History

Homework Help For History


Woillez909 has described and recommended what he calls a spirophore after the removal of a foreign body the irritation remaining may causea sensation as if the body was still lodged death may occur from hemorrhage homework help for history after its removal post-mortem appearances these are mainly those of asphyxia there may also be evidences ofexternal violence, homicidal or accidental, as of pressure on thechest persistent deformity, flattening of the nose and lips, andexcoriation of these writings may result from forcible closure of mouthand nose the skin and conjunctiva usually show patches of lividity andpunctiform ecchymoses. Especially lividity on the lips and limbs theface may be pale or violet. It is often placid, especially if thesuffocation is accidental tardieu910 admits that infiltration of theconjunctiva and punctiform ecchymoses of the face, neck, and chest mayalso be found essaytimes in women after severe labor, and in epileptics he records the result of the examination of those who died fromsuffocation at the pont de la concorde, 1866 the face and upper writingsof the trunk were generally light red to a deep violet or black color, with punctated blackish ecchymoses on the face, neck, and upper writing ofchest the eyes are usually congested mucus and essaytimes bloody froth arefound about the nose and mouth the tongue may or may not protrude the blood is usually dark and very fluid wounds after death may bleed according to tardieu911 fluidity of the blood is most constant incompression of the chest and abdomen, as also its accumulation in thevessels and right side of heart its color varies from red to black the brain and pia mater are generally congested this is said to beinvariable if the eyes are congested mackenzie in thirteen paper foundthe brain congested in all the heart varies much in appearance and condition the right side isoften full of blood. Occasionally empty essaytimes subpericardialecchymoses are found, usually along the coronary vessels the blood inthe heart may be writingly coagulated if the agony has been prolonged andthere has been a writingial access of air, which is gradually diminished mackenzie912 found the right cavities full and the left empty innine out of thirteen paper johnson913 as a result of experimenton animals claims that when access of air is prevented there is arise in pressure in the arteries, the right side of the heart fills, the pulmonary capillaries become empty, and therefore the left sideof the heart becomes empty as a result of further experiments914he verified his former conclusion, and added that in the last stageof asphyxia there is increased pressure on the pulmonary artery andlessened pressure in the systemic vessels he thinks915 that whenboth sides of the heart contain blood, there is paralysis of vaso-motornerves and the arteries the trachea is usually bright red and often contains bloody froth thelarynx or trachea as well as pharynx or œsophagus may contain a foreignbody if the latter has been removed the resulting irritation may beseen the lungs are essaytimes congested, at others normal. Color red orpale essaytimes one lung only is affected they may be emphysematous mackenzie found them congested in all of thirteen paper examined byhim the lungs of young persons may be found comparatively small, almost bloodless, and emphysematous tardieu, albi, and others believedthat the punctiform subpleural ecchymoses indicated suffocation, andwere due to small hemorrhages from engorged vessels which rupturedin the efforts at expiration these spots are usually round, dark, from the size of a pin-head to a small lentil, and well defined they are not like the petechiæ in the lungs and heart after purpura, cholera, eruptive fevers, etc , nor like the hemorrhages under thescalp after tedious labor, all of which are variable in size thesepunctiform spots are usually seen at the root, base, and lower marginof the lungs hofmann states “lehrbuch” that they are found in theposterior writing of the lungs and in the fissures between the lobes theyare indisputably frequent after death from suffocation, and if wellmarked either in adults or infants that have breathed, they indicatesuffocation, unless essay other cause of death is clear simon, ogston, and tidy, however, have shown that they are essaytimes absent in fatalsuffocation, and are essaytimes present in the absence of suffocation, as after hanging and drowning. In fœtuses before labor has begun;often in still-births, although essay of these are probably due tosuffocation from inhaling fluid or from pressure also in death fromscarlet fever, heart disease, apoplexy, pneumonia, and pulmonary œdema grosclaude916 quotes from pinard, who declares that these ecchymosesare found in fœtuses which die from arrest of circulation grosclaudehimself made a large number of experiments on animals by drowning, hanging, and strangling, and fracturing the skull the ecchymoses werefound in nearly all the paper the ecchymoses are writingly the result of venous stasis, which overcomesthe resistance of essay capillaries. And the latter rupture, writingly fromthe aspirating action of the thoracic wall, the lung being unable tofill itself with air, but mainly917 from vaso-motor contraction andlateral pressure at the maximum of the asphyxia, the time of tetanicexpiration if the asphyxia is interrupted before this stage, thespots do not appear similar ecchymoses may be found under the scalp, in the tympanum, retina, nose, epiglottis, larynx, trachea, thymus, pericardium, in the parietal pleura, along the intercostal