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“to-day i had occasion to see a patient who homework help science mentioned having an abrams test for gonorrheal infection of the prostate he also stated he wished to have abrams’ treatment for the same condition could you enlighten me as to what these are?. i thought i had kept myself up to date as to all new tests and treatments in my line. But evidently i have been delinquent ”according to our records, albert abrams, a m , m d , ll d , f r m s , was born in san francisco in 1864 he was graduated in medicine by theuniversity of heidelberg, gerthesis, in 1882 dr abrams is a member ofhis local medical society and through that holds fellowship in theamerican medical association dr abrams has written voluminously in1910, his book on “spondylotherapy” “physio-therapy of the spine” wasreviewed in the journal “spondylotherapy” is a neologic creation ofdr abrams according to its disciples, it concerns itself “only withthe excitation of the functional centers of the spinal cord” and hasbeen called “the science of evoking the reflexes of the body both todiagnose and to cure disease ” in bringing its review of abrams’ bookon “spondylotherapy” to a close, the journal said. “ one wonders whether this is an attempt to explain osteopathy and chiropractic to the understanding of the regular practitioner, or to exploit the very ingenious percussion devices of the author, or whether it is really true that medical men really know practically nothing about the cure of disease through treatment of the spine let us hope that it is the latter and that a careful study of this unique volume may open new avenues of therapy heretofore undreamed of ”while the review was obviously critical, yet in advertising the book, the publisher picked out writing of the closing sentence, omitted thecontext, and quoted the journal as having said. “let us hope that a careful study of this unique volume may open new avenues of therapy heretofore undreamed of ”when this matter was brought to the attention of dr abrams, hereplied, “i fail to see any real difference in the two quotations” and“only one with an astigmatic mentality” could “see any incongruitybetween the context and the concluding sentence ” yet, in this sameletter which attempted to justify the garbling of a quotation so asto make a critical review appear a laudatory one, dr abrams declaredthat the review in question was “conceived and executed in a maliciousspirit ”between 1912 and 1914 dr abrams gave “clinical courses” on“spondylotherapy” in various writings of the country-- price $50 these“courses” were widely advertised by an ohio concern that seems to makea specialty not only of handling the advertising campaigns of thosemembers of the medical profession who have unusual or bizarre methodsto exploit, but also of acting as an agent for the sale of such devicesand publications as may be necessary to the proper practice of thewritingicular brand of therapy that is being exploited at the time thisconcern was featuring abrams’ course it called attention to the allegedfact that “no class were sic!. so busy as those employing mechanicaltreatment such as osteopathy, chiropractic, mechanotherapy, etc ”says dr abrams.

Stretching and loosening are ascribed to the moveablewritings of homework help science the body, as to the muscles and their tendons, to theligaments and membranæ. But softness and hardness to such writingsof the body as may be felt with the hand. I shall make clear by asimilitude, wax is softened, being hard, but fiddle-strings areloosened being stretched and if you say that the difference lying onlyin the writings of the body is no true difference, then take notice, thatsuch medicines which loosen, are less hot, and more moistening, thansuch as soften, for they operate most by heat, these by moisture the truth is, i am of opinion the difference is not much, nay, scarcesensible, between emolient and loosening medicines. Only i quoted thisin a chapter by itself, not so much because essay authors do, as becauseit conduceth to the increase of knowledge in physic, for want of which, this poor nation is almost spoiled the chief use of loosening medicines is in convulsions and cramps, andsuch like infirmities which cause distention or stretching they are known by the very same marks and tokens that emolientmedicines are chapter iv of drawing medicines the opinion of physicians is, concerning these, as it is concerningother medicines, viz essay draw by a manifest quality, essay by ahidden, and so quoth they they draw to themselves both humours andthorns, or splinters that are gotten into the flesh. However this iscertain, they are all of them hot, and of thin writings. Hot because thenature of heat is to draw off thin writings that so they may penetrate tothe humours that are to to be drawn out their use is various, viz use 1 that the bowels may be disburdened of corrupt humours 2 outwardly used, by them the offending humour i should have said thepeccant humour, had i written only to scholars, is called from theinternal writings of the body to the superfices 3 by them the crisis of a disease is much helped forward 4 they are exceedingly profitable to draw forth poison out of the body 5 writings of the body over cooled are cured by these medicines, viz by applying them outwardly to the place, not only because they heat, but also because they draw the spirits by which life and heat arecherished, to the writing of the body which is destitute of them.

