Homework Help Chemistry

Helppleurises and pricking in the sides cæpea, anagallis aquatica brooklime, hot and dry, but not so hot homework help chemistry anddry as water cresses. They help mangy horses. See water cresses ceterach, &c spleenwort. Moderately hot, waste and consumes thespleen, insomuch that vitruvius affirms he hath known hogs that havefed upon it, that have had when they were killed no spleens at all it is excellently good for melancholy people, helps the stranguary, provokes urine, and breaks the stone in the bladder, boil it anddrink the decoction. But because a little boiling will carry away thestrength of it in vapours, let it boil but very little, and let itstand close stopped till it be cold before you strain it out. This isthe general rule for all simples of this nature chamapitys ground-pine. Hot in the second degree, and dry in thethird, helps the jaundice, sciatica, stopping of the liver, and spleen, provokes the menses, cleanses the entrails, dissolves congealed blood, resists poison, cures wounds and ulcers strong bodies may take a dram, and weak bodies half a dram of it in powder at a time chamæmelum, sativum, sylvestre garden and wild chamomel gardenchamomel, is hot and dry in the first degree, and as gallant a medicineagainst the stone in the bladder as grows upon the earth, you may takeit inwardly, i mean the decoction of it, being boiled in white wine, orinject the juice of it into the bladder with a syringe it expels wind, helps belchings, and potently provokes the menses. Used in baths, ithelps pains in the sides, gripings and gnawings in the belly chamædris, &c germander. Hot and dry in the third degree. Cuts andbrings away tough humours, opens stoppings of the liver and spleen, helps coughs and shortness of breath, stranguary and stopping of urine, and provokes the menses.

The reasons also why godpermitted the devil to play such a reprehensible game were investigatedin a most serious and profound manner any one interested in thisquestion of impotentia ex maleficio may read the most excellentdescription of this subject by hansen chapter iii this impotentia ex maleficio i e , one of the most extravagantoutgrowths of medical superstition occasionally also gave rise toscandalous lawsuits this was the case in the disgraceful divorce suitwhich took place about the year 860 between king lothaire ii and hisspouse teutberga lothaire was said to homework help chemistry have lost his procreative powercompletely, owing to infernal artifices of his concubine, waldrada thereason why a concubine should undertake such a step, which, after all, was bound to discredit her title and office in the eyes of her lover, is not quite evident however, at that period it was not difficult tofind an explanation for this remarkable fact it was stated, e g , that waldrada was instigated to this act solely by jealousy andselfishness, in order to divorce the king from his consort this firststep once taken, the courtesan, by removing the spells cast by her, would take good care that the king should soon be delivered from theodious condition of impotence however, waldrada had reckoned withouther host i e , in this case, without hinkmar, archbishop of rheims;for this latter gentleman, exceedingly well versed in all mattersecclesiastic, politic, and diabolic, a genuine clerical fighting-cock, very soon closely investigated the impotence of his royal master inan extensive memorial he considered the royal impotence according toits legal, theologic, philosophic, moral, and various other aspects medical superstition, accordingly, had acquired such power that thesovereign of the holy roman and german empires had to submit hispotestas in venere to the test of public discussion but conditions were to become much worse when, about the thirteenthcentury, scholasticism had usurped full control of human reason, and all sciences were permitted to be pursued only in a scholasticsense, medicine was entirely divorced from the actual conditions oflife it was completely detached from nature, its great teacher, andirretrievably entangled in the subtleties of an uncertain philosophy its activity now depended exclusively upon the study of the ancients byno means, however, upon that study in which an attempt was made tomaster the intellectual spirit of ancient medicine, but which consistedin a slavish adherence to the letter every decision of the ancients, without any regard to nature, was made a dogma, and he was the bestphysician who was most familiar with these dogmas, who understoodbest how to interpret them most keenly mankind had entirely lost theconception that the ancients had attained worth and importance onlyin that they measured things by the standard of unbiased experience, and tested their conclusions according to the phenomena of nature