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The rootis round, and essaywhat long, for the most writing lying along, the leavesshooting forth at the largest end, which, when it bears its berries, are essaywhat wrinkled and loose, another growing under it, which issolid and firm, with thesis small threads hanging thereat the wholeplant is of a very sharp biting taste, pricking the tongue as nettlesdo the hands, and so abides for a great while without alteration theroot thereof was anciently used instead of starch to starch linen with there is another sort of cuckow-point, with less leaves than theformer, and essay times harder, having blackish spots upon them, whichfor the most writing abide longer green in summer than the former, andboth leaves and roots are more sharp and fierce than it. In all thingselse it is like the former place these two sorts grow frequently almost under every hedge-sidein thesis places of this land time they shoot forth leaves in the spring, and continue but untilthe middle of summer, or essaywhat later. Their husks appearing beforethe fall away, and their fruit shewing in april government and virtues it is under the dominion of mars tragusreports, that a dram weight, or more, if need be, of the spotted wakerobin, either fresh and green, or dried, having been eaten and taken, is a present and sure remedy for poison and the plague the juice ofthe herb taken to the quantity of a spoonful has the same effect butif there be a little vinegar added thereto, as well as to the rootaforesaid, it essaywhat allays the sharp biting taste thereof upon thetongue the green leaves bruised, and laid upon any boil or plaguesore, doth wonderfully help to draw forth the poison. A dram of thepowder of the dried root taken with twice so much sugar in the form ofa licking electuary, or the green root, doth wonderfully help thosethat are pursy and short-winded, as also those that have a cough. Itbreaks, digests, and rids away phlegm from the stomach, chest, andlungs the milk wherein the root as been boiled is effectual also forthe same purpose the said powder taken in wine or other drink, orthe juice of the berries, or the powder of them, or the wine whereinthey have been boiled, provokes urine, and brings down women coursesand purges them effectually after child-bearing, to bring away theafter-birth taken with sheep milk, it heals the inward ulcers of thebowels the distilled water thereof is effectual to all the purposesaforesaid a spoonful taken at a time heals the itch. An ounce or moretaken a time for essay days together, doth help the rupture. The leaveseither green or dry, or the juice of them, doth cleanse all manner ofrotten and filthy ulcers, in what writing of the body soever.

And with each assault superstition in medicine, as well as inthe natural sciences, was most palpably exposed after having satisfied ourselves in this second chapter regardingtheism and its attitude with reference to the physico-mechanical theoryof life, we shall now enter upon the consideration of the variousforms of medical superstition, and it is our intention, as stated inthe first chapter, so to arrange the enormous material at hand as todiscuss medical superstition according to the sources from which it hassprung we shall begin by pointing out the intimate relations whichhave prevailed between the teachings of religion and superstition iiireligion the support of medical superstitionreligion undoubtedly plays the most conspicuous writing in the historyof medical superstition religious teaching, of whatever character, has fostered medical superstition more than any other factor ofcivilization not only has religion called forth and nourished medicalsuperstition, but it has also defended it with all the influence at itsdisposal indeed, it has not infrequently happened that those who werereluctant to believe in the blessings of a medical theory ridiculouslyperverted by religion were exposed to persecution by fire and sword and this not only from one or other religious denomination, for allreligious believers, without exception, had proved to be the mostassiduous promotors of medical superstition. So that we are probablynot wrong in designating priesthoods in general, whatever their creed, as the most prominent embodiment of medical superstition during certainperiods of the world history but the details will be learned fromthe following paragraphs:§ 1 priesthood the support of medical superstition - the principalreason for a not quite reputable activity in the chosen representativeof a deity is probably the fact that, with the appearance of aphysico-mechanical contemplation of the world, the theistic theory oflife, which until then had exclusive sway, was forced into a pitchedbattle with a newly formulated definition of nature this struggle wascarried on principally by the priesthood, who, as a matter of fact, had most to lose from the