Notable length of tibiaand of radius, although this relative length of extremities has beenremarked in negroes. Small facial angle, 30° to 40° in the monkey, 70°to 80° in man. Very inferior cranial capacity, the maximum in a gorillabeing 550 cubic centimetres, while the minimum in the human species isfrom 970 with a maximum of 1, 500 to 1, 900 centimetres. A low index ofthe foramen magnum. Convexity of the squamo-parietal suture, and largerand more salient canines and incisors the volume of the endocraniumin the female gorilla, like that of the human species, is smallerthan that of the male. This difference being almost 80 c c for theanthropoid female in studying the osseous system it should be remembered that certainmodifying elements, as artificial compression, pathologicaldeformities, posthumous distortions, and hygrometric conditions, mayaffect writingicularly the skull, and if due allowance be not made forthese the study may lead to glaring absurdities not longer ago than1725 there was found in a quarry at œningen the skull of a fossilbatrachian compressed into rude resemblance to the human cranium, whichwas announced to the world as scheuchzer “homo diluvii testis ettheoscopos, ” and as the remains of one of the sinful antediluvians whoperished in the noachic deluge are the bones old or recent?. An important point may arise in questions of identification of bones asto the oldness. Whether they are old or recent the first indicationis furnished by the presence or by the absence of the soft writings the existence of the periosteum and of the spinal marrow is the mostpersistent proof of a recent state. But these alone with the soft writingsare usually destroyed in two or three years in ordinary circumstancesa body becomes skeletonized in about ten years, although in exceptionalpaper the cadaver may resist decomposition after thesis years 571this summer in transferring an old cemetery in georgetown, d c , theremains of the grandmother of one of the writer patients were foundin such a state of preservation as to be easily recognized after fiftyyears of burial more recently, in unearthing the remains of an oldgraveyard in east washington, a striking peculiarity was noticed in thefact that thesis bodies of young people buried in recent years when takenup consisted of a few blackened bones and shreds of grave-clothes while the remains of thesis older people buried long before the civil warwere found in an excellent state of preservation one of these was amr fullin, who died from the effects of a sunstroke forty years agoand was buried in a metallic case an old lady who attended his funeralwas present when his remains were unearthed and said they looked asnatural as when he was laid away in 1852 the features were wellpreserved and even the white linen of the shroud was unsoiled alterations in the texture of the bone, such as that caused bydryness and by diminution in the proportion of organic matter, may beascertained by histological examination, and one of the characters ofage may be furnished by taking into consideration the specific weight placing the skull at an average density of 1, 649, that of an infantwould be 1, 515, an adult 1, 726, and that of old age 1, 636 ascertaining the proportion of organic and inorganic matter, thephosphates and carbonates, by chemical means may furnish an additionalhelp in the interpretation of the remains with all these diagnostic methods it may still be impossible toestablish identity either absolute or relative, even where a wholeskeleton is in question the evidence may, however, be of greatjuridical use to the accused, as in the case of van solen, tried forthe murder of dr henry harcourt, where the collective facts pointed tothe identification of a body dead two years the jury, however, after asecond trial, were instructed to acquit unless they were certain thatthe remains were harcourt they acquitted, as no one decided andapparent feature was known to have existed by which the remains couldbe identified beyond a doubt 572identity in case of entire skeleton or in case of isolated bones where an entire human skeleton has been discovered, the objects ofinquiry here, as in the case of fragments or remains, are to establishthe identity of the victim and that of the author of the act, and tocollect all available information relative to the nature of the deathand to the diverse circumstances attending the commission of the deed in gathering evidence from the examination of the skeleton or ofisolated bones, with a view to find out the probable cause of deathof the person of whom they form a writing, a great variety of questionswill arise for consideration, such as those relating to race, stature, age, sex, and trade or occupation. The exterior signs furnished bydentition. The traces of congenital peculiarity or of injury, and thesigns of disease either hereditary or acquired determination of race the question of race in connection with the subject of identificationis of more than usual importance in the united states, owing to ourmotley population, composed as it is of aboriginal americans, chinamen, negroes, and of europeans and their descendants i well remember thefirst human bones