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Medical record 88:226, 1915 “alcohol and therapeutics”. Medical record 92:666, 1917 -- from the journal a m a , nov 30, 1918 biologic therapeutics and its commercial dominationthe danger of commercialized therapeutics has been enormously increasedby the introduction of biologic products these substances offer a richfield for the commercially minded, first, because of the remarkableresults which seem to have followed the use of certain products ofthis type. Second, because the field is new and the mode of actionof these substances not readily understood and, third-- and mostimportant-- because, by the very nature of the problems involved, fewphysicians are well informed concerning them the influenza epidemic oflast year was widespread and fatal in character it stimulated earnestresearch in methods of prevention and cure we were all in a frameof mind to grasp at any straw here and there essay worker would cry“eureka”-- only to be disappointed when his product was actually put tothe test however, there were more than enough manufacturers ready toplace any product on the market with specious claims that could notbe positively denied vaccines, serums, proteins-- all were advancedwith such glowing statements as to their properties that only thosephysicians who kept their feet firmly on solid ground could resistthe appeal now we have had another epidemic-- mild, it is true-- butthe memories of last year make the average physician ready to acceptanything which promises hope, and the manufacturers “make hay while thesun shines ” physicians have been and are being deluged with literatureon the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza so far as we know, fewpublications have contained any word of warning on these matters oneexception has just come to notice.

For often it is important to prove that the garments wereworn by or belonged to the deceased if any blood is on the clothing, note whether the blood is in large patches, or whether it is sprinkledover the garment. The amount of the blood and what garments are stainedby it note and examine whether the blood has flowed down the frontof the clothing, whether it has soaked the inner garments, or again, whether it has collected along the back. For these appearances willessaytimes demonstrate whether a wound was inflicted while the personwas sitting, standing, or lying down for example, if the throat iscut while the person is lying down, the blood will be found on eachside of the neck along the back and not down the front of the body few suicides cut their throats in a recumbent position, and thisdistribution of the blood may serve to distinguish a suicidal from ahomicidal wound the condition of the clothing may also serve to show whether therehas been any struggle, and the presence of dry spots or mud on it mayessaytimes serve to connect an accused person with an act of murder this is well illustrated in the case of reg v snipe, reported inbeck “medical jurisprudence, ” where evidence was adduced to showthat essay spots of mud on the boots and clothing of the prisoner, whenexamined microscopically, contained infusoria, shells, and essay rareaquatic vegetables the mud of the ditch close to where the body wasfound, as also the mud on the clothing of the dead body, presentedthe same microscopical appearances the medical expert who gave thisevidence swore that in his opinion the mud spots on the body and onthe prisoner boots were derived from the same ditch, for the mudof all the other ditches in the locality was found, on microscopicalexamination, to be different the well-known case which occurred innew york a few years ago, known as the “shakespeare case, ” furnishesan example of the importance of carefully examining all stains on theclothing found on bodies if there are several stabs or cuts on the body involving the dress, itshould be noted whether they are blood-stained, and if so, whether thestain is on the inside or outside of the garments, for essaytimes insimulated personal injury a stain of blood may be inadvertently appliedto the outside of the dress, as in wiping a weapon weapons - if a weapon is found, the character of the weapon and itsexact position should be noted this is frequently of importance intelling whether a person has died from an accidental or self-inflictedwound in a case where death occurs immediately or within a fewminutes, the weapon is found near the body, or often so tightly graspedin the hand that it can be with difficulty removed if the weaponis found near the body it should be noted on which side and at whatdistance, and it must be questioned whether it could have fallen onthe spot or been thrown there by the deceased it is compatible withsuicide that the weapon should be found at essay distance from the body an instance has been recorded where an individual was discovered inbed with his throat cut, and the bloody razor was found closed and inthe pocket of the deceased if a weapon cannot be discovered, or isconcealed, it is strong presumptive evidence of homicide. Especiallywhen the wound is such as to produce speedy death note whether the weapon is sharp or blunt, straight or curved if aknife, the handle and inner portion should be examined, for the blademay have been washed if the wound has involved any large vessels, it is