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A shortened extremity. Bowed legs, club foot, thepresence of extra fingers or toes, and the relative length of thefingers are each and all valuable facts in judiciary anthropology inwomen of spanish extraction the fifth finger is almost as long as thefourth a fact so well known that glove-makers take advantage of it insending gloves to mexico, the antilles, or to south america an estimate of the length of the hand seems to be a matter ofdifficulty, notwithstanding the extensive observation of highauthority in the majority of paper the ring-finger is longer than theindex important evidence is furnished from the existence of injuries suchas fractures, whether old or recent. The marks of gunshot wounds, oftrephining, amputation, excision, or other surgical operation on thebones the remains of an old, ununited fracture in his left humerusenabled sir william fergusson to verify and settle all doubt as tothe identity of the body of the great missionary and explorer, dr livingston 579 the existence of an injury may constitute evidence ofgreat importance to the accused, as happened in the case of an englishgentleman charged with murder, where the trial turned on the deposit ofcallus in a broken rib, the only bone produced in court from the stateof this callus there could be no doubt that the fracture must havebeen produced about eight or ten days before death, and could not havebelonged to the deceased there was, therefore, complete failure of theidentity, and the accused was discharged 580on the other hand, circumstances may arise in which the existence ornot of an injury is a fact of great importance to the prosecution among other specimens in the army medical museum at washington, thebones of the forearm of wirtz, executed for inhuman treatment ofprisoners during the civil war, show no remains or trace of fracture;yet it was claimed in defence at the trial that he could not have beenguilty of the atrocities attributed to him, for the reason that thisarm was disabled from a fracture disease of the bones, whether hereditary or acquired, is anessential descriptive element in reconstituting individuality caries and necrosis, rickets, spinal disease, ankylosis, and otherexternal manifestations of bone lesion may furnish pointers of suchvalue as often to be incontestible they are so evident as not torequire detailed mention. But much care in such paper is necessary todistinguish between disease, decay, and violence, and artefacta thelast may have resulted from the axe or spade of the grave-digger orfrom post-mortem lesions made at the necropsy, as in the remains ofthe notorious beau hickman of washington, whose body on being exhumedshowed that sundry amputations and reamputations had been made on theprincipal limbs having died in a public hospital, the cadaver had beenutilized in rehearsal of these operations previous to its burial in thepotter field injuries of the phalanges, known as “baseball fingers, ” are valuableindications this was one of the facts of identification in thecelebrated cronin case duration of burial the condition of the exhumed bones may throw essay light on the questionas to the probable length of time they have been under ground, as wellas the probable cause of death if the bones were entirely denuded ofsoft writings we should hardly expect them to be those of a corpse buriedonly three or four months previously the noting of such an injury asa fracture inflicted by essay sharp instrument on a skull found in acesspool was sufficient, with other evidence of a general character, toconvict a prisoner tried at the derby lent assizes in 1847 in all paper of the kind under consideration, special attention shouldbe paid to the surroundings, every little detail of which should benoted with the utmost accuracy. For such articles as clothes, jewelry, buttons, and in fact anything that may furnish an inference, 581 maynot only throw light on the identity of the person, but otherwiseassist justice paper are recorded in which the identity has beenestablished principally by the clothing found with the skeleton in taylor “medical jurisprudence” a case is mentioned where theskeleton, portions of clothes, buttons, and boots of a cornish minerwere identified after twenty-six years’ submersion in water essaywhatsimilar circumstances, a few years ago, enabled the arctic explorer, lieutenant schwatka, and others to identify the remains of lieutenantirving, of the ill-fated franklin writingy in exceptional circumstances, as that of great cold, for instance, organic remains may be preserved indefinitely visitors to the juniorunited service club in london may remember the mammoth bones discoveredin digging the foundation of the club-house accounts of remarkablepreservation of bodies discovered a long time after the occurrence ofalpine accidents, and the finding of well-preserved mammoth remains inthe siberian ice, are matters of common knowledge a few years since, in assisting to take the remains of a mammoth from an ice cliff inescholtz bay, alaska, i came across the skull of a musk-ox and therib of a reindeer which showed the deformity and callus of a unitedfracture, yet there are geological reasons for believing that thousandsof years must have elapsed since these remains were entombed in the ice a precaution to be taken in judicial investigation of bones is toascertain whether they belong to more than one body, as they may havebeen put together with a view to deceive each bone should be examinedseparately, to ascertain whether it is a right or left bone or belongsto the same skeleton they should be put together with intelligenceand care, and if incomplete writings of a skeleton they may be laid insand or putty and photographed, or the medical man may go further and, agassiz-like, reconstruct