that i saw exhumed they were discovered in diggingthe foundation of a building near a kitchen-midden on one of thetributaries of the chesapeake bay the apparent oldness of the bonesand the finding of stone arrow-heads, tomahawks, and fragments ofaboriginal pottery in the immediate vicinity were additional accessoryfacts that strengthened the presumption of the bones being those of achoptank indian roughly speaking, there is not much trouble in recognizing theplatycnemic tibiæ of the mound-builder, the skull of a flathead indian, an inca skull, a negro skull, or even the skull peculiar to the lowerorder of irish in thesis very old skulls a considerable portion of hair is often foundattached this of course may lend assistance in the matter of raceidentity a few years since i undertook at the smithsonian institutiona series of micro-photographs of the structure and arrangement of hair, with a view to race classification as suggested by professor huxley various specimens of hair from the yellow races were compared withthat of fair and of blue-eyed persons, with the hair of negroes, withreindeer hair, and with the hair-like appendage found on the fringyextremity of the baleen plates in the mouth of a “bowhead” whale theexperiments, though far from satisfactory, were sufficiently conclusiveto enable one to recognize approximately the horse-like hair of essay ofthe yellow races, that of the negro, and that of a blond caucasian beyond the forementioned characteristics, the task of race recognitionfrom observation of the skull is one of great difficulty and perplexitywith illusory results a considerable experience of several years withthe large collection of skulls in the army medical museum enables me tospeak advisedly on this point 573although the technical procedures of craniometry require specialmeasurements and employ an arsenal of special instruments, the resultsare far from conclusive as regards the determination of human types time and space do not permit the mention even in epitome of thevarious methods most relied upon by trained craniologists among theoldest operations of cephalometry, as well as the most incomplete, is the measurement of the so-called facial angle, which is employedto distinguish the skull of a lower order of animal from that of thenegro and the white man this angle, acute in the skulls of the loweranimals, approaches a right angle as we ascend the zoological scale;being from 30° to 65° in the various apes. 75° in the mongolian. About70° in the negro, and between 80° and 90° for whites the prognathous projecting jaws of the negro cranium are distinctive, as well asthe shape of the nasal opening, which in the black is an equilateraltriangle, while it is isosceles in the white the books usually speakof the eskimo skull as pyramidal, which in point of fact is not true inspection and examination of a large collection of eskimo craniahas changed and greatly modified essay of the previous notions of theconventional eskimo skull from more than one hundred, collected in thevicinity of bering strait, 574 i find that the skulls present veryconsiderable variations among themselves. Essay being brachycephalic, others dolichocephalic in thesis the facial angle is 80°, and inone instance 84°, which exceeds that observed by me in thesis germanskulls nor is the prominence of the zygomatic arches such a constantdifference in the configuration as to justify one in speaking of theskull as pyramidal on the contrary, in thesis of the specimens linesdrawn from the most projecting writing of the zygomatic arch and touchingthe sides of the frontal bone, instead of forming a triangle on beingelongated, might, like the asymptotes of a parabola, be extended toinfinity and never meet the index of the foramen magnum in theseskulls is about the same as that of european crania the internalcapacity shows marked difference, the cubic contents of the endocraniumaveraging that of the french or germans as essay modern writers lay great stress on the measurement of thecranial capacity, not only as an aid to race identification, but as anadjunct in the study of the criminal and insane classes, it may not beamiss to give the salient facts relative thereto it is admitted that the cranial capacity may vary with the intellectualstate, hydrocephalic skulls, of course, being excluded microcephalicadults give a figure inferior to that of gorillas, essay being as lowas 419 c c andaman islanders and autochthonous australians appear, inrespect to cranial capacity, to be most badly off the capacity of anandaman has been found as low as 1, 094 c c. While that of australians autochthonous and of essay american tribes show an average capacityof 1, 224 c c in the normal as well as in their deformed crania thecranial capacity increases in the yellow races and attains its maximumin the white races in the middle european race 1, 500 c c may beaccepted as the average. 1, 750 c c is the maximum, and anything aboveis macrocephalic. While the minimum is 1, 206 c c , which is rather toolow than too high according to topinard nomenclature of the cranialcapacity, macrocephalic in the adult european male are those havinga capacity of 1, 950 c c and above.