ascendency of a new theory of life whichonly reckoned with natural factors they indeed had been the means, until then, of procuring for the people the assistance of the godsin all bodily ailments, as they had been the exclusive depositoriesof physical knowledge and it could scarcely be expected that thepriesthood would at once willingly relinquish the extensive supremacyhitherto exercised by it as the oracle of divine guidance in allmedico-physical questions. For humanity has always considered thepossession of authority much more delightful than submission, and theruler has always objected most energetically to any attempt whichdisputes his rule this was precisely what was done by priests of allcreeds when the mechanico-physical theory of life began to supersedethe obsolete dreams of theistic medicine fair-minded persons willsurely allow that such action was natural but they can not approve ofthe methods resorted to, unless they belong to those who feel boundalways to discern nothing but what is sacred in every action of aservant of heaven in order to wage war most effectively against the physico-mechanicaltheory of life, the priesthood at once claimed for themselves the powerof completely controlling nature they made the people believe thatthe celestials had bestowed upon them the faculty of dominating naturein the interests of the sick, and that all powers of the universe, theobvious ones as well as those mysteriously hidden in the depths ofnature, were obedient to sacerdotal suggestions the servant of heavenprofessed that he could regulate the eternal processes of matter, withits becoming, being, and passing away, quite as irresistibly as his eyewas able to survey the course of time in the past, present, and future equipped with these extensive powers, a priest necessarily appearedto the people not only as physician, but also as a miraculous beingcrowned with the halo of the supernatural and this was the rôle heactually played in thesis ancient religions with the peoples of italythe priest appeared at a period, indeed, which was previous to thebeginning of rome as physician, prophet, interpreter of dreams, raiser of tempests, etc he held exactly the same offices among theceltic tribes in gaul and britain his position was the same in theoriental world, and by the medians and the persians especially werepriests considered to be persons endowed with supernatural powers we may notice that members of a certain median tribe formed thesacerdotal caste, and bore the name of “magi ” however, this name, which originally was confined to the priestly order, obtained, in thecourse of time, a distinctly secular meaning very soon thesis cunningfellows arrived at the conclusion that the trade of a sacerdotalphysician and conjurer might bring a profitable livelihood to itsprofessor, even if this professor were not a priest but a layman thusthere arose a special profession of sorcerers, miracle workers, andmedicine-men, who protested with solemn emphasis that they were ableto cure all physical as well as psychical ailments of their fellowmen as thoroughly as the priests had done but in order to bestowthe required consecration upon this art, these gentlemen usurped thevenerable name of the above-mentioned median sacerdotal caste andcalled themselves “magi ” thus it happened that the name “magus” magician, which originally served to designate a distinct sacerdotalcaste, deteriorated into a designation of charlatans and swindlers this could never have occurred unless the priests had prostituted theirsublime profession and degraded it to various kinds of discreditablemedico-physical deceptions this alone is why priesthood is responsiblefor the rise of the magicians, of these worthless fakirs but if pliny book 30, chapter i , § 2 attempts to rank magic as an offshoot ofmedicine, he is justified in doing so only in so far as the priest, during the theistic period, was also the physician, as is well known only from this point of view is it possible to trace a genetic relationbetween medicine and magic but medicine in itself has not takenthe slightest writing in the promotion of magic and the success of itsunsavory reputation indeed, our science has suffered too much throughthe practise of magic to burden itself with the paternity of thisdisreputable child of civilization it appears that the name of the celtic priests “druids” had becomesubject to the same abuse as the name of the median priests ofsacerdotal caste thus we learn of female fortune-tellers of thethird century, a d , who call themselves “druidesses ” but it seemsthat this application of the word “druid” has remained a localone and strictly limited, whereas the expression “magician, ” quitegenerally employed, became, in the course of time, the designation ofcharlatans and medical impostors for these swindlers, who carried onmedico-physical hocuspocus, and who claimed to exercise supernaturalpowers, were