vessels, rarely the peritoneum, in the stomach, and essaytimes the intestines;and in other writings of the body, especially the face, base of neck, andfront of chest. In convulsive affections, as eclampsia and epilepsy, and in the convulsions of strychnia and prussic acid poisoning theremay be suffusion and congestion of the lungs though not the punctatedspots mackenzie, in thirteen paper of suffocation from various causes, failedto find the tardieu spots either externally or internally briand andchaudé918 state that they are less constant and characteristic inthose who have been buried in pulverulent substances ogston919 holds that in infants that are smothered the ecchymosesare found in greater number in the thymus gland. While in adults dyingfrom other forms of asphyxia they were found only once in that gland the spots are found in clusters in infants that are smothered, butonly single and scattered in adults who die from drowning, hanging ordisease they were wanting in the lungs of but one infant they may be recognized as long as the lung tissue is unchanged theapoplectic spots in the lungs seen in strangulation are not found insuffocation tardieu920 from experiments on animals and examination of twenty-three new-born infants who showed traces of violence around the mouth, found the lungs rather pale and anæmic, subpleural ecchymoses well marked all the deaths were rapid in paper of compression of chest and abdomen921 the congestion of the lungs was extensive, and pulmonary apoplexy frequent.

Diseases of the luminaries by homework help for history the herbsof saturn, and the contrary. Diseases of mars by herbs of venus, and the contrary fifthly, there is a way to cure diseases essaytimes by sympathy, andso every planet cures his own disease. As the sun and moon bytheir herbs cure the eyes, saturn the spleen, jupiter the liver, mars the gall and diseases of choler, and venus diseases in theinstruments of generation nich culpeper from my house in spitalfields, next door to the red lion, september 5, 1653 to his dearest consortmrs alice culpeper my dearest, the works that i have published to the world though envied by essayilliterate physicians have merited such just applause, that thoumayest be confident in proceeding to publish anything i leave thee, especially this master-piece. Assuring my friends and countrymen, thatthey will receive as much benefit by this, as by my dispensatory, and that incomparable piece called, semiotica uranica enlarged, andenglish physician these are the choicest secrets, which i have had thesis years locked upin my own breast i gained them by my constant practice, and by them imaintained a continual reputation in the world, and i doubt not but theworld will honour thee for divulging them. And my fame shall continueand increase thereby, though the period of my life and studies be athand, and i must now bid all things under the sun farewell farewell, my dear wife and child. Farewell, arts and sciences, which i so dearlyloved. Farewell, all worldly glories. Adieu, readers, nicholas culpeper * * * * *nicholas culpeper, the author of this work, was son of nicholasculpeper, a clergyman, and grandson of sir thomas culpeper, bart hewas essay time a student in the university of cambridge, and soon afterwas bound apprentice to an apothecary he employed all his leisurehours in the study of physic and astrology, which he afterwardsprofessed, and set up business in spitalfields, next door to thered lion, formerly known as the half-way house between islingtonand stepney, an exact representation of which we have given underour author portrait, where he had considerable practice, and wasmuch resorted to for his advice, which he gave to the poor gratis astrological doctors have always been highly respected. And thosecelebrated physicians of the early times, whom our author seems tohave writingicularly studied, hippocrates, galen, and avicen, regardedthose as homicides who were ignorant of astrology paracelsus, indeed, went farther. He declared, a physician should be predestinated to thecure of his patient. And the horoscope should be inspected, the plantsgathered at the critical moment, &c culpeper was a writer and translator of several works, the mostcelebrated of which is his herbal, “being an astrologo-physicaldiscourse of the common herbs of the nation. Containing a completemethod or practice of physic, whereby a man may preserve his body inhealth, or cure himself when sick, with such things only as grow inengland, they being most fit for english constitutions ”this celebrated, and useful physician died at his house inspitalfields, in the year 1654 this book will remain as a lastingmonument of his skill and industry “culpeper, the man that first ranged the woods and climbed the mountains in search of medicinal and salutary herbs, has undoubtedly merited the gratitude of posterity ” dr johnson theenglish physicianenlarged amara dulcis considering divers shires in this nation give divers names to one andthe same herb, and that the common name which it bears in one county, is not known in another. I shall take the pains to set down all thenames that i know of each herb. Pardon me for setting that name first, which is most common to myself besides amara dulcis, essay call itmortal, others bitter-sweet. Essay woody night-shade, and othersfelon-wort descript it grows up with woody stalks even to a man height, andessaytimes higher the leaves fall off at the approach of winter, andspring out of the same stalk at spring-time. The branch is compassedabout with a whitish bark, and has a pith in the middle of it.