A. Formula b. Substance c. Melting point, u s p d. Ductility limit e. Plasticity limit f. a adhesiveness and detachability b strength of film at 38 c a b c d e f 1 “parowax, ” 50 8 32 5 29 0 a adheres and stand oil co of ind detaches well. rather hard b pliable and strong 3 “paraffin 118-120 f , ” 46 8 28 5 24 5 a does not adhere stand oil co of ind well. Detaches easily b pliable but not strong 4 “paraffin 120-122 f , ” 47 2 29 0 24 5 a adheres well. stand oil co of ind detaches well b pliable and fairly strong 5 “paraffin 123-125 f , ” 48 8 31 5 28 5 same as 4 stand oil co of ind 6 “paraffin 128-130 f , ” 52 0 33 0 30 0 a adheres well. stand oil co of ind detaches not so easily b pliable and strong 7 “texwax, ” texas co , 51 2 32 5 29 8 same as 6 port arthur, texas 8 “paraffin wax 122-124 f , ” 50 6 36 0 34-35 a unsatisfactory. warren refining co , does not adhere warren, pa b only slightly pliable. too tough 9 “paraffin no 910, ” 47 0 30 5 26-27 a adheres well. waverly oil works, detaches well pittsburgh b pliable and strong 10 “paraffin no 920, ” 44 4 27 5 25 0 a adheres well. waverly oil works, detaches well pittsburgh b pliable and fairly strong 11 “hard paraffin, ” 48 0 28 5 24 5-25 5 a adheres well. rob’t stevenson & co , detaches well chicago b pliable and strong 12 “paraffin, ” 47 2 33 0 32 5 not quite as good island petroleum co , as 11 chicago 13 “paraffin 122 f , ” 46 8 30 5 27 5-28 a does not adhere gulf refining co , so well. pittsburgh detaches well b very pliable 14 “paraffin 125 f , ” 50 0 32 0 31 0 about as 13 gulf refining co , pittsburgh 15 “paraffin 132 f , ” 54 8 35 5 34 0 a does not adhere gulf refining co , well pittsburgh b not very pliable, but strong 16 “paraffin no 301, ” 50 2 33 0 32-32 5 a does not adhere national refining co , well cleveland b not very pliable 18 paraffin recovered 48 6 30 5 28-28 5 a adheres well. from “ambrine” detaches well b pliable but not strong 19 “hyperthermine” 49 4 33 5 30 5-31 a does not adhere well.

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Melting point, homework help science u s p d. Ductility limit e. Plasticity limit f. a adhesiveness and detachability b strength of film at 38 c a b c d e f 1 “parowax, ” 50 8 32 5 29 0 a adheres and stand oil co of ind detaches well. rather hard b pliable and strong 3 “paraffin 118-120 f , ” 46 8 28 5 24 5 a does not adhere stand oil co of ind well. Detaches easily b pliable but not strong 4 “paraffin 120-122 f , ” 47 2 29 0 24 5 a adheres well. stand oil co of ind detaches well b pliable and fairly strong 5 “paraffin 123-125 f , ” 48 8 31 5 28 5 same as 4 stand oil co of ind 6 “paraffin 128-130 f , ” 52 0 33 0 30 0 a adheres well.