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Hence the conclusion that the presenceof feminine characteristics leaves but little doubt as to the sex, butthat certain masculine indications, while giving a great probabilityfor the male sex, are not absolutely decisive see hermaphroditism the finding of fœtal bones around or about the supposed female skeletonis suggestive it could not be inferred from this fact alone that thewoman was or was not pregnant at the time of death, since the absenceof fœtal remains on the one hand might imply their entire decompositionin advance of those of the adult. On the other hand, the indiscriminatehabit of undertakers, who often bury still-borns with adults, mayaccount for their presence accidental signs and evolution of the teeth the trade or occupation leaves but few marks on the bones that areuseful in the matter of identification it is in the recent andwell-preserved cadaver, or, better still, in the living subject, thatthe professional signs are of importance as a rule, the relativelylarger scapulæ point to the fact of a day-laborer. Necrosis of thelower jaw suggests a worker in phosphorus. Worn and discolored teetha user of tobacco, and aurification of the teeth might suggest theprevious social condition gold crowns and fillings and dentalprosthesis generally are among the most common and, at the same time, among the most useful signs of identification by this means the bonesof persons killed by indians on the western plains have been recognizedyears afterward the traveller powell, massacred in abyssinia, wasrecognized in this way from the presence of artificial teeth and themechanical appliances for fixing them, dentists may recognize theirown work beyond a doubt one of the most common-hackneyed of thesepaper is that of professor webster 578 later paper, in which thiskind of proof established convincing and conclusive identification, are those of dr cronin, assassinated in chicago in 1889, and of thebomb-thrower, norcross every now and then accounts appear in the dailypress of corpses having been recognized by inspection of the teeth in washington, only a short time since, the remains of an unknownman were exhumed from the potter field for judicial reasons theunrecognized body had been found in the potomac in an advanced stageof decomposition from the signs furnished by the teeth the remainswere identified as those of a person who had disappeared mysteriouslyand under circumstances that pointed to his having been murderedat a virginian gambling den, and his body thrown into the river in connection with this subject the goss-udderzook tragedy is ofinstructive interest in every important case a cast of the mouth should be taken, in orderto set at rest any question that may subsequently arise as to thecondition of the jaw, the absence of teeth, their irregularity orother dental peculiarities a cast of the mouth of the deceased in thehillmon case showed all the teeth to be regular and perfect, whileit is alleged that hillmon teeth were just the opposite externalsigns furnished by dentition may assist greatly in fixing both age andidentity the evolution of the human dental system has been so wellstudied from intra-uterine life to old age that we may approximatelytell the age, especially of children, from the teeth alone this sign, so valuable in childhood, loses its value as the dentition progresses elaborate tables and dental formulæ to be found elsewhere deal withthe two periods of dentition, the relative position and number of theteeth, and the like at birth the jaws show points of ossification only. But children areessaytimes born with central incisors, as the writer has, in commonwith others, noted in several instances the first dentition takesplace from the seventh to the thirtieth month.

The eighth month is ruled againby saturn, and this latter planet now shows itself to be so maliciousthat it immediately destroys all life born in the eighth month jupiteragain takes control during the ninth month, and, as this star is fondof warmth and humidity, and, therefore, a friend of life in any form, no danger is to be feared for a fetus entering the world during thismonth however, after the nine months of pregnancy have passed withoutevil interference by the planets, mars once more is in command, and hisinfluence helps in accomplishing a normal birth after the fetus had successfully passed all dangers which the planetscould cause during the nine months of intra-uterine life, and afterit had successfully matured, the hour of birth might, after all, beaccompanied with other quite severe sidereal complications for ifany planet was in an unfavorable sign, or if the relations betweenthe signs of the zodiac and the sun or the moon were not quite intheir regular order, those members which were presided over by therespective stars were made to suffer the correct casting of themedical horoscope, therefore, required the most accurate knowledgeof the minute of birth, with simultaneous occurrences in the canopyof heaven provident fathers, accordingly, were mindful of havingan astrologer, during the hour of birth, in the room in which theconfinement was to take place, so that he might be able to ascertain asaccurately as possible the celestial occurrences which would determinethe bodily welfare of the new-born, and to arrange them for thehoroscope illustration. Fig 4 the relation of the writings of the human body tothe signs of the zodiacafter the young mortal had safely arrived, and if a fortunate destinyhad placed in his cradle a favorable medical horoscope, both for thehour during which the first material foundation had been laid forhis life and also for the hour of his birth, he had overcome only asmall writing of the troubles which the starry world might be able toinflict on his bodily welfare if the various signs of heaven appearedin unfavorable conjunction, or if the moon entered into any fatalrelations with the signs of the zodiac, members of the body which wereunder the influence of the respective celestial bodies were stillimperiled these dangers might threaten not only one individual, butthey were capable, eventually, even of calling down