Or inany case the president shall have authority, at his discretion, togrant a special permit to any applicant to practise medicine until heshall have an opportunity to appear before the board in session forexamination, revokable at the discretion of the president the boardhas in its discretion authority to accept in lieu of examination acertificate from a medical board of any other state, showing that theapplicant has passed a satisfactory examination as to his proficiency, and obtained a license from said board to practise medicine and surgeryin said state 1, 747, as amended act 1892, c 70 a person obtaining a certificate from the president of the board mustcause it to be recorded in the clerk office of the county or thecorporation court, of the county or corporation in which he resides, or, if he resides in the city of richmond, in the clerk office of thechancery court of the said city 1, 749 no person who shall have commenced the practice of medicine or surgerysince january 1st, 1885, or who shall hereafter commence the practiceof the same, shall practise as a physician or surgeon for compensationwithout having obtained a certificate and caused it to be recorded penalty - the violation of this act is punishable with a fine offrom $50 to $500 for each offence, and the violator is debarred fromreceiving compensation for services rendered as a physician or surgeon;a person assessed with a license tax as a physician or surgeon by anycommissioner of revenue prior to july 1st, 1892, shall be taken ashaving commenced the homework help for history practice of medicine or surgery prior to thatdate. But any person who shall not have been so assessed shall be takenas not having commenced such practice prior to that date s 1, 750, as amended act 1892, c 70 non-residents - a physician or surgeon residing in an adjoining statewithin ten miles of the boundary line of this state, is entitled tostand the examination and receive a certificate, and the certificatemust be recorded in that county in the state nearest to his place ofresidence, and such certificate and recordation shall make it lawfulfor him to practise medicine and surgery in this state s 1, 751 exceptions - this chapter does not affect practitioners of dentistry, nor include physicians or surgeons residing in other states calledinto consultation in a special case with a physician or surgeonresiding in this state, nor does it affect in any way the laws inreference to the license tax 1, 752 nor does it apply tomidwives 1, 753 fees - to the board of examiners, before examination, $5 s 1, 747, as amended act 1892, c 70 to the clerk of the court, for recording, same fee as for recording adeed 1, 749 washington examining board - the governor is required to appoint a state medicalexamining board of nine members, learned and skilled in the practiceand theory of medicine and surgery act march 28th, 1890, s 1 the said board is required to hold meetings for examination on thefirst tuesday of january and july in each year, alternately in westernand eastern washington at such places as the board may designate theboard may call special meetings when, in the opinion of a majority ofthe board, they are necessary the board is required to keep a recordof all applicants for a license, with their ages, the time spent in thestudy and practice of medicine and surgery, and the name and locationof all institutions granting to such applicants degrees or certificatesof lectures in medicine or surgery, and whether such applicant wasrejected or licensed. And said register is prima facie evidence ofall matters therein recorded 2 qualification - every person desiring to commence the practice ofmedicine or surgery, or either of them, in any of their or itsbranches, must make a written application to the board for a license, supported by an affidavit of the applicant, setting forth the actualtime spent in the study of medicine and surgery, and when. Whethersuch study was in an institution of learning and, if so, its name andlocation. If not in such institution, where and under whose tutorshipsuch study was prosecuted, the time engaged in the actual practice, if at all, of medicine and surgery or either, and where, and the ageof the applicant at the time of the application, such applicationand affidavit to be filed and preserved of record in the office ofthe secretary of the board at the time and place designated bythe board or at a regular meeting of the board, applicants must beexamined in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, histology, materia medica, therapeutics, preventive medicines, the practice of medicine, surgery, obstetrics, diseases of women and children, of the nervous system, ofthe eye and ear, medical jurisprudence, and such other branches asthe board deem advisable the examination must be both scientific andpractical, and of sufficient severity to test the candidate fitnessto practise medicine and surgery, by written or printed, or writinglywritten and writingly printed, questions and answers, and the same arerequired to be filed and preserved of record in the said secretaryoffice after the examination, if it be satisfactory, the board shallgrant a license, by the consent of not less than five members, exceptas hereinafter provided refusal or revocation - the board may refuse or revoke a license forunprofessional or dishonorable conduct, subject to the right of appeal3 “unprofessional or dishonorable conduct” means.

