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Being heated by the fire, andapplied hot to the side, they loosen the belly, and kill worms beingapplied unto it in homework help calculus like manner. They break the stone being appliedin like manner to the region of the bladder. Help the rickets, beingapplied to the belly and sides. Applied to the navel, they give presentease to the fits of the mother. They take away cold aches in the jointsapplied to them. Boiled, the liquor absolutely and speedily cures scabsand itch. Neither is there any better salve in the world for woundsthan may be made of it. For it cleanses, fetches out the filth thoughit lie in the bones, brings up the flesh from the bottom, and all thisit doth speedily. It cures wounds made with poisoned weapons, and forthis clusius brings thesis experiences too tedious here to relate it is an admirable thing for carbuncles and plague-sores, inferiorto none.

First, by exorcism, inthe period of justin martyr, and continued up to almost recent times see lecky, “history of european morals” “from the time of justinmartyr for about two centuries, there is, i believe, not a singlechristian writer who does not solemnly and explicitly assert thereality and frequent employment of this power ”one of the chief attributes of the devil was pride, therefore attemptswere made by exorcism to pierce this vulnerable point in the armor ofthe evil one, and the foulest, vilest epithets were used to attain thisend it is impossible to-day to print these expressions, even in a workof scientific character, and it is better, perhaps, to refer such asare especially interested in them to the manuale benedictionum, bythe bishop of passau, published in 1849, and similar works adjuvantsto this form of treatment consisted in “frightening” the devil bylong words, difficult to pronounce, commonly derived from orientallanguages, by the administration of malodorous and filthy “drugs, ” andsimilar practises it was claimed that thesis devils were thus driven out, and the annals ofthe church contain numerous records of persons cured in this manner “the jesuit fathers at vienna, in 1583, glorified in the fact thatin such a contest they had cast out twelve thousand, six hundred andfifty-two living devils” white the prevalence of these ideas tosuch a degree in the minds of the people may be noted from the factthat, in the churches themselves, such scenes are carved in stone anddepicted on canvas medieval drama teemed with similar conceptions, and this condition of affairs prevailed for over one thousand years, unfortunately not in this harmless manner, but supplemented by greatcruelty, which forms, perhaps, the most terrible chapter in the historyof medical superstition the subtleties of theologic interpretation soon evolved a morecomprehensive method of dealing with the “possessor” and the possessed as an appeal to pride was ineffectual and noxious drugs unavailing, it was found necessary to whip the devil out, or the unfortunateindividuals were imprisoned, and as a refinement of this treatment theywere even tortured thus the jailer for a long time played the writingof a specialist in lunacy, with the clergy in consultation places inwhich the insane were confined were known as “fool towers” and “witchtowers ”this state of things was not altered with the dawn of the reformation the writings of luther conclusively show his ideas in regard topossession and witchcraft, and these views under calvin reachedenormous development even cotton mather, in thesis respects far inadvance of his times, and who himself had known persecution, was notemancipated from these delusions, and salem has thesis a story to tell ofpossession and witch-baiting it is true we may quite properly considerthese views as the thought of the times, but, in thesis other respects, luther, calvin, and mather were in advance of their period, and, therefore, a justification for their actions is not quite apparent marcus aurelius also was much superior to his age, yet was grateful tohis teachers that they taught him to disregard superstition in all itsvarious forms it is not unlikely that conditions of this kind frequently led toepidemics if not of actual insanity, at least to hysteria which notrarely developed in cities, nunneries, and monasteries. Thus theepidemics in erfurt in 1237, in the rhine countries in 1374, and thesisothers see hirsch it is rather remarkable that while such views and practises prevailedin the christian church, the followers of mohammed not only helddifferent views, but adopted a mode of treatment of the insane whichlaid the foundation of modern therapeutics in diseases of the mind in the twelfth century, in bagdad, a palace called the “home of