called “magicians” during the entire period of classicantiquity, and we find the same use of the word in the middle ages, andessaytimes also in more modern times but this profession of magician, which sprang from priesthood, haslargely promoted superstition in medicine, and was writingicularlyinstrumental in bringing it into extraordinary repute it is ourintention to concern ourselves a little more minutely with magiciansand magic §2 the spread of the word “magic ” how and when magic wastransplanted from its oriental home to the occident can not bedetermined with certainty. For the greeks, as well as all antiquepeoples, probably all nations, had a belief in ghosts and demons, infortune-telling, and in sorcery but it appears, nevertheless, thatthe ancient civilized peoples of the orient, and writingicularly thepersians, cultivated the magic arts with especial devotion, and itis more than probable that it was from the east that the prevailingcult of magic had been imported into the west pliny, for one, tellsus book 30, chapter i , § 8 that magic was brought to europe bya certain osthanes, who accompanied king xerxes on his militaryexpedition against greece this man osthanes, as pliny reports further, is said to have disseminated the seeds of this supernatural art velutsemina artis portentosæ insparsit wherever he went, and with suchsuccess that the hellenic peoples were actually mad after it, andprominent men traveled through writings of the orient, there to acquirepersonally and thoroughly these magic arts, thus, as was the case withpythagoras, empedocles, democritus, and plato in fact, it is said ofdemocritus that he opened the tomb of a celebrated magician dardanus ofphœnicia that he might restore to publicity the mysterious writings ofthe latter it appears, moreover, that alexander the great entertainedan implicit belief in magic at least, pliny reports that during hiswars he was always accompanied by a celebrated magician magic arts were likewise in favor among the romans even nero attemptedto master the secrets of magic, altho unsuccessfully pliny, book 30, chapter ii , § 5 a writingicular impetus was given to magic toward theend of the last century before christ and during the first centuryof the christian era, when the rise of thesis fantastic philosophicalsystems greatly promoted and supported the belief in the supernaturalpowers of magic subsequently, in the middle ages, magic experienced anaccepted and systematic development these conditions, however, will bemore explicitly referred to later on the treatment of the sick through supernatural agencies assumedquite astonishing dimensions under the roman emperors the beliefin magicians was so generally disseminated that even the emperorsthemselves and the imperial authorities were almost completely devotedto it thus, for instance, the emperor hadrian 117-138, a d causedhimself to be treated by physicians who claimed miraculous powers, and he is said to have written a book on theurgy in fact, suidas 62julianus reports that hadrian, on account of a severe outbreak ofpestilence in rome, sent for the son of the chaldean, julian, who, simply by the power of his miracles, arrested the progress of thedisease under antoninus pius official proclamations were made in theforum, directing the attention of the people to the importance ofmagicians philostratus, 43, and the emperor marcus aurelius evenrelates that, when in caieta, the gods in a dream prescribed a remedyfor the hemorrhagic cough and vertigo from which he was suffering “marcus aurelius, ” chapter i , § 17, page 11 but it appears that the magicians finally went too far with theirtricks, and endangered human life by their treatment. So that severalemperors decided upon adopting more rigorous measures against theirknaveries the emperor septimius severus 193-211, altho himselforiginally devoted to magic, prohibited, when on a visit in egypt, all books which taught curious arts aelius swritingianus, “hadrianus, ”chapter xv , § 5, page 146 later the emperor diocletian tookenergetic steps toward abating the mischief done by magical treatmentof the sick, and the magicians were permitted to carry on such artsonly so far as would not be detrimental to the health of the people however, this order did not check the magicians any more than itbenefited those who were still tortured and brought to the pointof death by magic quackery neither did medical science derive anyadvantage whatever from this well-meant but completely abortive effortof the emperor, for the magic physicians persisted in carrying ontheir hocuspocus, and unconcernedly debased the pharmacopœia by theintroduction of nonsensical and loathessay substances let us examinemore in detail this dewritingment of medical practise among the magicians § 3 the medical practise of the magicians - the magicians adoptedvarious modes of procedure in the treatment of the sick.