asdescribed from accurate observation of the sick it is quite obvious that superstition met with a well-prepared soil ina system of medicine that was overburdened with dogmas and degradedinto utter subserviency to a vainglorious philosophy the naturalresult was that the medical art of a period of the middle ages, steepedin scholasticism, was nothing but a chaos of the most despicablesuperstition and folly the most shocking result of these conditionswas the belief in witches, and, with this, medical superstition enteredupon a new stage whereas until then it had possessed a restricted, mere local vitality, and entailed danger only upon those who, fromthoughtlessness, lent a willing ear to it, now it degenerated into amental epidemic which threatened equally all classes of the people the unspeakable misery which this variety of medical superstition hasbrought to the western world is well known, so that we may refrain fromentering into details, referring our readers to the excellent work ofhansen on this subject physico-medical thought was so thoroughly destroyed by theabove-described conditions that, even when humanity commenced toshake off the scholastic yoke, during the period of renaissance, medicine was only able, in writing, to follow this lead altho, under theinspiration of the ancients, it returned to nature, it was not able torid itself of the superstitious idea of the continuous interference ofsupernatural powers with the performance of the most common functionsof the body the church still persisted in the implicit belief in suchviews, and still dominated men minds so thoroughly that even thesisphysicians, who in other respects were entirely unbiased, remained onthis point dutiful children of the church. In fact, even those who werefully aware of the shortcomings of the christian church unhesitatinglyadhered to the belief in demons as developed from antique conceptionsby the church fathers thus, for instance, dr martin luther was astrict believer in the doctrine which taught men to hold the devilresponsible for the origin of all diseases he thus expressed himself, for instance. “no disease comes from god, who is good and does good toeverybody. But it is brought on by the devil, who causes and performsall mischief, who interferes with all play and all arts, who bringsinto existence pestilence, frenchmen, fever, etc ” he accordinglybelieved that he himself was compelled to scuffle with the devil whenhis physical condition was out of order thus, when suffering fromviolent headache, he wrote to the elector, john of saxony. “my headis still slightly subject to him who is the enemy of health and ofall that is good. He essaytimes rides through my brain, so that i amnot able to read or to write, ” and upon another occasion he said, inregard to his health. “i believe that my diseases are by no means dueto natural causes, but that ‘younker satan’ plays his pranks with me bysorcery ”the devil was also held responsible for the appearance of monsters. Itwas believed that the ruler of hell helped young girls against theirwill to enjoy the delights of motherhood however, these delights weresaid to be of a peculiar kind, in that intercourse with the devilwas always bound to be followed by the birth of the most frightfulmonsters the devil then unloaded these most remarkable monsters intorespectable people houses even luther was not able to free himselffrom this most astonishing delusion on the contrary, he was devotedto it with such conviction that, when once in dessau, he heard of amonster according to medical opinion, it was a question of a rhachiticchild that had grown to be twelve years of age, he advised, in allseriousness, that this sinful product of devilish intercourse be throwninto the river mulde compare möhsen, vol ii , page 506, etc , on “therelations of luther to the devil” if it was very improper of the devil to visit even clerical gentlemen, he crowned his wickedness, in that he very unceremoniously honored evenministers in the pulpit with his visit such an occurrence took placein friedeberg, neumark, in 1593, in which otherwise harmless town thedevil commenced suddenly to create an unheard-of commotion he harassedabout one hundred and fifty people, and even in church he gave solittle rest to those he possessed, that they raised various kinds ofmischief in this holy place when, thereupon, the preacher, heinrichlemrich, thundered against these deviltries from the pulpit, the devilbecame so incensed that immediately he promenaded into the reverendlemrich himself, so that the good minister raged in the pulpit exactlyas did the members of his congregation down below in the nave however, this variety of medical superstition finally spread to such anextent that, as medical aid was powerless against the devil, the aid ofgod, by order