improbable that theweapon can have been thrown any distance from the body, and when it is, there are always fair grounds to expect interference with the originalposition of the body one circumstance which always strongly points tosuicide is the finding of the weapon firmly grasped in the hand of thecadaver the hand of a dead person cannot be made to grasp or retaina weapon as does the hand which has grasped it at the last moments oflife the amount of blood on the weapon should be noted, but it must beremembered that a knife may have produced a fatal stab wound and stillno blood be found on it this is explained by the fact that in a rapidplunge the vessels were compressed, and only after the drawing of theknife and relieving of the pressure blood began to flow, or possiblythe blood may have been wiped off the knife by the elasticity of theskin when a person has died of a gunshot wound, especially at close range, it is important to look for any wadding or paper found in the wound, asin a number of instances the finding of such has led to the detectionof the criminal for example, handwriting has been found on the paper, or it has formed writing of a printed page the rest of which has beenfound in possession of the accused when a gun is discharged near thebody, a portion of the wadding is almost always found in the irregularwound produced post-mortem examination having completed the examination of the surroundings, one next proceedswith the post-mortem examination, which should be conducted accordingto a well-defined plan, following which the results obtained willalways be satisfactory if possible the body should be removed to a large, well-ventilated, andespecially well-lighted room no artificial light, if it can possiblybe avoided, should be used when performing the autopsy. Artificiallight is especially bad on account of its yellowness and its power tomodify natural color thesis diseased conditions cannot be satisfactorilydetermined by artificial light the body should be placed on a hightable, and the facility with which the autopsy is made will oftendepend on having the table high enough to render stooping unnecessary never make an autopsy, if it can possibly be avoided, on a body whilein a coffin, as the examination is always unsatisfactory the size andsurroundings of the room, and how it is lighted, should be entered inthe note-book instruments - if possible the following instruments should be at handbefore proceeding with an examination, although essay of them may bedispensed with. 1 large section knife. 2 scalpels. 3 enterotome for openingintestines and stomach. 4 costotome, or large bone forceps forcutting ribs. 5 scissors, large and small one blade blunt. 6saw. 7 chisel. 8 dissecting forceps.

Defecation in four hours rather quiet for six hours eats well reflexes good. Normal vii 1 19, since vi 26 19 experiment 4 -- 6 25 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Quiet and breathing labored in four hours. Active after twenty-four hours eats well essaywhat depressed on vi 26 19. Pain reflex present on vi 26 19, eats well and fairly active active and eats, vi 27 19 appears normal, vii 1 19 experiment 5 -- 8 75 c c. Injected vi 30 19. Rather quiet during next two hours morning of vii 1 19, lies on stomach. Quiet. Does not eat very much pain reflexes good vii 2 19, still depressed. Does not eat appears normal, vii 3 19 experiment 6 -- 12 5 c c. Injected vi 25 19.

Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of anadvertisement of the burleson concern with which ogden was connectedprevious to 1914, and which connection he is capitalizing in hispresent advertising the booklet gives an outline of the “course of instruction, ” which isalmost identical, word for word, with the outline given in the letteradvertising the mail-order course previously referred to the booklet further states that “the ogden method has entirelyeliminated the use of cautery, the ligature or any injections, in thetreatment of hemorrhoids, ” but that “the use of the electric currenthas proved to be the very correct method in such paper, as will bedemonstrated at the clinic ” the booklet reiterates the statement thatogden association with the burleson and burleson concern at grandrapids makes him “eminently well qualified to instruct members of themedical profession in this important branch of the medical science!. ”in addition to this booklet there is a four-page advertisingleaflet illustrating and describing the “ogden rectal cabinet” andalso the “ogden rectal table and stool ” there is also a littlepostcard-- addressed, of course, to “h l roberts”-- for the physicianto fill in stating that “you may enroll me as intending to attend dr ogden clinic in proctology, to be held at-- -- ” should the recipientnot fill in and mail this enrolment card he gets another form lettercalling attention to the fact that the enrolment card has not beenreceived and stating further that “available hotel facilities make itnecessary to limit our enrolment to twenty students ”careful search fails to disclose that dr willard ealon ogden has everdistinguished himself in the practice of the specialty in which he nowwishes to instruct physicians equally careful search fails to showthat dr ogden has ever published a paper either on any proctologicsubjects or on any other phase of medicine or surgery