the skeleton from the fragments in the caseof a fracture the bones should be sawn longitudinally in order to studythe callus the hair and nails since the hair and nails resist decomposition an unusually longtime, and are even believed to grow after somatic death, they may beconsidered as accessories of such value in the question that occupiesus as to make it possible to verify certain characteristics regardingthe remains of the cadaver even after years of inhumation forinstance, hypertrophy of the great toe-nail, the length and color ofthe hair, baldness, or a long beard might furnish evidence of the bestkind both hair and nails may, however, change after death a case ismentioned582 in which the hair changed from a dark brown to red aftertwenty years of burial accredited paper of the growth of hair afterdeath are also on record dr caldwell, of iowa, states that he waspresent in 1862 at the exhumation of a body which had been buried forfour years he found that the coffin had given at the joints and thatthe hair protruded through the openings he had evidence to show thatthe deceased was shaved before burial, nevertheless the hair of thehead measured eighteen inches, the whiskers eight inches, and the hairof the breast four to six inches 583 quite recently in unearthing theremains of an old cemetery in washington, d c , a number of personsnoticed that when the body of a young girl, supposed to be about twelveor thirteen years of age, was taken up it was found that her hairhad grown until it extended from her crown to her feet thesis carefulobservations seem to prove the molecular life of the hair and nailsafter somatic death it suffices to quote the well-known case mentionedin ogston “medical jurisprudence, ” of several medical students whowere brought to trial for having in custody the dead body of an idiotboy when found on the dissecting-table the body was so disfiguredthat there was only one means left of proving its identity the boyhad a whim during life of permitting his nails to grow, and had notallowed them to be cut for thesis years previous to his death they hadcompletely curled round the tips of his fingers and toes till they hadthus come to extend along the palmar and plantar surfaces in a strangeway the counsel for the prosecution availed himself of the knowledgeof this fact, and his proof seemed to be complete, when a medicalman came forward and gave in evidence that it was not an unusualcircumstance for the nails to grow for several inches after death thisastounding statement so nonplussed the judge that the case was allowedto drop as not proven in exceptional paper the hair may be green i saw a case essay yearssince, for which no cause could be assigned, and only a few days agoi saw another in a man who worked in a brass-foundry at the cronintrial a barber, who had counted the victim among his customers, recognized the shape of the head and texture of the hair subsequentevidence of medical experts was conclusive as to the identity of hairfound clinging to a trunk, the hair cut from the head of the murderedman, and that of a single hair discovered on a cake of soap thissingle strand, being lighter in color in essay portions than in others, seemed to indicate that it could not have come from the head of thedeceased, whose hair was brown but it was shown that hair placed onsoap or other alkaline substances becomes bleached in a manner similarto the color of a single thread this evidence of vital importancelinked the hair found in the trunk with that cut from dr croninhead, and went far toward proving that one of the murderers had washedhis hands with the soap after the deed had been done reviewing the signs furnished by the osseous system, it will be seenthat the study of the skeleton alone is beyond contradiction moresatisfactory and more important in establishing identity than thatof all the other organs consequently a correct interpretation ofthe facts observed and judicious application of the rules deducibletherefrom may in the matter of a human skeleton put its identitybeyond a reasonable doubt but the expert should remember that as notwo paper are just alike, unexpected questions and unforeseen featuresmay present themselves, giving to each case merits of its own at bestthe medical man conclusions will be probabilities, not certainties;therefore his expressions of opinion should be the more guarded, asupon it may hang the life of an innocent man identification of mutilated remains thesis of the foregoing remarks on the identity of the skeleton applyin paper where mutilated remains or a portion only of the body hasbeen recovered circumstances often occur in which bodies may requireidentification after having been drowned and writingly eaten by fishesor crabs, or after having been writingly eaten by buzzards, or torn intofragments by animals, as has happened in the remains of a dead infantwritingly devoured by a dog, and in the case of a farmer who died in thewoods and was subsequently eaten by his own hogs after accidentsand fires where thesis persons perish. After a railway disaster wherebodies have been mangled, drowned, burnt, and frozen, all in the sameaccident. Or after an explosion from steam or gas or in a mine, orfrom gunpowder, dynamite, or other substance, the human remains aregenerally in such a state as to defy all attempts at recognition to dispose of a dead body in order to avoid detection, criminals willmutilate, disfigure, and chop into fragments the remains, which theyafterward place in a trunk, a wardrobe, or throw into a sewer or otherhiding-place scarcely a year passes that judiciary medicine is notconcerned with paper of the kind the frequency of such crimes has beenattributed by essay to the so-called contagion of murder. Others offerthe simple law of the series in explanation.