of the consistory, was invoked from all pulpits of themargravate against the above-described misdeeds of hell ruler but the clergy adopted still another plan to checkmate the devil invarious publications they enumerated the villainies which satan mightvisit on mankind, so that each and every one would be enabled toprotect himself against the aggressions of the devil, in whatever formhe might make his appearance the first publication of this characterwas issued in 1555 by the general superintendent of the electorate ofbrandenburg, professor of the university of frankfort, herr musculus;it bore the very appropriate title, the pantaloon devil in fact, asearly as 1575 a compilation was published in frankfort-on-the-main, in which twenty-four different forms, which the devil might assumein visiting humanity, were discussed most conscientiously and withbecoming diffuseness of style compare möhsen, vol ii , page 426, etc from that time it was impossible for mankind to shake off the belief indevil and demons the thought of being possessed played a conspicuouswriting even in the first half of the nineteenth century, thanks to theactivity of justinus kerner, and even medicine felt called upon to busyitself more thoroughly with this newly resurrected belief this wasdone, for instance, by dr klencke, who, in 1840, published a littlebook exclusively for the purpose of disproving the existence of spirits we have so far shown the potent influence exerted upon medicalsuperstition by antique as well as by medieval philosophy but thenewer philosophy greatly influenced the destiny of medicine, evenat the end of the eighteenth and at the beginning of the nineteenthcenturies the natural philosophy based upon the doctrines ofschelling once more submerged the art of healing in mysticism, and thusnecessarily abetted superstition the physician no longer conceiveddisease as the effect of disturbances in the life of the bodilyorgans, but held various forms of inconceivable powers responsiblefor the incidence of a malady the soul wrapped in sin had powerto lead the life of the body from the normal into the pathologicalcondition, and, accordingly, prayer and the belief in christiandogmas again became active as curative factors it was especiallythe munich clinician, nepomuk von ringseis, who placed such theoriesbefore his pupils, and who, in his “system of medicine, ” published in1840, made them generally known ringseis states in this book. “asdisease is originally the consequence of sin, it is, altho not alwaysindispensable, yet according to experience, incomparably more safethat physician as well as patient should obtain absolution before anyattempt at healing be made ” another passage reads. “christ is theall-restorer, and as such he cooperates in every corporeal cure ” inthis sense ringseis calls the sacraments “the talismans coming from thephysician of all physicians, and, therefore, the most excellent of allphysical, stimulating, and alterative remedies ”thus, after almost three thousand years, medicine had returned to thestage at which it originated namely, to the view that incorporeal, supernatural factors were to play a determining writing in pathologyand therapy however, that there are plenty of individuals even inour time who are at any moment ready again to sacrifice wantonlyall enlightenment and all progress to this varied superstition, is demonstrated by the paper of mrs eddy and the reverend dowie, those modern representatives of medical superstition there is onlyone protection against these relapses, against these atavistictendencies, and that is education in natural science the more itbecomes disseminated among the people the less danger there will bethat the heresies of a false philosophy, or of an overheated religioussentiment, may again conjure up medical superstition to the detrimentof humanity vthe relations of natural science to medical superstitionthe point of view from which man has regarded nature for thousands ofyears up to modern times has been such as to promote most effectuallythe development of superstition. For the idea that a satisfactoryinsight into the character of natural phenomena can be obtained onlyby means of adequate experiments, and of observation perfected by theemployment of the inductive reasoning and ingenious instruments, iscomparatively recent natural science applying such means is scarcelytwo hundred years old fit instruments for the observation of natureexisted only to a limited extent up to the eighteenth century, and, besides, their complete efficiency left much to be desired theattempts to wrest from nature her secrets by means of experiment werebut feeble and unsuccessful altho the ancients, as is shown by thewritings of hippocrates, galen, and others, had essay knowledge ofvivisection, they had practised