neither doesthere seem to be any evidence for the claim that dr ogden “has beenassociated with the leading proctologists of america ”-- from thejournal a m a , feb 4, 1922 “patents” patent laws and patent office practicethe inequity of our patent laws, or possibly it would be more correctto say, of the interpretation of our patent laws, has been commented onthesis times in the journal the journal also has had occasion to callattention to patents that have been issued for obviously unscientificand quackish devices and preparations the paper of the preposterousgas-pipe fake “oxydonor” and the creatinin mixture for the allegedconferring of immunity against diphtheria, pneumonia, scarlet fever, syphilis, tuberculosis, etc , are paper in point in a patent issued the early writing of this year for the “discovery” ofa method of flavoring epsom salt, the patent office has, in fatuity, piled pelion on ossa the “inventor” declares that his inventionrelates to a pharmaceutical preparation and a special method oftreatment of the medicinal agents whereby said agent will be renderedmuch more efficient in character he further avows that the “primeobject” of his “invention” is to “disguise the normal taste and imwritingan agreeable odor or smell to salts commonly employed as a cathartic ”parenthetically it may be said that probably not a day passes thatessay physician in the united states does not do substantially the samething when writing a prescription the “inventor” further claims thatthe object of his “invention” is to utilize the salts as a vehicleto carry an antiseptic and anesthetic agent whereby the salts whenadministered as a cathartic “will also act beneficially on the entiredigestive tract” and “whereby cramped and spasmodic conditions are atonce relieved with a resulting cure of flatulency, indigestion, sickand sour stomach, colic and the destruction of worms, etc ”such claims are so absurd that the only excuse for commenting onthem is the effect they have on the public mind the layman readingthe specifications of this patent would naturally conclude that aninvention of great importance had been made-- of such importance as towarrant the government in rewarding its inventor by granting him aseventeen-year monopoly on the sale of his invention the law requires that, to be patentable, inventions shall be new anduseful and shall show a higher degree of skill in their inception thanis naturally to be expected from those who are skilled in the arts towhich the inventions belong it has been decided again and again thatphysicians’ prescriptions are not patentable because it is assumedthat an educated physician will utilize his knowledge of pharmacy indevising proper compounds of medicines to meet the indications ofdisease when a physician prescribes a dose of epsom salt to be takenin one of the official aromatic waters, he does not produce or create anew invention by so doing of course, in one sense every prescriptionis an invention-- an invention to meet the conditions presented by thepatient-- but such inventions are not patentable, because they representthe ordinary skill of a physician in carrying on his vocation if the patent office goes on granting patents for such “inventions” asflavored epsom salt, and it should be found financially profitable tosecure such patents and place the products on the market, it will onlybe a matter of time before the materia medica will be so restrictedthat a physician will be unable to write a prescription withoutinfringing on essaybody patent the splendid conception of the framers of our constitution in providinga plan for promoting progress in science and useful arts by grantingto inventors for a limited time the exclusive use of their inventions, in exchange for the publication of full knowledge thereof, is beingdebased no branch of our government is of greater importance to theprogress of the country than the patent office, provided that office isintelligently administered when the patent office is used, however, for an extention of the nostrum business, founded on the abuse ofpatent and trade-mark laws, it becomes a menace to the public health the objects of the patent law are being defeated by the practices ofthe patent office -- editorial from the journal a m a , june 23, 1917 our archaic patent lawsin this issue we publish two reports of the council on pharmacy andchemistry which illustrate the weaknesses of the present working of theunited states patent laws in the first report the council presentsan investigation of a recently granted patent, and shows that thepatent was issued on the mere claims of the applicant and without thepresentation of any evidence for such claims the second report-- “needfor patent law revision”-- is an appeal to the patent office for amore enlightened administration of the patent law, and it presents afew illustrations of the unfair protection which has been granted bythe patent office the protest of the council appears at an opportunetime in science299 the “patent office society, ” an associationof employees of the u s patent office, announces that a committeehas been created on request of the national research council to makea study of the u s patent office and its service to science andarts it states that this committee will meet in washington shortlyto consider the adequacy of the present patent