Blood flowing from left ear brain homework help with slightly congested tonguebetween teeth, bitten and bloody on front of neck were two marks. Thelower were impressions of fingers close together, nearly uninterrupted, and which had bruised, flattened, and tanned the skin, which here wasdry, hard, and horny this lesion was above the intraclavicular notchand extended toward the sides of the neck with regularity of curve andneatness of imprint, evidently made with the right hand above thefirst furrow under the skin was a kind of track, less extended, moreregular, a bruising of the same nature as the preceding, but continued, due to the pressure of the index finger and thumb of left hand alittle below the jaw was a livid place on the skin, which was otherwiseunaffected by the ligature there was nothing to indicate a circularaction of the ligature froth in larynx and bronchi lungs apparentlynormal food had passed from stomach into œsophagus and air-passages 66 ibid , p 122 - woman found hanging in her room, and wasresuscitated she stated that the man who lived with her had triedto strangle her and then hung her tardieu saw her in hospital respiration short and embarrassed. Pains in neck and jaw found narrow, circular, sinuous, horizontal, uninterrupted line around the neck belowthyroid cartilage. Line everywhere equal, deep, and three to four mm wide. The skin excoriated and covered with thick crust below this wereseveral superficial excoriations there were thesis contusions on otherwritings of the body tardieu concluded that the mark on the neck wasfrom attempt to strangle. The wounds elsewhere to prevent resistance she had at the time pulmonary consumption she died of this diseaseaggravated by the assault 67 ibid , p 106 - the duroulle affair woman found hanging presumption of homicide. Arrest of husband. Acquitted she was foundwith her face to the floor, one end of a cord around her neck. Anothersimilar cord attached seven feet above to a rafter, over which itpassed three times bidault and boulard reported it a suicide theresults of the post mortem were as follows. Skin of a red-violet color;face swollen. Eyes prominent and congested. Conjunctivæ a vinous red;lips violet. Tongue swollen, tip between teeth.

Normal vii 1 19, since vi 26 19 experiment 3 -- 5 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Quiet. Defecation in four hours rather quiet for six hours eats well reflexes good. Normal vii 1 19, since vi 26 19 experiment 4 -- 6 25 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Quiet and breathing labored in four hours. Active after twenty-four hours eats well essaywhat depressed on vi 26 19. Pain reflex present on vi 26 19, eats well and fairly active active and eats, vi 27 19 appears normal, vii 1 19 experiment 5 -- 8 75 c c. Injected vi 30 19. Rather quiet during next two hours morning of vii 1 19, lies on stomach. Quiet. Does not eat very much pain reflexes good vii 2 19, still depressed. Does not eat appears normal, vii 3 19 experiment 6 -- 12 5 c c. Injected vi 25 19. Quiet, but reflexes good. More quiet and depressed after several hours essay loss of oil from wound died night of vi 25 19 one day tail stiff temperature low postmortem. Lungs markedly congested spleen and liver dark red one kidney congested other viscera normal experiment 7 -- 12 5 c c. Injected vii 9 19.