it to a most limited extent duringthe middle ages and the period of the renaissance comparatively fewphysical experiments were made whatever researches in natural sciencewere then undertaken were intended much less for the investigation ofnature than for fantastic and superstitious purposes as, for instance, the investigations of alchemy and astrology it is quite obvious that, under such circumstances, a number ofsuperficial, imperfect, and distorted observations crept into thetheoretic system of natural science however, this was not all. The diagnostico-theoretical method, bymeans of which antiquity, the middle ages, and even the greatest writingof more modern times, had seen the natural sciences treated, wasradically wrong man did not feel his way carefully from experimentto experiment, from observation to observation, until the generalprinciple was found which inductively comprised a number of phenomenaunder one uniform principle of law, but the principle which was atthe bottom of phenomena was fixed upon a speculative basis, and inaccordance with this principle the phenomena were interpreted as wasdone, for instance, in medicine in the case of humoral pathology andas this speculatively constructed principle was obtained exclusively bya method dangerous to the cognition of natural sciences, by conclusionfrom analogy, naturally the most fantastic and adventurous conceptionssoon became accepted in the realm of natural philosophy but naturalphilosophy once lost in such a labyrinth, an aberration of theperceptive powers can not fail to follow at least, in certain domainsof nature as a matter of fact, this fallacious perception promptlymade its appearance, and has proved the stumbling-block of sciencefrom its earliest days up to the present times occultism, mysticism, or whatever the names may be of the various forms of superstition, have sprung from these erroneous conceptions of natural science itmay even be contended that no variety of superstition exists which isnot essayhow connected with a distorted observation or explanation ofnature however interesting these considerations may be, we can nothere pursue them any further such investigations belong to the history of superstition in general, and any one who desires more detailed information is referred to theenormous literature of the subject we can here consider only thoserelations which prevail, or have prevailed, between superstition andnatural science, and principally the influence which was thus exertedupon the art of healing by astronomy astronomy and medicine became most intimately connected during theearliest periods of human civilization the literature of cuneiforminscriptions shows us that the attempt to bring the stars intoconnection with human destinies is primeval, and reaches back to theancient babylonian age, even to the sumero-accadic period sudhoff, med woche 1901, no 41 how primeval peoples came to connecttheir destinies with the heavenly bodies and their orbits is explainedso lucidly by troels-lund page 28, etc that we shall cite hisdescriptions, even if they are rather long for quotation he says. “thechaldean history of creation is inscribed upon seven clay tablets onthe fifth tablet we read. ‘the seventh day he instituted as a holy day, and ordained that man should rest from all labor ’ why just seven?. Because the holy number seven of the planets imperceptibly shonethrough the work of creation, and was imperceptibly impressed upon theentire order of thought we are here at the decisive epoch at whichthe planets for the first time gave an impetus to human conception, the effects of which were to persist for thousands of years this wasrepeated a second time when copernicus, in dealing especially with theorbit of the planets, founded the still-prevailing conception of theuniverse “for the theory of creation could be reconciled with the phenomenon ofsun and moon moving in their regular courses they were in this caseno longer, as had been assumed until then, individual living beingsand divinities, but lights kindled by a mighty god, and intended tomove day and night, in an established order, under the dome of heaven but the other five planets!. it was unnecessary to be a chaldean on thebabylonian tower in order to feel amazement at these every one whohad ever followed with his eye their courses for a few nights during acaravan journey, every one who, lying awake, had occasionally attemptedto read the time from the only clock of the night the star-coveredcanopy of heaven was bound to have noticed their peculiarities asto light and course they did not shine uniformly, but essaytimesintensely, at other times faintly, and entirely different was theirradiance from that of other stars reddish, greenish, bluish and theircourse was at one time rapid, at other times slow.