mercy”was built, in which the insane were confined, examined every month, andreleased as soon as they had recovered an asylum in cairo was foundedin 1304, while the first christian asylum expressly for the mad isnoted in 1409 lecky but science fought its way through the barriers of ignorance, misdirected zeal, and superstition altho there were physicians and“magicians, ” who conformed to the views of the church, the seed sown bythe earlier schools of medicine slowly but surely began to put forthshoots, and the result was a tree of knowledge, the fruit of whichmay be observed in every modern insane asylum of the world, wherethe unfortunate sufferer is treated with kindness and skill, which, fortunately, often results in cure scientific reason frequently rebelled against the “insanesuperstition, ” at first mildly, but constantly increasing in strength, until an effectual protest was finally raised by john weir, of cleves, who was soon followed by michel de montaigne and now a battle royalwas waged between the adherents of theology and the disciples of the“resurrected” truth, and once more in the history of the world wasdemonstrated the correctness of the saying, that “truth crushed toearth shall rise again ” all over the world the warfare was carried, and at the end of the eighteenth century new champions arose jeanbaptiste pinel in france, and william tuke in england their followersare legion, and in the book of life, in letters of gold, thesis a namehas been written of those who trod in the footsteps of these pioneers theology no longer interferes in the treatment of the insane. In fact, it would be manifestly unjust not to mention that thesis christiantheologians subsequently joined in the noble work of lunacy reform, andaided progress greatly how great this progress in the treatment of the insane can best beappreciated by essay of the older physicians in practise to-day whodoes not remember the chains, the strait-jacket, the dark locked cellsof the insane asylum?. these conditions existed not very thesis years ago, and altho the novels of charles reade are no doubt greatly exaggeratedin regard to the conditions he portrayed in insane asylums, yet morethan a grain of truth is probably contained in them the books didmuch to bring about reforms in england and elsewhere modern alienists have wrought wonders.

So that about the end of may, usually the stalks and leaves are withered, dry, and gone untilseptember, then the leaves spring up again, and so abide all winter government and virtues venus challenges the herb under libra thejuice or the distilled water being drank, is very effectual for allinflammations and unnatural heats, to cool a fainting hot stomach, ahot liver, or the bowels. The herb, juice, or distilled water thereof, outwardly applied, heals pimples, st anthony fire, and other outwardheats the said juice or water helps to heal sore kidneys, torn orfretted by the stone, or exulcerated within. It also provokes urine, is available for the dropsy, and helps to break the stone being usedas a bath, or made into an ointment, it cools the painful piles orhæmorrhoidal veins it is no less effectual to give ease to the painsof the gout, the sciatica, and helps the kernels or knots in the neckor throat, called the king evil. Healing kibes and chilblains ifthey be bathed with the juice, or anointed with ointment made thereof, and essay of the skin of the leaf upon them. It is also used in greenwounds to stay the blood, and to heal them quickly knapweed descript the common sort hereof has thesis long and essaywhat darkgreen leaves, rising from the root, dented about the edges, andessaytimes a little rent or torn on both sides in two or three places, and essaywhat hairy withal. Amongst which arises a long round stalk, four or five feet high, divided into thesis branches, at the tops whereofstand great scaly green heads, and from the middle of them thrust fortha number of dark purplish red thrumbs or threads, which after they arewithered and past, there are found divers black seeds, lying in a greatdeal of down, essaywhat like unto thistle seed, but smaller. The rootis white, hard and woody, and divers fibres annexed thereunto, whichperishes not, but abides with leaves thereon all the winter, shootingout fresh every spring place it grows in most fields and meadows, and about their bordersand hedges, and in thesis waste grounds also every where time it usually flowers in june and july, and the seed is ripeshortly after government and virtues saturn challenges the herb for his own thisknapweed helps to stay fluxes, both of blood at the mouth or nose, or other outward writings, and those veins that are inwardly broken, orinward wounds, as also the fluxes of the belly.