epidemics andpestilence upon all humanity after any form of disease had taken holdof a person its course, treatment, and termination could be clearlyread in the stars of heaven it was necessary, above all, to ascertainthe day, hour, and minute when the disease appeared unfortunately, this must have been quite difficult at times. For thesis diseases beginso insidiously that the moment of the attack is completely beyondprecise definition in such a case one did the best that could be done, and probably took as the moment of attack the first complaints of thepatient regarding his disorder after the appearance of the disease wasdated in such a manner, the heavenly body, in the ascendant at thisperiod, was then ascertained. Thus, the position and the course and thephases of the moon, the relations of sun and moon to the twelve signsof the zodiac, and the planets would be noted it was necessary toobserve whether the moon was in opposition, quadrature, or conjunctionto the planets while she stood in the sign of this or that figure ofthe zodiac from these observations clear conclusions were first drawnregarding the general condition, the character, the duration, and theprognosis of the affection these conclusions, however, were by nomeans satisfactory as yet an attempt was therefore made to obtain amuch more detailed insight into the causes, complications, and therapyof the case in question by means of astrology, and such information wasabundantly provided in the medicina astrologica in the first place, the fact that sun, moon, planets, and the signsof the zodiac shared the rule over the various organs of the body, and furnished positive intimations regarding the cause of the diseasein question, made it unnecessary for the physician to trouble himselfat all with an examination of the patient in order to ascertain causeand localization of the affection one glance at the conjunctions ofthe stars was sufficient to show which organ of the patient happenedto be endangered by the celestial constellation if an individualcomplained, for instance, of disturbed digestion, and if the heavenlybody that presided over the liver presented any remarkable phenomena, naturally only the liver was responsible for the case in question, and the diagnosis was made complications were to be expected if thestars which controlled the circulation of blood and mucus showedunfavorable signs it was even possible for the physician well versedin astrology to determine in advance the period of time at which theoccurrence of such humoral complications might be expected, as he hadlearned that the various hours of the day and of the night were toexert a powerful influence upon the juices of the body for instance, almanzor explains that the first three hours of day and of night arein closest relation to the blood, whereas the second quarters of dayand of night hold sway over the yellow, the third over the black bile, and the last quarters, finally, over the mucus however, notonly were the various hours of great importance to the course of thedisease, but certain days of the disease so-called critical days wereof still greater significance it is true, the doctrine of thesecritical days was by no means the property of medicina astrologica, but the corpus hippocraticum already contained a book περὶχρίησὶμων but the followers of hippocrates had developed thistheory only from humoro-pathological premises, and galen, in his workχρήἱσιμαι ἡμέραι, had only included astrology in order to explainand to prove the entire doctrine of crises compare also sudhoff hecalculated in accordance with moon weeks and months, and in such amanner that a week counted six days and seventeen and one-half hours, and the month of the moon only twenty-six days and twenty-two hours the seventh, fourteenth, twentieth, and twenty-seventh days were tobe considered critical days of the first order “contemplate, ” saysgalen, “the critical days in the course of the moon in the angles ofa geometrical figure of sixteen sides. If you find these angles in afavorable constellation, the patient will fare well. Badly, however, if evil signs prevail ” but not only were certain hours and certaindays of the week said to exert an important astrological influence uponthe human body, such an influence was ascribed also to certain years such years were called “anni scansiles” that is, “climacteric ” theexpression “anni climacterici” was also used, but this designationhas nothing in common with the modern conception of the climacteric it was believed that the condition of the body underwent a thoroughrevolution during these climacteric years, and that a new stage, as itwere, of organic life was reached heinrich von rantzau, the astronomicaristocrat and statesman, accordingly defines the climacteric yearsas “anni, in quibus ad sequentis temporis constitutionem sese vertatætas et inflectat ” therefore, such years should in themselves harbordangers for corporeal existence, and offer no favorable prospect forthe course of diseases two kinds of such climacteric years were distinguished one kind wasbrought about by multiplication with the figure 7, and they werecalled anni hebdomatici, or climacterici stricte sic dicta accordingly, these were the years 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 these nine years formed the climactericus parvus, whereas the years77, 84, 91, 98, 105, 112, 119, 126 were called the climactericusmagnus a multiplication which extended further, to 171, reachedthe climactericus maximus the other kind of climacteric years wasobtained by multiplication with 9, and such years were called annienneatici, or decretorii these were the years 9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 81, 90, 99, 108, etc however, these climacteric years did not all present the same dangers, but the peril inherent in them varied considerably it was determinedby the multiplicator, and here especially the 3 and the 7 played avery fatal rôle the 21st year of life 3 × 7, and the 27th 3 × 9, were one grade higher in the scale of dangers than those obtained byother multiplicators still more dangerous were those years arrived atby ascending in spaces of three hebdomads.