office equipment andthe simplification of procedure as well as responsiveness to presentnational and international requirements the committee also hopesto coordinate, in the interest of an improved public service, theendeavors of the various national societies, manufacturing interests, patent bar associations and all others aiming at genuine patent reform unquestionably, there is a growing conviction that in the case ofmedicines the monopoly given by the patent laws, if granted at all, should be granted with greater consideration of the public welfare too often the united states patent law has been used to obtain anunfair monopoly on a medicament or to abet quackery there is noquestion that one of two things is needed. Either a radical changein the patent law itself or the application of more brains in itsadministration -- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 12, 1918 299 dec 28, 1917, p 629 patents perpetuated by trade namesthe patent on aspirin300 acetylsalicylic acid, controlled bythe bayer company, american representative of the farbenfabriken ofelberfeld company, will expire next year 1917 the journal haspreviously stated that the grant of this patent was regrettable andworked injustice to american citizens it is unnecessary again to gointo the grounds for this statement. Neither in the farbenfabrikenhome country, gerthesis, nor in any other country except in the unitedstates, has a patent been granted for this product owing to theirmonopoly, the manufacturers have been able to exact a much higherprice for acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, in this country, thanelsewhere naturally, the bayer company, the american agents, view withdisfavor the prospect of being compelled to share this rich field withcompetitors the foregoing furnishes the answer to inquiries which havereached us from all over the country with regard to the campaign ofpublicity which the bayer company has inaugurated in the lay press apresumably authentic and apparently candid exposition of the methodsused and the motives behind the aspirin advertising is furnished inprinters’ ink:301300 granted feb 27, 1900 301 printers’ ink, june 29, 1916, p 189. July 13, 1916, p 100 “the manufacturers of aspirin are about to launch an extensive advertising campaign to clinch the market as far as possible before the expiration of their patent rights next year the purpose of the campaign is to identify the product with the trademark of the bayer company and to this extent hamper competition after the expiration of the patent ”the business of the bayer company, the article goes on to say, has beenhurt by the sale of worthless or even harmful imitations put on themarket by irresponsible and unauthorized persons when the present warstopped importations from gerthesis “the public knew aspirin, but did not know who made it italics ours when the bayer company, inc , took over the manufacture of aspirin in this country, the first steps were taken to identify the product with the firm who made it of course, there are good reasons why the makers were loth to advertise the product or to exploit their trademark as every one knows, the advertising of a medical proposition is an extremely ticklish subject it is easy to make a misstep aspirin is one of those proprietary drugs that are extensively prescribed by physicians if anything were done that might possibly associate this drug with the patent medicines that are in disfavor with the profession, the valuable influence and cooperation of thousands of doctors might be lost it is believed that this knotty phase of the question is being answered in the present advertising since nothing is mentioned about ‘medicine, ’ ‘cures’ or ‘ailments, ’ it is anticipated that there will be but little objection to the copy all that the advertising attempts to do is to link up the name ‘bayer’ with aspirin the nearest the copy gets to medical talk is in this sentence in very small type at the bottom of the advertisement, ‘the trademark “aspirin” reg u s patent office is a guarantee that the monoacetic acid ester of salicylic acid in these tablets is of the reliable bayer manufacture ’”from this it appears that, not content with seventeen years ofmonopoly, the aspirin people are attempting to retain a hold onthe market in perpetuo by associating the name of the companywith the trade name “aspirin ” there can be no better time than thepresent, therefore, for the medical profession to substitute, forthe nondescriptive name “aspirin, ” the descriptive and correct nameacetylsalicylic acid -- editorial from the journal a m a , aug 12, 1916 patenting therapeutic agentsin the past, therapeutic agents and apparatus have been controlledby patents and trademarks for profit if there have been exceptions, they have been rare the principles of medical ethics of the americanmedical association contain this statement. “it is unprofessionalto receive remuneration from patents for surgical instruments ormedicines ” this does not mean that the patenting is wrong in itself;there are occasions when it is wise, if not necessary, to obtain apatent in the interest of the public, and, in the case of surgicalinstruments and medicines, of the medical profession in certaininstances it is absolutely necessary that the article produced shallmaintain a definite standard of