Influenza bacilli, pneumococci, staphylococci andstreptococci of this vaccine they injected, intravenously, first0 5 c c , later 1 c c in the series of 200 patients so treated therewas no evidence of injury to the patients in any way the mortality inthis series was 9 5 per cent. In a series of eighty-six patients nottreated with vaccine, the mortality was 31 2 per cent in the untreatedseries, 20 per cent recovered by crisis. In the treated, 36 per cent so recovered before any reliance is placed on such statistics theyshould be analyzed and compared carefully according to age periods, asthe death rate may vary at different ages cowie and beaven298 usedtyphoid vaccine in the treatment of their patients, and they considerthe vaccine shock as indicated only in the early stages of pneumonia 298 report of international health board, social medicine, medicaleconomics and miscellany, j a m a 72. 751 march 8 1919 before applying the treatment to such diseases as pneumonia it wouldseem that prudence would demand a thorough familiarity with the rangeof the reaction and the degree of toxicity of the preparation it isintended to use by first employing it in essay arthritic paper inpneumonia we must ever keep before us the vital factor of cardiacimpairment. And certainly we must not undertake any measure that maydepress the function of the heart in arthritis this danger is largelya negligible one. And, with proper precaution, nonspecific therapy isnot only without risk but indeed frequently followed by gratifyingclinical improvement only in the light of experience gained in themanner indicated would it seem permissible for us to attempt to extendthis form of therapy to more acute infections -- editorial from thejournal a m a , may 17, 1919 willard ealon ogden a “specialist in proctology” and his “clinics”within the past few weeks a number of inquiries have reached thejournal from physicians in ohio, indiana and pennsylvania those thatfollow are typical. “i am in receipt of literature from h l roberts, 1126 masonic temple, chicago, advertising clinic in cleveland by dr willard e ogden who claims to be a member of the chicago medical society and the a m a what can you say of this man and his methods?. ” “i am enclosing a folder received a short time ago i would be glad to know if dr ogden is a member of the a m a as he claims to be ” “the enclosed folder has been sent to thesis doctors in indiana the purpose is plain the attached post card on this one was returned to him for further literature ”illustration. Photographic reproduction of one of ogden advertisementsin chicago newspapers at the time he was at 36 w randolph street in each case the correspondents send in a four-page folder bearing thetitle “proctology, a clinic who?. where?. why?. ” three of the four pagespurport to answer the interrogations given on the title page under“who?. ” we read. Dr willard e ogden chicago, ill specialist in proctology member chicago medical society and a m a author of “improved method of treating rectal diseases” formerly associated with drs burleson & burleson grand rapids, mich under the question “where?. ” there appears the statement that “dr ogden will hold a clinic for the treatment of rectal diseases” and thename of the city and the dates of the “clinic” are inserted with atypewriter under “why?. ” we read. “dr ogden does not use the usual surgical methods his thesis years of experience in the treatment of rectal diseases during which time he has been associated with the leading proctologists of america have enabled him to develop a system of office treatment which is not taught by any other practitioner “tear off, sign and mail attached postcard and i will send you a booklet giving you full writingiculars as to the course yours truly, h l roberts, business manager “eighty-three per cent of the people have essay rectal trouble this is the day of specialists why not fit yourself to specialize in proctology?.