The reasons also why godpermitted the devil to play such a reprehensible game were investigatedin a most serious and profound manner any one interested in thisquestion of impotentia ex maleficio may read the most excellentdescription of this subject by hansen chapter iii this impotentia ex maleficio i e , one of the most extravagantoutgrowths of medical superstition occasionally also gave rise toscandalous lawsuits this was the case in the disgraceful divorce suitwhich took place about the year 860 between king lothaire ii and hisspouse teutberga lothaire was said to have lost his procreative powercompletely, owing to infernal artifices of his concubine, waldrada thereason why a concubine should undertake such a step, which, after all, was bound to discredit her title and office in the eyes of her lover, is not quite evident however, at that period it was not difficult tofind an explanation how can i buy a research paper for this remarkable fact it was stated, e g , that waldrada was instigated to this act solely by jealousy andselfishness, in order to divorce the king from his consort this firststep once taken, the courtesan, by removing the spells cast by her, would take good care that the king should soon be delivered from theodious condition of impotence however, waldrada had reckoned withouther host i e , in this case, without hinkmar, archbishop of rheims;for this latter gentleman, exceedingly well versed in all mattersecclesiastic, politic, and diabolic, a genuine clerical fighting-cock, very soon closely investigated the impotence of his royal master inan extensive memorial he considered the royal impotence according toits legal, theologic, philosophic, moral, and various other aspects medical superstition, accordingly, had acquired such power that thesovereign of the holy roman and german empires had to submit hispotestas in venere to the test of public discussion but conditions were to become much worse when, about the thirteenthcentury, scholasticism had usurped full control of human reason, and all sciences were permitted to be pursued only in a scholasticsense, medicine was entirely divorced from the actual conditions oflife it was completely detached from nature, its great teacher, andirretrievably entangled in the subtleties of an uncertain philosophy its activity now depended exclusively upon the study of the ancients byno means, however, upon that study in which an attempt was made tomaster the intellectual spirit of ancient medicine, but which consistedin a slavish adherence to the letter every decision of the ancients, without any regard to nature, was made a dogma, and he was the bestphysician who was most familiar with these dogmas, who understoodbest how to interpret them most keenly mankind had entirely lost theconception that the ancients had attained worth and importance onlyin that they measured things by the standard of unbiased experience, and tested their conclusions according to the phenomena of nature asdescribed from accurate observation of the sick it is quite obvious that superstition met with a well-prepared soil ina system of medicine that was overburdened with dogmas and degradedinto utter subserviency to a vainglorious philosophy the naturalresult was that the medical art of a period of the middle ages, steepedin scholasticism, was nothing but a chaos of the most despicablesuperstition and folly the most shocking result of these conditionswas the belief in witches, and, with this, medical superstition enteredupon a new stage whereas until then it had possessed a restricted, mere local vitality, and entailed danger only upon those who, fromthoughtlessness, lent a willing ear to it, now it degenerated into amental epidemic which threatened equally all classes of the people the unspeakable misery which this variety of medical superstition hasbrought to the western world is well known, so that we may refrain fromentering into details, referring our readers to the excellent work ofhansen on this subject physico-medical thought was so thoroughly destroyed by theabove-described conditions that, even when humanity commenced toshake off the scholastic yoke, during the period of renaissance, medicine was only able, in writing, to follow this lead altho, under theinspiration of the ancients, it returned to nature, it was not able torid itself of the superstitious idea of the continuous interference ofsupernatural powers with the performance of the most common functionsof the body the church still persisted in the implicit belief in suchviews, and still dominated men minds so thoroughly that even thesisphysicians, who in other respects were entirely unbiased, remained onthis point dutiful children of the church. In fact, even those who werefully aware of the shortcomings of the christian church unhesitatinglyadhered to the belief in demons as developed from antique conceptionsby the church fathers thus, for instance, dr martin luther was astrict believer in the doctrine which taught men to hold the devilresponsible for the origin of all diseases he thus expressed himself, for instance. “no disease comes from god, who is good and does good toeverybody. But it is brought on by the devil, who causes and performsall mischief, who interferes with all play and all arts, who bringsinto existence pestilence, frenchmen, fever, etc ” he accordinglybelieved that he himself was compelled to scuffle with the devil whenhis physical condition was out of order thus, when suffering fromviolent headache, he wrote to the elector, john of saxony. “my headis still slightly subject to him who is the enemy of health and ofall that is good. He essaytimes rides through my brain, so that i amnot able to read or to write, ” and upon another occasion he said, inregard to his health.