“in the slighter forms of diabetes, the influence of meat albumins is not great and it is difficult to demonstrate the reaction of the patient to different forms of albumin it may be necessary to add more albumin than the patient can actually take before glycosuria indication is reacted once a medium amount of albumin is exceeded, say 70 to 80 grams, the glycosuria increases, no matter what the type of albumin is ”my analysis also shows that the carbohydrates are not excluded fromthis food as claimed above 40 per cent gluten biscuit referee water 8 50 ash 1 48 protein n × 5 7 41 15 fiber 0 08 carbohydrates 47 81 fat 0 98 starch 36 98no analysis is supplied by the company, but this may be called properlya “40 per cent gluten biscuit ” the company claims, however, that thisis “best for diabetics, ” which is not true here, as in the case of “40 per cent gluten flour, ” the companylabel attributes to “dr wm osler in ‘practice of medicine, ’” thefollowing quotation. “of gluten foods, thesis are very unpalatable, others are frauds a good gluten flour is made by the battle creeksanatarium co , mich ” i have no way of knowing to which gluten flourof the company dr osler had reference the “pure gluten meal” might becalled properly a “good gluten flour, ” but this “40 per cent glutenflour” is no better, and no worse, than the average gluten flour on themarket the quotation from osler gives an entirely false impression 40 per cent gluten flour referee company water 8 62 5-10 ash 0 89 0 5-1 protein n × 5 7 33 63 40-45 fiber 0 08 1-3 carbohydrates 55 35 40-45 fat 1 43 0 2-0 5 starch 48 04 my analysis shows 6 37 per cent less protein than the companyminimum, and 10 35 more carbohydrates than their maximum in past yearsi have found the protein in this brand to range from 35 0 to 42 9 percent using the factor 5 7 it is true that the manufacturer doesnot state what protein factor is used in his reported analysis, but asin four other brands 5 7 is used, it is fair to assume that the samefactor applies to this as well at least such should be the case, asotherwise the manufacturer analyses would be meaningless even usingthe factor 6 25 this later sample contains only 36 88 per cent ofprotein the following statement, in my judgment, as applied to a foodcontaining over 48 per cent of starch, does not hold water. “thisfood is of special service in paper of glycosuria and in the milderforms of diabetes ” with this brand as with “40 per cent glutenbiscuit” the manufacturer again uses the misleading quotation fromosler 40 per cent gluten meal referee company water 7 30 5-10 ash 1 36 1-2 protein n × 5 7 41 55 40-45 fiber 0 10 1-2 carbohydrates 48 58 40-45 fat 1 11 0 2-0 5 starch 36 59 40-45the claimed analysis is justified by my findings i must takeexception, however, to the following statement. “prepared with greatcare from a good grade of spring wheat, by our special process, whichpreserves the natural food properties of the product ” the companyevidently tries to carry water on both shoulders, on the one handclaiming a reduction in the starch content, while on the other claimingthe preservation of all “the natural food properties ”20 per cent gluten meal referee company water 7 65 5-10 ash 1 22 1-2 protein n × 5 7 24 68 20-30 fiber 0 12 1-2 carbohydrates 65 41 65-70 fat 0 92 1-2 starch 51 24 65-70the company analysis is confirmed as the company claims directlythat this is “not a diabetic food, ” any criticism of its use forthat purpose is disarmed however, again exception must be taken tothe statement that “the natural food properties of the product” arepreserved pure gluten meal referee company water 4 60 5-10 ash 0 96 1-2 protein n × 5 7 76 78 75-80 fiber 0 08 1-3 carbohydrates 16 77 0-5 fat 0 81 0 25-0 70 starch 6 77 0-5the minimum claim as to protein is justified again the companyconfuses carbohydrates and starch, and the food instead of containingfrom 0 to 5 per cent of “carbohydrates starch” actually contains16 77 per cent of carbohydrates, of which 6 77 per cent is starch once more the statement that “the natural food properties” arepreserved is untrue as applied to a wheat product deprived of most ofits starch in justice to the company, it should be noted that on the labels of“pure gluten biscuit” and “pure gluten meal” appears the warning:“every person suffering from diabetes should be under the care ofan experienced physician, ” and on the label of “40 per cent glutenmeal, ” “persons suffering from diabetes should use this food only onthe advice of a physician ” on the other hand, the suggestion on thelabel of “pure gluten meal, ” “write for a copy of diabetic foods andhow to use them” is a more or less direct invitation to self-treatment moreover, a letter dated may 9, 1916, apparently dictated for thekellogg food company by one ruth french, in reply to an inquiry from alayman, gives direct advice with no reference whatever to a physician claims made in a letter to a laymanin addition to this inconsistent attitude the letter makes certainclear misstatements, as follows:“40 per cent gluten flour actually contains 40 per cent of puregluten, making it a perfectly safe article of diet in all but thegravest paper of diabetes from our gluten flour excellent bread, gemsand