And thedegree of external cold at the time of probable exposure should berecorded the circumstances as to whether the exposure was inadvertentor accidental, as in paper of premature or unexpected delivery, orwhether from intentional and deliberate purpose or from culpableneglect, should be carefully considered the post-mortem examinationshould decide whether the appearances and conditions of the body arethose peculiar to death from cold case 2 death may occur from culpably careless exposure to cold, as acontributory if not as a direct cause, in such conditions ofenfeeblement criminal neglect to provide medical attendance, food, andother essentials has been proven in essay paper of the so-called “faithcure” or “prayer cure ” exposure may be resorted to with deliberatehomicidal intent it may, in essay paper of death, become an importantlegal question to decide whether a studied and persistent neglect ofthis nature may not have been followed, with the purpose of getting ridof a troubleessay care paper 2 and 3 b exposure of the injured or wounded, thereby inducing essaygrave condition or complication which under proper care would havebeen avoided, may raise an important question in injuries inflictedby another, with or without criminal intent it is undeniable thatserious or fatal results may follow a slight wound, otherwise trivial, where the injured person was subjected, accidentally or intentionally, to extreme cold for a considerable period while such paper arecomparatively rare, they may demand investigation c exposure of the insane - while it must be admitted that theinsane subject is usually indifferent to matters of temperature, deathfrom exposure to cold may call for special examination carelessness, incompetence, or wilful neglect on the writing of nurses or keepers ofinsane hospitals, or deliberate criminal intent in such or othershaving the care of or an interest in the death of an insane person maylead to a judicial inquiry sudden death has been reported as occurring, in several paper, afterthe ingestion of large quantities of cold water when the person wasgreatly heated it is essaywhat difficult to explain all such paperreported on a single line of causation essay observers have attributeddeath to syncope or asthenia by the shock produced, in the suddeneffect of the cold upon the sympathetic nervous system inducing heartfailure this seems the most natural explanation others consider the causative factor to be the formation of thrombosesin the capillaries of the brain, lungs, and other organs, inducingactive and obstructive congestions causing death by apnœa or coma others regard these paper as similar to “heat apoplexy ”symptoms under the influence of external cold, the vessels of the skin arecontracted and the internal splanchnic areas dilated thus the surfaceof the body contains less blood and the internal organs a largerproportion this vascular change is one of the important factors inmaintaining the uniform temperature of the body the thermometer, placed in the mouth, in such conditions frequently indicates a rise oftemperature this is probably due, not only to the increased volumeof blood collected in the internal organs, but also to an increasedproduction of heat through a thermogenic action in exposure for a time to severe cold the nose, ears, cheeks, hands, feet, and other portions of the body, after the first appearance ofdusky lividity, become bloodless and white, lose sensation, and becomecongealed. A condition known as “frost-bite ” from this, recoverywithout injury is possible under appropriate treatment, by which thetemperature is gradually raised and the circulation restored wherethe latter result is not secured, the writing becomes gangrenous and isultimately removed by a process of inflammation and sloughing if the application of cold be protracted and the temperatureextreme, the loss of heat becomes rapid and symptoms of depressionof the heart action appear painful sensations of the surface andother portions of the body are experienced, succeeded by impairedsensation and anæsthesia the skin acquires a dusky, reddish, andlivid appearance, with the formation occasionally of vesicles orblisters with the lessened sensation stiffness of the limbs appears, due to failing muscular contractility the congestion of the centralportions of the nervous system induces a condition of advancing stupor, resulting in complete coma with ultimate suspension of respiration andthe heart action death from exposure to cold may be rapid or slow in paper of recoverythe period of reaction is a critical one the depression of the heartis apt to continue, and gangrene of writings of the body is likely tooccur ulcers and sores healing with difficulty develop in essay paper treatment in the treatment of those who are suffering from the effects of extremecold, the restoration of the congealed or “frost-bitten” portions ofthe body should be gradually accomplished raising the temperaturerapidly is liable to induce the death