe distempered writing may be brought to its temperature, and no further;for all things which are of a contrary temperature, conduce not tocure, but the strength of the contrariety must be observed, that so themedicine may be neither weaker nor stronger, than just to take awaythe distemper. For if the distemper be but meanly hot, and you applya medicine cold in the fourth degree, it is true, you may soon removethat distemper of heat, and bring another of cold twice as bad galen, de simp med facul lib 3 cap 12 then, secondly, not only the distemper itself, but also the writing ofthe body distempered must be heeded. For if the head be distempered byheat, and you give such medicines as cool the heart or liver, you willbring another disease, and not cure the former the degrees then of temperature are to be diligently heeded, whichantient physicians have concluded to be four in the qualities, viz heat and cold, of each we shall speak a word or two severally of medicines hot in the first degree those are said to be hot in the first degree, which induce a moderateand natural heat to the body, and to the writings thereof. Either cold bynature, or cooled by accident, by which natural heat is cherished whenweak, or restored when wanting effect 1 the first effect then of medicines hot in the first degree, is, by their sweat and temperate heat to reduce the body to itsnatural heat, as the fire doth the external writings in cold weather, unless the affliction of cold be so great that such mild medicines willnot serve the turn effect 2 the second effect is, the mitigation of pain arising fromsuch a distemper, and indeed this effect hath other medicines, essaythat are cold, and essay that are hotter than the first degree, theybeing rationally applied to the distemper these medicines the greekscall anodyna, and shall be spoken of in their proper places in thisplace let it suffice that medicines hot in the first degree, makethe offending humours thin, and expel them by sweat, or insensibletranspiration, and these of all others are most congruous or agreeableto the body of man, for there is no such equal temperature of heatand cold in a sound man, but heat exceeds, for we live by heat andmoisture, and not by cold medicines then which are hot in the first degree, are such as justcorrespond to the natural heat of our bodies. Such as are hotter orcolder, are more subject to do mischief, being administered by anunskilful hand, than these are, because of their contrariety to nature;whereas these are grateful to the body by their moderate heat effect 3 thirdly, these take away weariness, and help fevers, beingoutwardly applied, because they open the pores of the skin, and bytheir gentle heat prepare the humours, and take away those fuliginousvapours that are caused by fevers discommodities yet may discommodities arise by heedless givingeven of these, which i would have young students in physic to be verycareful in, lest they do more mischief than they are aware of, viz it is possible by too much use of them, to consume not only what isinimical in the body, but also the substance itself, and the strengthof the spirits, whence comes faintings, and essaytimes death.