puffs are made that perfectly satisfy the craving for bread with noharmful results ” this flour contains 33 63 per cent of gluten, not 40per cent. It is not “a perfectly safe article of diet in all but thegravest paper of diabetes, ” for if one reads the literature correctly, starch restriction is more necessary in mild than in severe paper ofdiabetes furthermore, the bread, gems and puffs made from such a flourdo not “satisfy the craving for bread with no harmful results ”in the next paragraph of the letter, undue emphasis is laid on the“objectionable properties” of flesh foods, a statement only in accordwith the tenets of extreme vegetarians i also doubt very much whetherthe statement is true that “under a diet of our diabetic foods thethirst to which diabetics are so often subject is usually very muchrelieved ”in the next paragraph the assertion is made that “the diet indicated is in keeping with the ideas of the highest medical authorities meat is entirely excluded from the dietary ” my reading of theliterature does not show that the leading authorities take any suchposition later on reference is made to von noorden claim as to thesuperiority of vegetable over animal proteins, which i have alreadydiscussed under “pure gluten biscuit ” certain detached sentences ofvon noorden might justify such a statement, but a reading of all hesays on the subject leads to a very different conclusion claims made in an advertising bookletthe whole booklet is written from the standpoint of an extremevegetarian, and therefore is often misleading in its conclusions page 5 “the researches of ogata and others have shown that cane sugaris a less wholeessay food than the natural sugars found in fruits andproduced in the body by the digestion of starch, that is, fruit sugarsand malt sugars ” in opposition to this i quote from von noorden, theirown authority, “die zuckerkrankheit und ihre behandlung, ” berlin, 1910, page 270:“that levulose, milk sugar and inulin are more useful than the othercarbohydrates is a common opinion, but the importance of their use inpractice does not correspond with the theory in light paper the formof carbohydrates makes little difference. In severe paper the advantagefrom using levulose, milk sugar, etc , is only slightly greater thanfrom using bread and flour only in certain paper does it appearto me that the special form of carbohydrates possesses any writingicularsignificance ”on page 92 of the same work von noorden tells us that of thecarbohydrates dextrose is the worst, with maltose almost as bad inspite of the fact that kellogg exploits his “meltose, ” the “newcarbohydrate, ” as of special value for diabetics he also says thatlevulose increases glycosuria only about half as much as dextrose, when used occasionally, but with long use it is as bad as dextrose andstarch page 5 the company refers to sugar as “possibly also causingdiabetes ” sugar or any other carbohydrate may under diabeticconditions cause an increase of glucose in the urine, but i do notbelieve that any food or any diet can cause diabetes page 7 “that the large use of meat and eggs is not only detrimentalbut positively dangerous in thesis paper of diabetes is now a well knownand recognized fact ” the dietaries of well known authorities ondiabetes are not in harmony with this statement page 13 “it has been discovered that the complete suppressionof carbohydrates from the dietary is not only unnecessary but ishighly detrimental and even dangerous ” “the complete suppression ofcarbohydrates from the dietary” is the only means the physician has todetermine the diabetic carbohydrate tolerance if carbohydrate-poorfoods are so “highly detrimental and even dangerous, ” why does thecompany exploit foods like “pure gluten flour” and “pure glutenbiscuit, ” whose chief claim to excellence is their comparative freedomfrom carbohydrates?. Page 17 “cream is an emulsion, and, with the exception of egg yolk, is the only form in which animal fat is found in an emulsified state ”milk, nature most wonderful emulsion, is apparently overlooked page 19 “ these foods will be found of great value especially as substitutes for the breads and meats which are the mostobjectionable features of the ordinary diet, and which should, as faras possible, be interdicted in this class of paper ” this is simplyspecial pleading for the kellogg vegetarian diet page 19 “our glutens are all thoroughly standardized, so that intheir use the physician and the patient know just the amount of starcheaten ” this standardization is largely mythical for instance, “puregluten biscuit” claims 0 to 5 per cent “carbohydrates starch, ”whereas i find 14 84 per cent carbohydrates with 4 02 per cent starch “40 per cent gluten flour” claims 40 per cent gluten and40 to 45 per cent carbohydrates, whereas i find 33 63 and 55 35per cent , respectively “pure gluten meal” claims 0 to 5 per cent “carbohydrates starch” whereas i find 16 77 per cent carbohydratesand 6 77 per cent starch i have a record of six analyses each of “40per cent gluten flour” and “40 per cent gluten biscuit, ” which showthe hollowness of this claim of “standardization ” the flour showed33 6, 35 0, 42 9, 36 8, 35 6, and 40 9 per cent of protein, with from40 8 to 55 