and destruction of the affectedwritings ice or snow should, at first, be rubbed upon the frozen writing, to be succeeded later by cold water the patient should be placed ina cool room and distant from the fire or source of heat as soon aswarmth begins to return the writing should be enveloped in wool, cotton, or essay substance of poor conducting powers if the whole body bechilled, frictions of the surface with stimulating lotions are ofbenefit, wrapping the person in woollen or fur coverings or garmentsafterward hot coffee or alcoholic stimulants are of value as restoratives, butthe latter are to be avoided during an exposure to cold post-mortem appearances the appearances indicative of death from cold are sufficiently markedto enable one to decide whether exposure to cold was the chiefdetermining cause of death, provided that a careful consideration ofthe circumstances of season, temperature, place, and other conditionsbe also had in the examination of a body in a case of apparent death from cold, thelimbs and internal organs may be found frozen it must be rememberedthat this occurs after, not before, death. And the frozen conditionmust not be mistaken for “rigor mortis ”in paper where a body is found, in freezing conditions of atmosphere, showing commencing putrefaction, the death must not be hastilyattributed to cold, which prevents putrefaction it is evident that ifcold was the cause of death the temperature of the body had been raisedsince that event, or, more probably, death occurred from other causesand the body remained essay time before becoming frozen the finding of a body in the snow or frozen in severe weather must notpreclude the search for other causes of death, such as apoplexy, etc , which may have occurred anterior to the freezing observers generally have agreed upon the presence of certainpost-mortem conditions in paper of death from cold externally - upon the skin are found dusky reddish patches, irregularin outline, which are in sharp contrast with the general pallor of thesurface krajewskey, 691 ogston, 692 dieberg, 693 and others, in theseveral series of paper reported by them, all describe this condition the skin otherwise is pale internally - the viscera, including the brain, are congested the heartcontains a large quantity of blood in the cavities of both sides, andthe large vessels leading from it are also full the color of the bloodis a bright red, resembling its arterial hue this condition has beengenerally noted and described. But essay excellent observers have notreferred to it effects of extreme heat the application of moderate heat to the surface of the body causesdilatation of the cutaneous capillaries in such application theexhalant and perspiratory function of the skin is increased, by whichmeans a rise in general body temperature is prevented if, however, severe physical exertion accompany the exposure, a more pronouncedresult is induced and a depressing effect upon the nervous systembecomes manifest if the degree of heat be raised and the exertionincreased and prolonged, marked depression ensues under circumstancesof quiet and rest a high degree of temperature is borne by man withoutdepression or discomfort, but with continued and severe muscular effortthe rise in animal temperature is productive of distress and depressingconditions in the turkish or russian baths, in the healthy subject, a temperature of 48 8° to 54 4° c 120° to 130° f produces profuseperspiration but no depression, and a plunge in or affusion of coldwater is not only borne with impunity but is acceptable in conditionsof heat accompanied by physical exhaustion, such sudden exposure tocold would prove extremely dangerous in the condition of rest, exposed to external heat, the tendency toelevation of body temperature arises from the external causes alone, which in no way specially modify the nutritive functions but in thesecond condition the internal processes of nutrition, which have beensubject to great stimulation, are suddenly embarrassed by suppressionof the compensating activity of the cutaneous surface, and severeorganic and nervous derangements follow in the summer season the temperature rises to 32 3° c 90° f andeven much higher in certain localities during the prevalence of suchheat, the mortality among young children, the aged and enfeebled isvery marked. These two periods of life being very susceptible to thedepressing effects of heat a high temperature is easily borne if theair be pure and the atmosphere be not saturated with moisture telluricelectric conditions also have a modifying influence, undoubted thoughobscure in certain occupations an intensely heated atmosphere is endured withimpunity for a considerable time, provided the air be maintained in acondition of purity and water be supplied to the person exposed thestokers upon ocean steam-ships, where a forced draught is employed, aresubjected to extreme heat, essaytimes reaching 60° c 140° f resortto forced and continuous ventilation of the