quality and purity-- and, it may beadded, shall be sold at a reasonable price enterprising pharmaceuticalmanufacturers have usually been ready to appropriate the results ofscientific research by investigators or therapeutic measures suggestedby practicing physicians not infrequently, in such instances, thedesire for financial gain has caused the marketing of such productswith extravagant, if not false, claims as to their value yet thepatent laws may be used so as to protect and benefit the public and themedical profession in research laboratories, work is being carried onresulting in the production of new therapeutic agents it is importantthat these agents shall be so controlled that they may be madeavailable without subordination to commercial interests it has becomepractically necessary, therefore, for research workers to protecttheir products in the interest of the public welfare and scientificmedicine it has not been an easy matter to decide how best to bringabout the desired results this question has been before the board oftrustees of the american medical association. And, in 1914, the houseof delegates passed a resolution authorizing the board to accept at itsdiscretion patents for medical and surgical instruments and appliances;as trustees, for the benefit of the profession and the public, provided that neither the association nor the patentee should receiveremuneration from these patents the rockefeller institute for medicalresearch has solved the problem in a similar manner in connection withthe report of the discovery of several new arsenic compounds, jacobsand heidelberger, 302 working in the rockefeller institute, say:302 jacobs, w a , and heidelberger, m. Aromatic arsenic compounds, ii, the amides and alkyl amides of n-- arylglycine arsonic acids, j am chem soc 41:1587 oct 1919 it may be appropriate to mention here that this substance and related compounds, described in the present and following papers of the series, are covered by u s patents nos 1280119-27 patents have also been applied for in foreign countries all discoveries made at the rockefeller institute are made freely available to the public, in accordance with the philanthropic purposes of the institution in order to insure purity of product and protection against exploitation, it has been deemed necessary in certain instances to protect the discoveries by patents it is the purpose of the institute to permit any drugs which may prove of practical therapeutic value to be manufactured under license by suitable chemical firms and under conditions of production which will insure the biological qualities of the drugs and their marketing at reasonable prices other than through the issuance of license, the rockefeller institute does not writingicipate in any way in the commercial preparation or sale of the manufactured chemicals. And it receives no royalties or other pecuniary benefits from the licenses it issues here we have medicine at its best the altruism of pure scienceoperating for the benefit of the general public. Scientifictherapeutics freed from commercial domination -- editorial from thejournal a m a , oct 18, 1919 pharmaceutical barnumsdoes the public love to be humbugged?. we doubt it that we, whethersage or fool, are humbugged is undeniable we are humbugged justto the extent that we are ignorant there lies one of the mostpowerful factors operating to the advantage of the “patent medicine”maker and the quack the layman ignorance of the possibilities andlimitations of drugs is wide and deep hence the ease with which heis fooled on this subject a seeming frankness in advertising beingthe order of the day, the nostrum maker makes a pretense of tellingwhat is in his stuff without disclosing any facts that will tend tolift the veil of mystery and thus destroy his greatest asset so theexploiter of nostrums to the medical profession, realizing that atleast a pretense must be made of giving the composition of medicamentsoffered to the physician, declares that his clay poultice has for itsbase “anhydrous and levigated argillaceous mineral ” this sounds muchmore imposing than dry and finely powdered clay, and satisfies by itsvery sonorousness now comes a product exploited chiefly to membersof the dental profession but also, it seems, to physicians tablets, “activated tablets, ” if you please!. they are “an anodyne, analgesicfebrifuge sedative, exorcising sic!. antineuralgic and antirheumaticaction ” and their composition?. simply “an activated, balancedcombination of the mono-acetyl-derivative of para-amidophenetoltogether with a feebly basic substance in the alkaloidal state from thethea-sinensis ” as clear as the missouri river!. essay day essay dentistor physician is going to investigate and find that this awe-inspiring, polysyllabic example of exuberant verbosity means nothing moremysterious than our old friends acetphenetidin phenacetin andcaffein in the meantime, the exploiters may smile softly and murmur, “barnum was right!. ”-- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 1, 1921 the pharmacopeia the ninth decennial revisionthe ninth revision of the united states pharmacopeia became officialthis week, sept 1, 1916 it is more fully reviewed elsewhere;303here we desire merely to call attention to two points. What the bookis and what it is not it is a book of standards for drugs.