4 per cent of carbohydrates. The biscuits 32 7, 33 2, 39 5, 43 3, 33 9, and 41 2 per cent of protein, with from 41 1 to 54 0 percent of carbohydrates in fact, my experience shows that the kelloggproducts are more poorly “standardized” than most of the diabetic foodson the market page 20 “may be made to carry a large amount of fat in the form ofbutter, a most desirable thing in the treatment of diabetes, ” while onpage 16 the company claims that in an experiment of minkowski on a dog, butter “passed through the body without change, none being absorbed”;these are certainly contradictory statements the explanation is thaton the one page the company is exploiting its biscuits, and on theother its nut preparations page 20 again the incorrect claim is made for “40 per cent glutenflour” that “we believe this to be the only standardized gluten flourmade ”page 21 the claim is made that flesh foods are “objectionable onaccount of the large amounts of ptomains and toxins which theycontain ” i was not aware that fresh meats contained any ptomainswhatever on the same page the claim is again made that by the use ofthe kellogg nut foods “diabetics lose their thirst, ” a claim which ithink is more than doubtful page 22 “nuts are a whole food, containing all the elements requiredfor the perfect nutrition of the body ” a marked characteristic ofnuts is that they are not “a whole food, ” as with the exception ofa few varieties, such as the chestnut, they are extremely poor incarbohydrates, which fact gives them their value in the diabetic diet page 23 “with the exception of the potato, the beet and the carrot, vegetables contain little sugar or starch ” corn, beans and peas areall vegetables which are relatively high in carbohydrates, and for thisreason are specifically excluded from the diabetic dietary from the foregoing considerations i would recommend that the companyanalyses of “40 per cent gluten biscuit, ” “40 per cent gluten meal, ”and “20 per cent gluten meal” be accepted as correct before thecouncil can accept any of these products, the following steps should betaken:the company on all its labels should correct the impression that“carbohydrates” and “starch” are synonymous terms the labels of all the preparations examined should be changed inaccordance with the criticisms given above in all paper in which analytic data are given, it would be preferableto state only the minimum of protein and the maximum of carbohydrates the booklet, “practical suggestions about diet in diabetes, ” shouldbe radically changed along the lines noted above -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 56 iodo-mangan omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryiodo-mangan, made by the chemische fabrik helfenberg a g , neardresden, gerthesis, and sold in the united states by the reinschildchemical company, new york, is a solution said to contain iron, manganese and iodin in combination with peptone it is claimed tobe a reconstructive tonic and blood-making adjuvant, with favorableaction in affections of the glandular system it was admitted to newand nonofficial remedies in 1907, before the council had adopted thepresent rule 10, which provides that no article shall be admittedto new and nonofficial remedies which, because of its unscientificcomposition, is useless or inimical to the best interests of thepublic or of the medical profession in 1911 the council consideredthe question whether or not this product was still eligible anddecided in the end to retain it as probably having essay merit todetermine if iodo-mangan was eligible for new and nonofficial remedies, 1917, the reinschild chemical company was requested to send in thecurrent advertising matter as this advertising was not sent in andas apparently the product was not marketed at the present time, thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry voted to omit iodo-mangan from newand nonofficial remedies at the same time the reinschild chemicalcompany was informed that the preparation might be submitted forreconsideration at any time -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 64 liquid albolene report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryas now marketed, liquid albolene mckesson and robbins, new york, isclaimed to be made only from genuine russian oil and hence to possessdistinct advantages over “ oils purporting to be russian, most of which are imperfectly purified and thesis of which are positively dangerous for continued use ”on the other hand, a short time ago, mckesson and robbins claimed thatliquid albolene was then available “ of as high a quality as we had supplied before the european war thanks to the research and scientific achievement of our chemists, we are now able to offer liquid albolene, using as a base a specially refined domestic oil that is in every way suitable for medicinal purposes, and having the same viscosity as russian oil ”the advertising matter suggests the promiscuous, thoughtless andirrational use of liquid albolene and of a number of albolenepreparations by extravagant claims, such, for example, as the following. “albolene will never fail to bring a free, easy stool, no matter what condition may be present, from obstinate atony of the