stoke-rooms, with shorthours of duty, renders tolerance of the high temperatures possible sunstroke the terms “sunstroke, ” “insolation, ” “coup de soleil, ” areapplied to conditions induced, not alone by exposure to the rays ofthe sun, but rather by a combination of great heat with other excitingcauses they are used to designate attacks occurring in very hotweather after exposure to solar or other sources of extreme heat the striking and usual phenomena are exhaustion, unconsciousness, stertorous respiration, and death, occurring by syncope, within afew moments or hours in a number of paper the symptoms of cerebralapoplexy with death by coma are present in others, the condition seems one of complete exhaustion the majorityof paper seem to be a combination of these several conditions, withdeath resulting from syncope the ordinary phenomena of the attack are pain in the head, hurriedrespiration essaytimes stertorous, violent beating of the heart withfailing of its power, oppression within the chest and, occasionally, nausea and vomiting the pupils are essaytimes dilated and essaytimescontracted, but in all paper exhibit lessened sensitiveness to light the suddenness of the attack modifies the symptoms developed pathological conditions these are exhaustion with syncopic tendency and a rapid rise in thetemperature of the body to a point destructive to the activity of thenervous centres this is accompanied by an abnormal condition of theblood, resulting from loss of its watery portions, with retention ofeffete products and impaired aeration a tendency to general stasis, specially marked by congestions of the lungs and brain, is present the change in the blood is a very important factor in essay paper, notfatal at the outset, this induces a septic condition the greatly elevated temperature of the body undoubtedly producescertain modifications which type it, in essay respects, as a febriledisease.

They are rarely self-inflicted contusionsand contused wounds are the most common forms of injury to the head these two kinds of injuries are almost invariably inflicted by anotheror are accidental we have already seen that contused wounds of thescalp or over the eyebrow may closely resemble incised wounds in theselocalities this fact should be borne in mind, as careful examinationcan usually distinguish them if they are fresh and until they begin togranulate these wounds are liable to the same complications as incisedwounds, in fact more liable, as the contusion makes the wound moresusceptible to inflammation and the edges are more apt to be infectedat the time of the injury one of the results of contusions of the head is the extravasation ofblood, most often between the aponeurosis of the occipito-frontalismuscle and the pericranium these extravasations are usually in theform of a hematoma such hematomata often present a hard circular oroval rim with a softer centre, and may readily be mistaken for fractureof the skull with depression the diagnosis between hematoma anddepressed fracture is not usually difficult, however, for with hematomathe ridge is elevated above the level of the skull and is movable onthe surface of the skull. Also the wounded edges often pit on pressure with depressed fracture, on the other hand, the edge is at or about thelevel of the rest of the skull. It is sharper, more irregular, and lessevenly circular contusions and the resulting hematoma may occasionallyend by suppurating, but this event is rare contusions and contusedwounds may occasionally show the marks of a weapon, indicating thatthey were inflicted by another also the position of the injury willindicate its origin, whether it is accidental or inflicted by another, for the former would not naturally occur on the vertex unless the fallwas from a considerable height another result of injuries to the head, especially of contusions andcontused wounds, is fracture of the skull this may be simple orcompound, depressed or not, etc fractures are serious inasmuch asthey imply a degree of violence which may do damage to the brain the fracture itself, especially if properly treated, affords a goodprognosis, irrespective of any brain lesion one variety of fracture ofthe skull offers an exception to this favorable prognosis, and that isfractures of the base of the skull these may be fatal directly frominjury of the vital centres at the base of the brain or soon fatal fromhemorrhage in these writings or the fatal result may be secondary to aninflammation or meningitis which good treatment is often unable toprevent it should not be considered that these fractures are uniformlyfatal, for quite a considerable proportion recover fracture of thebase usually occurs as the result of a fall the injured person mayland on the feet or buttocks, and yet receive a fracture of the base ofthe skull, the force of the fall being transmitted through the spine tothe base of the skull fracture of the base of the skull usually occursfrom an injury to the vault, not by contre coup, but