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“we do not claim that the vaporization method is new we do claim, however, that this combination of mercury produces more rapid volatilization, certain absorption and undoubted effect than any form of mercury administered by any method known to science without the usual danger that this is so we are willing how long should a essay be to prove by comparison with other methods both by ourselves and thesis observers scattered over the united states ”to determine the validity of the claims made for spirocide, thecorporation was asked to present the evidence which it offered inreply, the corporation “scientific observer, ” dr j lewengood, submitted 83 case reports from a number of different observers, including those from military hospitals and a state institution, andalso a reprint of an article published by him in the new york medicaljournal, feb 21, 1920, wherein were reported eight paper whichreceived “spirocide treatment ” in no case were controls with othermethods of mercury administration carried out this material the council sent to two recognized syphilographers foran opinion one of the consultants reported that of the 83 paper, 20 dealt with patients who had also received arsphenamin medicationand, therefore, these 20 paper could not be considered as evidenceconcerning the value of spirocide as to the remaining paper, hefound on the whole that the history and data furnished were far fromsufficient to warrant the claims made in thesis of the paper emphasiswas laid on the wassermann test, as though this test were the onlything to be considered in a case of syphilis he pointed out that inone case the reaction changed from negative to strongly positive aftersix treatments and that in several paper the phenomena reported cannotbe explained by anything else than a desire to get a negative bloodtest for example, one case had spirocide treatment and a wassermann, 1 plus, 55 days after. The author then reports that 19 days later thereaction had become negative and, therefore, the change must be due tospirocide in several of the paper reported it is even questionableif the patients were syphilitic the consultant concluded that theevidence submitted by the spirocide corporation failed to prove theclaims made for spirocide he pointed out on the other hand thatpatients readily become salivated from the use of spirocide, oftenafter 8 or 10 treatments the second consultant replied that in his opinion the claim thatspirocide produces more “undoubted effect than any form of mercuryadministered by any method known to science without the usual danger, ”was not substantiated he believed that it was not as effective as essayother methods, that the dosage is not as exact, and, therefore, it isnot as free from danger when the drug is pushed the council two consultants were also asked whether or not, in theiropinion, the administration of mercury by inhalation is a method whichthe council should endorse to the extent of recognizing a preparationbased on this principle this inquiry was also sent to the members ofthe editorial board of the archives of dermatology and syphilology five replies were received one advised a thorough study of thedifferent methods of administering mercury by inhalation the otherfour were opposed to such recognition on the ground that as the dosageis not exact the effects, therefore, are not certain in consideration of the opinions expressed by its consultants, thecouncil declared spirocide inadmissible to new and nonofficial remediesbecause 1 the claims made for it are unproved and unwarranted, 2the routine use of an inexact method for the administration of mercuryis detrimental to sound therapy and 3 the name is not descriptive ofits composition, thus failing to remind the physician who uses thesepastils that he is administering metallic mercury -- from the journala m a , jan 22, 1921 digifolin-ciba not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized the publication of the following report, declaring digifolin-ciba inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary digifolin-ciba is a product of the society of chemical industryof basle, switzerland it is marketed in the united states by theciba company, 91 barclay street, new york city it is claimed thatdigifolin-ciba is “a preparation of digitalis leaves that has beenfreed from the useless and harmful principles such as digitonin saponin, coloring and inert matter, etc , but does contain all thereally valuable, therapeutically active constituents of the leaves, namely. Digitoxin and digitalein in their natural proportions ” thereis no evidence that digifolin contains all of the glucosides ofdigitalis as they exist in the leaf, and it is extremely improbablethat this is the case because one cannot remove saponin withoutaltering the other active principles of digitalis the ciba company sends out the following pamphlets relating todigifolin. “‘concerning digifolin-ciba, a new preparation of digitalis, ’ by c hartung, m d , ph d extracts from the work ‘ueber digifolin, ein neues digitalis-praeparat’ in the munich medical weekly, no 36, page 1944, 1912 ” “‘digitoxin contents of digifolin-ciba, ’ by c hartung, m d , ph d , basle, switzerland reprints from the pharmaceutical post, 1913 no 34, page 357 no 40, page 431 ” “‘pharmacological tests of digitalis, ’ by m j chevalier, chef des travaux pratiques de pharmacologie et matiere medicale, faculte de medecine de paris report presented to the societe de therapeutique at their meeting, may 28, 1913 ”in the reprint “concerning digifolin, ‘ciba ’” hartung lays stresson the presence of harmful and inert substances present in the leafand galenical preparations with the direct or implied statement thatdigifolin has an advantage in that these are absent from it this ismisleading it is true that boehm whom hartung cites, found saponin tobe irritating, but boehm states that it required 100 mg per kilogramof body weight to induce vomiting after its oral administration furthermore, saponin is present in traces only in infusion ofdigitalis, so that the therapeutic dose contains a wholly negligibleamount of it the following occurs in “pharmacological tests of digitalis, ” by m j chevalier.