bowel to fissure, fistula, or even malignant disease, and in spite of the failure of ordinary purgatives to which the patient may have become habituated “aromatic liquid albolene is actually the first laxative presented to the medical profession that seems to have no drawback “it will not have been lost upon the physician who has read the remarks on the use of aromatic liquid albolene to regulate the bowels in surgical paper, that there are thesis instances where it would prove equally valuable during the treatment of acute diseases in the exanthemata, in pneumonia, for example, to cite only a few of the conditions where it may be used to advantage, an absolutely reliable laxative that will not in any way weaken or distress the patient, presents obvious superiority to any of the agents heretofore in common use ”the council held liquid albolene ineligible because the product ismarketed in a way to encourage its indiscriminate and irrational use bythe public rule 4 and because unwarranted therapeutic claims are madefor it rule 6 -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 65 naphey medicated uterine wafers report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrynaphey medicated uterine wafers were submitted to the council by themanufacturers, naphey & co , essay years ago and were rejected naphey &co has recently requested reconsideration of the preparation, and hassubmitted advertising matter, trade packages and sample packages thelabel of the trade package contains the following. “naphey wafers for the local treatment of diseases of women, indicated in catarrhal conditions of the vagina, and of the uterine cervix as a sic!. adjuvant for the physician to use in carrying out treatment of disease of the uterus ” “zinc sulphate, 3-3/4 gr , sodium sulphate, 3-1/2 gr , sodium borate, 4 gr , boric acid, 3/4 gr ” “naphey & co , warren, pa , u s a ” “each box contains 25 wafers, sufficient for three months’ treatment price per box, 25c ”in name, composition, and general appearance of the package, napheymedicated uterine wafers bear a strong resemblance to micajahmedicated uterine wafers the journal, a m a , march 26, 1910, p 1070 an advertising pamphlet reads. “in every form of leucorrhea naphey medicated uterine wafers are indicated ” “what is true of leucorrhea is also true of all other functional troubles affecting the female genital canal. They are all treated best by astringents and antiseptics and these, to be effective, must be applied in prolonged contact ”the implication that all “functional troubles affecting the femalegenital canal” are best treated by astringent tablets like napheymedicated uterine wafers is an absurdity the naming of diseaseconditions on the label, the manifestly unwarranted and exaggeratedtherapeutic claims, the name, which is non-descriptive of compositionbut suggestive of use, and the fixed formula, which cannot rationallybe expected to give uniformly satisfactory results in the wide rangeof conditions for which the product is recommended, render napheymedicated uterine wafers ineligible for new and nonofficial remediesunder rules 4, 6, 8 and 10 the report having been sent to naphey & co , the manufactureroffered, on condition that the preparation be accepted, to revise theadvertising matter in minor writingiculars, to remove disease names fromthe trade package and to adopt the name naphey wafers or napheytablets the council advised naphey & co that the proposed names donot conform to the requirements for acceptance in new and nonofficialremedies because they do not indicate the composition of thispharmaceutical mixture, and moreover, that the routine use of a complexformula such as that of these tablets is irrational -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 66 nujol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrynujol, a liquid petrolatum standard oil company of new jersey, bayonne, n j , was submitted to the council by the manufacturers the council advised the company that, before nujol could be madeeligible for new and nonofficial remedies, the advertising claims madefor it must be revised to conform to the rules of the council and theterm “liquid petrolatum” must be used in connection with the branddesignation and given equal prominence on the labels, advertisementsand all circulars the company thereupon submitted a label on whichthe name “nujol” appeared in large red letters and under it in smallletters the words “liquid petrolatum ” this did not meet the councilrequirement with regard to the name moreover, nujol continued to beadvertised to the public under exaggerated and unwarranted claims the foregoing report was sent to the standard oil company of newjersey, which thereupon submitted revised advertising copy thiscopy was decidedly less objectionable than the previous advertisingbut still contained exaggerated statements the copy for use inlay journals writingicularly evidenced exaggeration observation onthesis occasions of a similar fact has convinced the council of theinexpediency of admitting to new and nonofficial remedies any articlewhich is advertised to the public 101101 since publication of this report the council on pharmacy andchemistry has revised its rule against recognition