Being mixedwith oil of roses, and dropped into the ears, it helps pains there;being used as a pessary, it provokes the menses, and helps hardness orstiffness of the womb it is essaytimes used inwardly in such medicinesas ease pains and help the cough. If you mix a little of it with oldwhite wine and drink it, it both provokes urine and stops looseness orfluxes dragons blood, cools, binds, and repels acasia, and hyposistis, do the like the juice of maudlin, or, for want of it costmary, which is the samein effect, and better known to the vulgar, the juice is made thick forthe better keeping of it. First clarify the juice before you boil it toits due thickness, which is essaything thicker than honey it is appropriated to the liver, and the quantity of a dram takenevery morning, helps the cachexia, or evil disposition of thebody proceeding from coldness of the liver. It helps the ricketsand worms in children, provokes urine, and gently without purgingdisburdens the body of choler and flegm. It succours the lungs, opensobstructions, and resists putrifaction of blood gums are either temperate, as, lacca, elemi, tragacanth, &c intemperate, and so are hot in the first degree, as bdellium, gumof ivy in the second, galbanum, myrrh, mastich, frankincense, olibanum, pitch, rozin, styrax in the third amoniacum in the fourth euphorbium gum arabick is cold colophonia and styrax soften gum arabick and tragacanth, sandarack or juniper gum, and sarcocollabind gum of cherry trees, breaks the stone styrax provokes the menses opopanax gently purges flegm from the prickly cedar when it is burned comes forth that which, withus, is usually known by the name of tar, and is excellently good forunction either for scabs, itch, or manginess, either in men or beasts, as also against the leprosy, tetters, ringworms, and scald heads all sorts of rozins fill up hollow ulcers, and relieve the body sorepressed with cold griefs the rozin of pitch-tree, is that which is commonly called burgundypitch, and is essaything hotter and sharper than the former, beingspread upon a cloth is excellently good for old aches coming of formerbruises or dislocations pitch mollifies hard swellings, and brings boils and sores tosuppuration, it breaks carbuncles, disperses aposthumes, cleansesulcers of corruption and fills them with flesh bdellium heats and mollifies, and that very temperately, being mixedwith any convenient ointment or plaister, it helps kernels in the neckand throat, scrophula, or that disease which was called the kingevil inwardly taken in any convenient medicine, it provokes themenses, and breaks the stone, it helps coughs and bitings of venomousbeasts. It helps windiness of the spleen, and pains in the sides thencecoming both outwardly applied to the place and inwardly taken, ithelps ruptures or such as are burst, it softens the hardness of thewomb, dries up the moisture thereof and expels the dead child bitumen jadaicum is a certain dry pitch which the dead sea, or lakeof sodom in india casts forth at certain times, the inhabitantsthereabouts pitch their ships with it it is of excellent use tomollify the hardness of swellings and discuss them, as also againstinflammations. The smoke of it burnt is excellently good for the fitsof the mother, and the falling-sickness. Inwardly taken in wineit provokes the menses, helps the bitings of venomous beasts, anddissolves congealed blood in the body ambergreese is hot and dry in the second degree, i will not disputewhether it be a gum or not. It strengthens nature much which waysoever it be taken, there are but few grains usually given of it at atime. Mixed with a little ointment of orange flowers, and the templesand forehead anointed with it, it eases the pains of the head andstrengthens the brain exceedingly. The same applied to the privities, helps the fits of the mother. Inwardly taken it strengthens the brainand memory, the heart and vital spirit, warms cold stomachs, and isan exceeding strengthener of nature to old people, adding vigour todecayed and worn-out spirits. It provokes venery, and makes barrenwomen fruitful, if coldness and moisture or weakness be the causeimpediting assafœtida being smelled to, is vulgarly known to repress the fits ofthe mother.