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The advertising for the russell emulsion and the russell prepared greenbone is dangerous because it appeals to the thoughtless-- layman andphysician, alike -- from the journal a m a , june 23, 1917 brom-i-phos report of the council on pharmacy and homework help calculus chemistrybrom-i-phos national drug company, philadelphia was submitted to thecouncil with a label bearing the following statement. “‘alcohol 25 per cent ’ composition-- per fluidounce iodin 1 gr bromin 1 gr phosphorus 8-100 gr aromatic base q s ”a request for further information in regard to the composition ofbrom-i-phos was sent to the national drug company it was suggestedthat since the preparation cannot contain the stated amounts of freebromin, free iodin and free phosphorus, the form of combination inwhich these elements are present should be set forth in reply, the firm said, first, that “brom-i-phos consists of bromin, iodin, phosphorus, glycerin, wine, water and volatile oils the iodin isrubbed up with a small percentage of potassium iodid and 95 per cent alcohol, which solution is mixed with a solution of bromine andspirits of phosphorus which are combined with the base and aromatics ”the manufacturer also admitted that phosphorus reacts with brominand iodin and that other reactions might occur, but maintained thatit was “justified in assuming the greater writing, if not all of theseelements, are actually existent in the nascent state, ” and assertedthat its “printed formula complies with our working formula in point ofquantities involved as well as existence of elements in an uncombinedstate ”the a m a chemical laboratory reported, on the contrary, thatno free phosphorus, free bromin or free iodin could be found inbrom-i-phos, and that no bromate or iodate could be found. Bromid andiodid were present the addition of silver nitrate to an acidulatedportion, diluted with water, gave an amount of silver halid roughlyagreeing with that which would be obtained had the claimed amount ofbromin and iodin together with essay potassium iodid been used in thepreparation of brom-i-phos and in the process of manufacture becomeconverted to bromid and iodid the council declared brom-i-phos inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies, for conflict with rules 1, 4, 6, 8 and 10 the statement of composition is unsatisfactory and misleading in thatit suggests that the preparation contains bromin, iodin and phosphorusin the free elementary state the presence of the potent elementaryphosphorus is especially suggested by the small amounts of “phosphorus”declared the following statement on the label of the trade package constitutesan indirect advertisement to the public. “indications. Scrofula, coryza, hay fever necrosis, bronchial and throat affections, catarrhal pneumonia, glandular enlargements of the spleen, thyroid, and lymphatics, rickets and syphilis ”the following claims are therapeutic exaggerations. “the ideal alterative” “ indicated in all paper where an alterative is desired ” “the association of bromin with iodin in brom-i-phos materially enhances the product in the treatment of chronic affections of the skin, depraved conditions of the mucous membranes, tertiary syphilis, glandular enlargements, etc ”in that it suggests that the phosphorus in brom-i-phos is more readilyassimilated than ordinary phosphate, the following is misleading. “the phosphorus contained in brom-i-phos is readily assimilated and at once acts as a nutrient to the nervous and osseous structures of the body, stimulates metabolism and increases mental activity ”the recommendation. “your specification of brom-i-phos in thetreatment of syphilitic paper will immediately prove beneficial to thepatient” is not supported by evidence the name does not indicate thatbrom-i-phos is an alcoholic preparation with iodid as its essentialconstituent, but suggests that phosphorus is an important constituent, whereas the amount of phosphate or phosphite, produced by the actionof iodin on elementary phosphorus if the amount of phosphorus used inmaking the preparation is correctly stated is insignificant the combination of bromin, iodin and phosphorus, or bromid, iodid andphosphate, is irrational because these elements are not of mutualassistance to each other in the conditions for which brom-i-phos isadvertised the council report was submitted to the manufacturer of brom-i-phosfor comment. The reply contained nothing to permit a revision of theprevious conclusions the council declared brom-i-phos inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , june 30, 1917 creosote-delson and creofos report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycreosote-delson and creofos, or creosote with hypophosphites, were submitted by the delson chemical co , inc , new york city creosote-delson is said to be “beechwood creosote from whichthe irritating and caustic properties are removed by fractionaldistillation ” it is claimed that creofos contains “2 grains ofcreosote-delson and 3-3/5 grains of the combined hypophosphites in eachfluidrachm of the mixture or emulsion, the lime salt predominating ”it is also claimed that “the primary object of the hypophosphites inthis preparation is that of maintaining the refined creosote in apure, unoxidized