of articlesadvertised to the public so that this shall not apply a todisinfectants, germicides and antiseptics, provided the advertising belimited to conservative recommendations for their use as prophylacticapplications to superficial cuts and abrasions of the skin and to themucous surfaces of the mouth, pharynx and nose, and provided they arenot advertised as curative agents, and b to non-medicinal foodpreparations, except when advertised in an objectionable manner the council held that conflict with rules 3, 6 and 8 preventedthe acceptance of nujol and authorized the publication of thisreport -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 68 pulvoids natrium compound report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrypulvoids natrium compound was submitted to the council by the drugproducts company, inc , new york, with the statement that each pulvoid coated tablet, said to be made to dissolve in the intestinal tractrepresents the equivalent of. Potassium nitrate 2-1/2 grs sodium nitrite 1/2 gr sodium bicarbonate 2 grs fl ext crataegus oxycantha 1 min nitroglycerin 1/250 gr according to the advertisements the tablets are “indicated in thetreatment of high blood pressure and all forms of hypertension of thecardio-vascular system ” it is claimed that the tablets “will notirritate the kidneys ”the council, having submitted its objections to the manufacturer andconsidered the firm reply, held that pulvoids natrium compound wasinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies for the following reasons:1 the claim is made that the tablets disintegrate in the intestines;experiments conducted by the council indicated that in most paper theywould be broken up in the stomach it was found that the tablets werevisibly changed immediately after being put into gastric juice or eveninto distilled water. They disintegrated within from three to fourhours, not only in gastric juice obtained from a dog at 37 c , butalso in distilled water it is quite usual for solids to remain inthe stomach for more than three hours if they make their way out ofthe stomach in less than that time the gastric movements must be sovigorous as further to hasten the disintegration of the tablets 2 the rules of the council require that the name of a pharmaceuticalmixture shall indicate the potent ingredients the name of this mixturedoes not indicate the presence of the nitrites, the potassium nitrate, the bicarbonate or the extract of hawthorne and the nondescriptive nameis likely to lead physicians to use the tablets without fully realizingwhat they are giving 3 no evidence was submitted that the tablets, as found on the market, contained the amount of sodium nitrite and nitroglycerin claimed that is, it does not appear that the manufacturer checks the sodiumnitrite and nitroglycerin content by analysis the council did notdetermine the nitrite content of the tablets it maintains that whena manufacturer places a product on the market the burden of proof ison that manufacturer to show that the facts are in accordance withhis claims for his product further, the examination by the councilof one or several specimens of any commercial product writingicularlyin the case of nitroglycerin preparations would not be a guaranteeof the constancy of its composition so long as the manufacturer doesnot himself control the composition by analysis the necessity ofsuch control of tablets containing nitroglycerin is evident from thereport102 of l f kebler of the u s bureau of chemistry dr kebler said:102 j a m a , nov 2, 1912, p 1604 “ nitroglycerin tablets have in a majority of paper been found deficient in the nitroglycerin content declared ” “ these commodities are manufactured largely by rule of thumb little checking obtains in their manufacture and generally no analyst is employed ”a further proof that nitroglycerin tablets are likely to be deficientin strength is contained in the convictions under the food and drugsact of manufacturers who sold tablets below the declared strength, recorded from time to time notices of judgments nos 3405, 2059, 1843, 1799 4 there is no good evidence, experimental or clinical, to justify thesimultaneous administration in fixed proportion of two vasodilatorslike sodium nitrite and glyceryl trinitrate nitroglycerin also thereis no rational excuse for combining extract of hawthorne, which is saidto have a tonic effect on the heart muscle, with nitrites, which causerelaxation of the vascular system, or for the combination with theseconstituents of potassium nitrate or of sodium bicarbonate in the absence of evidence for the combination, pulvoids natriumcompound must be considered an irrational mixture, the use of which isa detriment to sound drug therapy and, hence, not admissible to newand nonofficial remedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 69 saloform report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrya referee submitted the following report of the american medicalassociation chemical laboratory to the council. analysis of saloformsaloform flexner is advertised by the robinson-pettet company oflouisville, ky in the advertisements for the product it is stated that.

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