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Bromid andiodid were present the addition of silver nitrate to an acidulatedportion, diluted with water, gave an amount of silver halid roughlyagreeing with that which would be obtained had the claimed amount ofbromin and iodin together with essay potassium iodid been used in thepreparation of brom-i-phos and in the process of manufacture becomeconverted to bromid and iodid the council declared brom-i-phos inadmissible to how can i buy a research paper new and nonofficialremedies, for conflict with rules 1, 4, 6, 8 and 10 the statement of composition is unsatisfactory and misleading in thatit suggests that the preparation contains bromin, iodin and phosphorusin the free elementary state the presence of the potent elementaryphosphorus is especially suggested by the small amounts of “phosphorus”declared the following statement on the label of the trade package constitutesan indirect advertisement to the public. “indications. Scrofula, coryza, hay fever necrosis, bronchial and throat affections, catarrhal pneumonia, glandular enlargements of the spleen, thyroid, and lymphatics, rickets and syphilis ”the following claims are therapeutic exaggerations. “the ideal alterative” “ indicated in all paper where an alterative is desired ” “the association of bromin with iodin in brom-i-phos materially enhances the product in the treatment of chronic affections of the skin, depraved conditions of the mucous membranes, tertiary syphilis, glandular enlargements, etc ”in that it suggests that the phosphorus in brom-i-phos is more readilyassimilated than ordinary phosphate, the following is misleading. “the phosphorus contained in brom-i-phos is readily assimilated and at once acts as a nutrient to the nervous and osseous structures of the body, stimulates metabolism and increases mental activity ”the recommendation. “your specification of brom-i-phos in thetreatment of syphilitic paper will immediately prove beneficial to thepatient” is not supported by evidence the name does not indicate thatbrom-i-phos is an alcoholic preparation with iodid as its essentialconstituent, but suggests that phosphorus is an important constituent, whereas the amount of phosphate or phosphite, produced by the actionof iodin on elementary phosphorus if the amount of phosphorus used inmaking the preparation is correctly stated is insignificant the combination of bromin, iodin and phosphorus, or bromid, iodid andphosphate, is irrational because these elements are not of mutualassistance to each other in the conditions for which brom-i-phos isadvertised the council report was submitted to the manufacturer of brom-i-phosfor comment. The reply contained nothing to permit a revision of theprevious conclusions the council declared brom-i-phos inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , june 30, 1917 creosote-delson and creofos report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycreosote-delson and creofos, or creosote with hypophosphites, were submitted by the delson chemical co , inc , new york city creosote-delson is said to be “beechwood creosote from whichthe irritating and caustic properties are removed by fractionaldistillation ” it is claimed that creofos contains “2 grains ofcreosote-delson and 3-3/5 grains of the combined hypophosphites in eachfluidrachm of the mixture or emulsion, the lime salt predominating ”it is also claimed that “the primary object of the hypophosphites inthis preparation is that of maintaining the refined creosote in apure, unoxidized state, and that no writingicular claim for therapeuticaction on their writing is advanced ” it is explained further, however, “the addition of the lime was prompted by the belief that thefundamental cause of pulmonary tuberculosis is lime starvation ”the assertions are made that creosote-delson is superior to theofficial creosote because it can be taken “abundantly and persistentlywithout harm to or interference with stomach and kidneys” and canbe “taken uninterruptedly and indefinitely, ” while the dosageis “unlimited by any former knowledge of creosote therapy ”creosote-delson is not on the market except in the combination creofos, although it is supplied on request creofos is advised in the treatment of tuberculosis, whooping cough, measles, “grippe and colds, ” bronchitis, asthma, “intestinal affections colitis, summer diarrhoea, etc , ” while its use is suggested for the“prevention of the spread of contagious diseases, ” and for “preventingcontagion in minor contagious diseases at any rate, in schools andfamilies ”the following advertisement has recently appeared in the new yorkmedical journal and in the therapeutic gazette. creofos medication is the successful development of the most advanced practice in the treatment of infectious diseases it destroys completely the causative organisms by a bactericide thesis times more powerful than phenol, yet absolutely harmless to animal life unlike serums, its activity is not confined to any specific