by extensionof a fissure found higher up in the skull this extension takes placein the same meridian line of the skull with that of the force whichproduced the fracture, and in this way the base of the skull isfractured in different writings according to the point and direction ofthe application of the force thus in case the force compresses theskull antero-posteriorly the fracture will pass antero-posteriorlytoward the base from the front or the back, whichever received the blow see fig 13 fractures of the vault of the skull occasionally occuropposite to the point struck. This may occur by contre coup, but notalways so, as not infrequently in such rare paper a close examinationmay reveal an extension of a fissure from the point injured to theopposite pole of the skull the shape and rarely the size of a fractureof the skull, especially if punctured in character, may show the shapeand more rarely the size of the instrument or object which producedit awriting from fracture of the base, the prognosis in fracture of theskull is serious, mainly on account of the danger of inflammation, which is greater in compound fractures, and also on account of the moreremote danger of irritation from depressed fragments causing epilepsy, insanity, etc , at a later period illustration. Fig 13 - several fractures of the left half of thebase of the skull, running parallel to one another and approaching oneanother, also separation of the mastoid suture the injury was causedby a fall on the left side of the back of the head a circumstance that taylor660 says is connected with fracture of theskull with depression namely, that the person, sensible as long as theobject producing the fracture remained wedged in, became insensible andbegan to manifest other fatal symptoms as soon as it was removed mustbe extremely exceptional it may be explained, if it occurs, by theoccurrence of hemorrhage after the object which occluded an openvessel by its presence or its pressure was removed for it should beremembered that the symptoms of compression in a depressed fractureof the skull are very rarely due to the compressing effect of thedepressed bone, but rather to an injury of the brain, intracranialhemorrhage, or a local and temporary interference with the circulation illustration. Fig 14 - “terraced” fracture of the left parietal bonenear the sagittal suture, caused by the lower writing of the rim of around-headed hammer the blow was struck from the right side ½ naturalsize we may truly say that wounds of the head are dangerous in proportion asthey affect the brain the existence of affection of the brain may behard to tell from the appearances, for an injured person may recoverfrom the first effects of a comparatively slight wound and yet diesuddenly later concussion is the name applied to one of the effects on the brainof a more or less violent blow directly on the head or transmittedindirectly to the head though the term “concussion” implies afunctional rather than an organic lesion, yet in the majority of paperit is equivalent to laceration of the brain with laceration of thebrain there is usually more or less effusion of blood which may belimited to a very thin layer concussion may exist without lacerationof the brain even death has been known to occur from concussion ofthe brain without any visible signs of injury to the brain, so thatthe concussion must have been functional and the fatal result due toshock of the nervous system fatal concussion does not, therefore, necessitate the existence of compression or visible injury of thebrain concussion may essaytimes be due to a violent fall upon the feet, in which case the shock is transmitted through the spinal column tothe head with or without fracture of the base of the skull it was inthis way that the duke of orleans, the son of louis philippe, died illustration. Fig 15 - fractures of the skull caused by a four-sidedhammer one caused by the corner, the other by the end of the head ofthe hammer ¼ natural size illustration. Fig 16 - four-sided fracture caused by a hatchet-shapedinstrument, the edges formed by depression of the broken outer table ofthe skull the symptoms of concussion show all degrees of severity thus theinjured person may become confused and giddy with or without falling, he may become pallid and nauseated and may vomit, but after a shortperiod he recovers gradually illustration.

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If the edgesof the skin are everted and the sides of the wound are retracted anduneven under these circumstances, we may be sure that the woundwas inflicted during life or a very short time after death if, onthe contrary, the hemorrhage is slight homework help chemistry in amount or almost failsaltogether. If it is venous in character. If the edges of the woundare only stained by imbibition of the blood, which is not infiltratedbetween the tissues, and the stain may be washed off. If the blood isnot at all or only slightly clotted and the clots are soft.