state, and that no writingicular claim for therapeuticaction on their writing is advanced ” it is explained further, however, “the addition of the lime was prompted by the belief that thefundamental cause of pulmonary tuberculosis is lime starvation ”the assertions are made that creosote-delson is superior to theofficial creosote because it can be taken “abundantly and persistentlywithout harm to or interference with stomach and kidneys” and canbe “taken uninterruptedly and indefinitely, ” while the dosageis “unlimited by any former knowledge of creosote therapy ”creosote-delson is not on the market except in the combination creofos, although it is supplied on request creofos is advised in the treatment of tuberculosis, whooping cough, measles, “grippe and colds, ” bronchitis, asthma, “intestinal affections colitis, summer diarrhoea, etc , ” while its use is suggested for the“prevention of the spread of contagious diseases, ” and for “preventingcontagion in minor contagious diseases at any rate, in schools andfamilies ”the following advertisement has recently appeared in the new yorkmedical journal and in the therapeutic gazette. creofos medication is the successful development of the most advanced practice in the treatment of infectious diseases it destroys completely the causative organisms by a bactericide thesis times more powerful than phenol, yet absolutely harmless to animal life unlike serums, its activity is not confined to any specific disease, and its use insures against sequelae as pneumonia following grippe especially valuable in the treatment of infants and patients of delicate constitution and in paper where time is of importance the delson chemical co was requested to supply information regardingthe identity of creosote-delson and to support the claim that althoughit is “the whole drug” its dosage is “unlimited by any former knowledgeof creosote therapy ” the reply was virtually an admission that thetoxic, caustic, phenolic components of creosote were present increosote-delson just as in the official creosote the referee of the committee on therapeutics in submitting his reportto the council pointed out that it is difficult to discuss thepharmacologic merits of a semisecret preparation, like creosote-delson, claimed to be more acceptable to the human organism than the officialproduct it is intended to supplant, when the action of the parent drugis still questioned or disputed by eminent clinicians absorption experiments have been carried out with creosote and creosotecompounds, such as creosote with hypophosphites or calcium or creosotecarbonate, chiefly by a study of the elimination products in the urine but any evidence so far offered that these combinations increaseabsorption and lessen the irritating, caustic or toxic properties hasbeen wholly inconclusive the evidence offered by the delson chemicalco presented no control experiments with the official creosote and didnot prove that either creosote-delson or creofos was less toxic than acorresponding amount of ordinary beechwood creosote the referee concluded that no proof had been offered that thesepreparations are materially superior to ordinary creosote preparationsfrom the pharmacologic or therapeutic standpoint, and that the claimsmade for creosote-delson and creofos are unwarranted in the light ofour knowledge of the properties of creosote the advertisement quotedabove is an example of unproved and unwarranted claims on the recommendation of the referee, the council declaredcreosote-delson and creofos inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies, for conflict with the rules as follows:creosote-delson. The information so far available is not sufficientto define the nature, or composition, of creosote-delson, or toindicate in how far this product differs, if at all, from theofficial creosote conflict with rule 1 no methods are furnishedfor determining the identity or composition of creosote-delson conflict with rule 2 the available information does not show thatcreosote-delson has advantages over creosote conflict with rule 6 creofos. The composition of creosote-delson not having beenfurnished, the statement concerning the composition of creofos isalso unsatisfactory conflict with rule 1 the therapeutic claimsare unsubstantiated and grossly exaggerated conflict with rule 6 the name is not descriptive of its composition as is required forpharmaceutical mixtures conflict with rule 8 there is no evidencethat hypophosphites prevent decomposition of creosote if thisoccurs hence the inclusion of hypophosphites must be consideredirrational conflict with rule 10 the council report was sent to the delson chemical co forconsideration the firm reply contained nothing to warrant a revisionof the report, and the council voted that creosote-delson and creofoswere inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies and authorized thepublication of this report -- from the journal a m a , july 7, 1917 triner american elixir of bitter wine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrytriner american elixir of bitter wine is a wine to which bitter drugsand laxatives have been added though evidently intended for publicconsumption, it is also advertised to physicians, and consequently thecouncil publishes this report essay recent advertisements read.