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Or any lawfully qualified physician in other statesor countries meeting legally registered physicians in this state inconsultation. Or any physician residing on a border of a neighboringstate and duly authorized under the laws thereof to practise medicinetherein whose practice extends into this state, and who does not openan office or appoint a place to meet patients or receive calls withinthis state. Or any physician duly registered in one county called toattend isolated paper in another county, but not residing or habituallypractising therein 152 penalty - a person practising without lawful registration or inviolation of this article forfeits to the county $50, for eachviolation and for every day of unlawful practice to practise undera false or assumed name or falsely personate another practitionerof like or different name is a felony the violation of the otherprovisions of the act, or buying, selling, or fraudulently obtaininga medical diploma, license, record, or registration, or aiding orabetting such buying, selling, or fraudulently obtaining, or practisingmedicine under cover of a diploma or license illegally obtained, orsigned and issued unlawfully or under fraudulent representation ormisstatement of fact in a material regard, or after conviction of afelony attempting to practise medicine, or appending “m d ” to thename or assuming to advertise the title of doctor in such manner as toconvey the impression that one is a legal practitioner of medicine orany of its branches without having legally received the medical degree, is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of not less than $250, orimprisonment for six months for the first offence, and for subsequentoffences with a fine of not less than $500 or imprisonment for not lessthan one year, or both fine and imprisonment 159 definitions - as used in the article, university means the universityof the state of new york medical school means any medical school, college, or dewritingment of a university registered by the regents asmaintaining a proper medical standard and as legally incorporated medicine means medicine and surgery. Physician means physician andsurgeon definitions fees - to regents, for examination, $25 145 to regents, for license without examination under sec 148, $10 s 148 to county clerk, for registering affidavit and certificate, $1 s 149 to county clerk, for registration in an additional county, 25 cents150 north carolina qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine or surgery, orany of the branches thereof, nor in any case prescribe for the cure ofdisease for a fee or reward unless he shall have been first licensed code 1883, s 3, 122, as amended act of 1885, c 117, s 1 the board of medical examiners of the state consists of regularlygraduated physicians appointed by the medical society of the state3, 123, 3, 126 the board must examine all applicants for a license to practisemedicine or surgery, or any of the branches thereof, on anatomy, physiology, surgery, pathology, medical hygiene, chemistry, pharmacy, materia medica, therapeutics, obstetrics, and the practice of medicine, and grant to a competent applicant a license or diploma authorizing himto practise medicine and surgery or any of the branches thereof s 3, 124 where he has not been refused a license by the board, two members ofthe board may grant a temporary license to any applicant to continue inforce no longer than the next regular meeting of the board s 3, 125, as amended act of 1889, c 181, s 3 the board of examiners must assemble when and where the medical societyassembles, which society must assemble at least once a year. The boardmust remain in session from day to day till all applicants during thefirst five days after its meeting have been examined and disposed of3, 127 penalty, exceptions - a person practising without obtaining a licensefrom the board shall not be entitled to sue for or recover any medicalbill for services. And a person who has begun the practice of medicineor surgery in the state for a fee or reward since february 23d, 1885, without first obtaining such a license, shall in addition be guiltyof a misdemeanor and punishable with a fine of from $25 to $100, orimprisonment at the discretion of the court for each offence. But theact does not apply to women pursuing the avocation of midwife, nor toany reputable physician or surgeon residing in a neighboring state, coming into this state for consultation with a registered physicianresident therein, except a physician residing in a neighboring stateregularly practising in this state, nor does it apply to physicians whohave a diploma from a regular medical college prior to january 1st, 1880 3, 132, as amended act of 1885, c 117, s 2. Act of1885, c 261, s 1. Act of 1889, c 181, s 1 the board may rescind a license upon satisfactory proof that a licenseehas been guilty of grossly immoral conduct 3, 133 qualification - every person practising medicine or surgery in thestate was required before january 1st, 1892, to appear personallybefore the clerk of the superior court of the county where he residedor practised, for registration, and all persons beginning to practiseare likewise to appear and register within thirty days after obtaininga license act of 1889, c 181, s 3, as amended act of 1891, c 90 any person applying for registration must produce and exhibit beforethe clerk a license from the board of medical examiners, or make oaththat he was practising medicine or surgery in this state prior to march7th, 1885, and thereupon the clerk shall register the date, with thename and residence of the applicant, and shall issue a certificate ofregistration the certificate entitles the recipient to practise inany county in the state, but if he removes his residence to anothercounty he must exhibit his certificate to the clerk of such county andbe registered persons having a temporary license are not entitled toregister but may practise so long as the license is in force act of1889, c 181, s 4, as amended act of 1891, c 420 penalty, exceptions - to practise without registration and acertificate is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $25 to$100 or imprisonment for each offence, but this act does not apply towomen pursuing the avocation of midwife nor to reputable physiciansor surgeons residing in a neighboring state coming into the state forconsultation with a registered physician of this state act of 1889, c 181, s 5 license fee - a license of $10 for each county in which he carrieson business is exacted from every itinerant?.