disease, and its use insures against sequelae as pneumonia following grippe especially valuable in the treatment of infants and patients of delicate constitution and in paper where time is of importance the delson chemical co was requested to supply information regardingthe identity of creosote-delson and to support the claim that althoughit is “the whole drug” its dosage is “unlimited by any former knowledgeof creosote therapy ” the reply was virtually an admission that thetoxic, caustic, phenolic components of creosote were present increosote-delson just as in the official creosote the referee of the committee on therapeutics in submitting his reportto the council pointed out that it is difficult to discuss thepharmacologic merits of a semisecret preparation, like creosote-delson, claimed to be more acceptable to the human organism than the officialproduct it is intended to supplant, when the action of the parent drugis still questioned or disputed by eminent clinicians absorption experiments have been carried out with creosote and creosotecompounds, such as creosote with hypophosphites or calcium or creosotecarbonate, chiefly by a study of the elimination products in the urine but any evidence so far offered that these combinations increaseabsorption and lessen the irritating, caustic or toxic properties hasbeen wholly inconclusive the evidence offered by the delson chemicalco presented no control experiments with the official creosote and didnot prove that either creosote-delson or creofos was less toxic than acorresponding amount of ordinary beechwood creosote the referee concluded that no proof had been offered that thesepreparations are materially superior to ordinary creosote preparationsfrom the pharmacologic or therapeutic standpoint, and that the claimsmade for creosote-delson and creofos are unwarranted in the light ofour knowledge of the properties of creosote the advertisement quotedabove is an example of unproved and unwarranted claims on the recommendation of the referee, the council declaredcreosote-delson and creofos inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies, for conflict with the rules as follows:creosote-delson. The information so far available is not sufficientto define the nature, or composition, of creosote-delson, or toindicate in how far this product differs, if at all, from theofficial creosote conflict with rule 1 no methods are furnishedfor determining the identity or composition of creosote-delson conflict with rule 2 the available information does not show thatcreosote-delson has advantages over creosote conflict with rule 6 creofos. The composition of creosote-delson not having beenfurnished, the statement concerning the composition of creofos isalso unsatisfactory conflict with rule 1 the therapeutic claimsare unsubstantiated and grossly exaggerated conflict with rule 6 the name is not descriptive of its composition as is required forpharmaceutical mixtures conflict with rule 8 there is no evidencethat hypophosphites prevent decomposition of creosote if thisoccurs hence the inclusion of hypophosphites must be consideredirrational conflict with rule 10 the council report was sent to the delson chemical co forconsideration the firm reply contained nothing to warrant a revisionof the report, and the council voted that creosote-delson and creofoswere inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies and authorized thepublication of this report -- from the journal a m a , july 7, 1917 triner american elixir of bitter wine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrytriner american elixir of bitter wine is a wine to which bitter drugsand laxatives have been added though evidently intended for publicconsumption, it is also advertised to physicians, and consequently thecouncil publishes this report essay recent advertisements read. “it acts well and is very palatable these are the reasons why so thesis physicians recommend triner american elixir of bitter wine free from any chemicals prepared from bitter herbs roots and barks of eminent medicinal value and pure natural red wine a safe relief in auto-intoxication, constipation, weakness, etc price $1 00 at drug stores samples gratis upon request only to physicians ” “a laxative tonic in paper of constipation and its sequelæ, autointoxication, weakness and nervousness you should try triner american elixir of bitter wine this preparation consists of cascara sagrada, dandelion, gentian root, with licorice in pure red wine as a base, with aromatics ”triner american elixir of bitter wine is put up in bottles said tohold 1 pint, 5-1/3 fluidounces the label declares the presence of from16 to 18 per cent alcohol by volume, and states that “no special taxis required by the laws of the u s for the sale of this medicinalpreparation ” the circular contains the following recommendations forits use. “ it should be used in all paper calling for a safe evacuation of the bowels, without weakening the body or causing any pain or other discomfort.