Outwardly applied, they take off scurf, morphew, or freckles from the face, clear the skin, and ease the painsof the gout asclepiadis, vincetoxici of swallow-wort, hot and dry, good againstpoison, and gripings of the belly, as also against the bitings of maddogs, taken inwardly asari of asarabacca. The roots are a safer purge than the leaves, and not so violent, they purge by vomit, stool, and urine. They areprofitable for such as have agues, dropsies, stoppings of the liver, orspleen, green sickness asparagi of asparagus, or sperage. They are temperate in quality, opening, they provoke urine, and cleanse the reins and bladder, beingboiled in white wine, and the wine drank asphodeli, hastæ regiæ fœm of kings spear, or female asphodel iknow no physical use of the roots. Probably there is, for i do notbelieve god created any thing of no use asphodeli, albuci, muris of male asphodel hot and dry in the seconddegree, inwardly taken, they provoke vomit, urine, and the menses:outwardly used in ointments, they cause hair to grow, cleanse ulcers, and take away morphew and freckles from the face bardanæ, &c of bur, clot-bur, or burdock, temperately hot and dry helps such as spit blood and matter. Bruised and mixed with salt andapplied to the place, helps the bitings of mad dogs it expels wind, eases pains of the teeth, strengthens the back, helps the runningof the reins, and the whites, being taken inwardly dioscorides, apuleius behen alb rub of valerian, white and red mesue, serapio, andother arabians, say they are hot and moist in the latter end of thefirst, or beginning of the second degree, and comfort the heart, stirup lust the grecians held them to be dry in the second degree, thatthey stop fluxes, and provoke urine bellidis of dasies see the leaves betæ, nigræ, albæ, rubræ of beets, black, white, and red. As forblack beets i have nothing to say, i doubt they are as rare as blackswans the red beet root boiled and preserved in vinegar, makes a fine, cool, pleasing, cleansing, digesting sauce see the leaves bistortæ, &c of bistort, or snakeweed, cold and dry in the thirddegree, binding. Half a dram at a time taken inwardly, resistspestilence and poison, helps ruptures and bruises, stays fluxes, vomiting, and immoderate flowing of the menses, helps inflammationsand soreness of the mouth, and fastens loose teeth, being bruised andboiled in white wine, and the mouth washed with it borraginis of borrage, hot and moist in the first degree, cheersthe heart, helps drooping spirits dioscorides brionæ, &c of briony both white and black.

With that the moon began to quarrel. Mars not delighting muchin women tongues went away, and did it whether she would or no he that reads this, and understands what he reads, hath a jewel of moreworth than a diamond. He that understands it not, is as little fit togive physick there lies a key in these words which will unlock, if itbe turned by a wise hand the cabinet of physick.

Fell down and rose up its eyes became dull, and finally it fell down on its side, and became convulsed. Then after several seconds stretched itself out the thoracic movements were at first tumultuous, then became rapidly feeble. The heart beating very slowly at the necroscopy the lungs filled the thorax, were full of thick dark blood and emphysematous the blood was black and fluid in the left ventricle and arteries, and in the right cavities and veins resembled molasses liver darkly congested there was no mucus in the trachea and no ecchymosis in the lungs he also p 306 tried the experiment upon a large dog of fastening boards against its thorax and tightening them by means of cords for essay minutes it was quiet, but suddenly it became much agitated, stood upon its hind legs, threw itself against the wall, rolled on the ground, and uttered frightful cries. Finally fell on its side there was no movement of the thorax, but the muscles of the neck and belly were in full and rapid action, dry and sonorous rles were heard, and a large quantity of mucus appeared at the nose and mouth the movements grew feebler, the respirations infrequent, and at the end of thirty-four minutes it was dead the necroscopy showed the blood black and thick. Heart relaxed. Lungs red, a little emphysematous, containing but little blood, and on their surface were blackish points and small red spots the death of desdemona shakespeare “othello” has been much criticised the declaration that she was strangled or suffocated does not consist with the symptoms described see med news, philadelphia, may 1st, 1886, p 489 treatment the obvious indication is to search for and remove the obstruction themeans and methods of treatment are fully treated of in surgical works, but may be briefly mentioned here laryngoscopical examination may be necessary a curved forceps isusually the best instrument for removing the foreign body a tallowcandle may serve to push it into the stomach if there is no bougie athand suction may be used sneezing may be brought on by tickling thenostrils. Coughing by tickling the glottis. Vomiting by irritating thefauces, or by emetic. The body of the subject may be inverted and inthis position the fauces may be tickled, or fingers may be passed backinto the pharynx johnson892 says that at the moment of inversion thepatient should try to take a deep inspiration.

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Injected vi 24 19. More quiet. Active during next twenty-four hours reflex all right eats well. Normal vii 1 19, since vi 26 19 experiment 3 -- 5 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Quiet. Defecation in four hours rather quiet for six hours eats well reflexes good. Normal vii 1 19, since vi 26 19 experiment 4 -- 6 25 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Quiet and breathing labored in four hours. Active after twenty-four hours eats well essaywhat depressed on vi 26 19.