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But if mercury be strong, and the moon weak, reason will be master ordinarily in despite of sense it is divided into intellective, and sensitive 1 intellective the intellectual resides in the brain, within thepia mater, is governed generally by mercury it is divided into imagination, judgment, and memory imagination is seated in the forewriting of the brain homework help algebra 1. It is hot anddry in quality, quick, active, always working. It receives vapoursfrom the heart, and coins them into thoughts.

Others offerthe simple law of homework help algebra 1 the series in explanation. Others still believe thatimitation is the principal cause while there is no doubt a grain oftruth in each of these, less philosophic minds will look upon such abeastly proceeding as a mark of the complete satisfaction sought by thedestructive instinct why such things should be is of less concern than the fact thatcriminal mutilation of the dead body is not confined to any age orcountry though more frequent in the last fifteen years, it takes upquite a space in the history of human cruelty the violent passion, wrath, and vengeance that caused the prophet isaiah to be sawn in twoat the age of one hundred years by order of manasses and agag cut intopieces by samuel have not materially changed in the days of jack theripper. And we find such crimes in antipodal writings of the world, amongvaried sociological conditions, no matter whether it be the northamerican indian, who scalps and mutilates his enemy and places thesevered penis in the mouth, or the civilized european, who cuts up thebody of his victim and serves it in a curry at a feast of assembledfriends 584this new point of judiciary medicine has lately been elaborated byeuropean writers under the title of dépeçage criminel, a term whichapplies to the operation resorted to by an assassin having for its endthe getting rid of the body of the victim and to render more difficultthe establishment of its identity the cleverness of experts scarcely keeps pace nowadays with the morecomplicated proceedings adopted by criminals in fact, at a trial ofthis kind truth and science are often the under dogs in a fight, thanwhich none in forensic medicine is longer and more embarrassing tocause a rapid disappearance of the proofs of a homicide, with a viewto escape the investigations of justice, murderers have been knownliterally to make hash of the victim which was subsequently eaten bythemselves and others gruner relates the case of a man who, havingkilled and cut into pieces his victim, boiled and roasted the fragmentsand ate them with his wife such examples, however, suggest morbidrather than passional phenomena, which manifestly call for rigidscrutiny into the mental state of the culprit, who may be more of alunatic than a malefactor in paper of infanticide new-born children are essaytimes cut into piecesand the fragments burnt in order to facilitate the disappearance of thecadaver there does not appear to be, however, any well-authenticatedinstance of the operation having been done on a living child generallythe dismemberment is done in order to cause more ready disappearance ofthe remains the medico-legal problem to be solved in paper of criminal mutilationis to establish the identity of the victim and that of the author ofthe crime thesis apparently trivial circumstances may assist in the formation of anopinion as to the identity of the culprit if the victim be an adult, a man is the author of the deed. If an infant, a woman, the mother, isalmost always the guilty one the london lancet may 30th, 1863, p 617 reports a case in which the body of a child, of apparently four tosix months, was found in the sewage of a water-closet, minus an arm cutoff below the shoulder, presumably that a vaccination-mark might not beadduced as evidence a young woman was suspected several women deposedhaving seen a dusky-brown mother mark near the child navel aftersteeping in pure water a portion of the skin said to include the mark, and after washing, the mark gradually reappeared at the end of threedays, perfectly distinct it was recognized by witnesses and producedat the trial as corroborative evidence the accused was found guilty in a case of infanticide at tarare, in 1884, the upper extremity of afœtus was found to have been disarticulated after the manner of carvingthe wing of a fowl this having suggested to dr lacassagne a cook asthe author of the crime, she was speedily discovered and convicted afew years later an analogous case occurred in florence and was reportedby dr a montalti the instrument used for mutilating the body may furnish a suggestionof identity, to be dispelled or affirmed upon further investigation the mode of section observed in various instances has led to therecognition of a butcher as the culprit an expert would have butlittle trouble in distinguishing the hacking and mangling of a bodyfrom the careful cutting and preservation of muscles and blood-vesselsin dissections made by medical students, whom the public, by the way, invariably suspect in paper of mutilation if it can be ascertainedthat the instrument used was operated either by a left-handed person orby an ambidexter, such a fact may prove of importance essaytimes thefragments are tied or sewn up in a package the manner in which theknot is tied may indicate the occupation of the culprit in one casethe regularity of the sewing revealed that it was the work of a woman examination of the remains of clothing and of neighboring objects wherethe crime was committed may result in the identification of the victimor of the murderer indeed, it is the careful noting of trivial factsand their combination that is so valuable in all investigations ofthis class a compound fact made up of minor facts, which consideredseverally would possess but little value, may essaytimes solve thepuzzle in a case where no single fact of conclusive value is obtainable having collected as much of the mutilated remains as possible, thefirst step toward identification is to replace the pieces in anatomicalorder, to note carefully their correspondence or otherwise, and toascertain whether the fragments belong to the same body or to two orseveral individuals this is often a delicate and difficult matter, especially where decomposition is advanced or where the horror has beenpushed to its utmost limits, as in the case of a fratricide committedin france by several persons, who fragmented the cadaver with a saw andhatchet. Boiled the remains and fed them to hogs. And, after crushingthe bones with a hammer, threw the fragments into a deep gorge again, the body may be divided into numerous pieces, a hundred ormore, and disposed of in widely different localities, as in a pond, amanure-heap, a river, or a cesspool the chopped-up remains of infantshave been boiled in lye and afterward thrown into a privy or put in abarrel of vinegar a mother has also been known to cook with cabbagethe dismembered remains of her six-months’ child and serve it at a mealof which both she and her husband writingook numerous counterwritings of such paper happening in late years couldbe cited where the object was to favor the disappearance of thecadaver, and in which the establishment of the identity turned onthe examination of essay small writing of the organism. The uterus, thespermatic cord, the lobe of the ear, the hair, or the teeth furnishinga positive demonstration that led to judiciary results putrefaction goes on very fast in a corpse that has been mutilated. Butit is slower in writings which, on being separated just after death, havebecome bloodless in consequence of the hemorrhage after submersionthe outward signs of putrefaction put a notable obstacle in theway of identification, and after drowning the body becomes rapidlyunrecognizable supposing it impossible to reconstitute the cadaver in all itsessential writings, it is always possible, by following the instructionsalready given for examining the skeleton, to infer from one orseveral writings of the cadaver the sex, age, height, and essaytimespathological peculiarities of the victim examination of the skeletonand teeth is of capital importance in an investigation of this class the indications furnished thereby having already been touched upon, and being about all that we are justified in saying, it is onlynecessary to repeat that thesis of the details relative to these specialindications are so confusing as to suggest caution in using thestatistical tables of even high authority, as the observations theyrest on are not of sufficient extent to deserve confidence a survey of the head, limbs, trunk, and genital writings will give themost useful indications the head, in fact, is the surest indexfor justice, and one that lends promptness in the discovery of theassassin typical illustrations of this occur in the goss-udderzookcase and in the recent example of the bomb-thrower, norcross in thecase of a woman murdered by her husband at antwerp in 1877 and cutinto one hundred and fifty-three pieces and her remains thrown intoa privy, the color of the hair, the lobule of a torn ear, and theuterus of a woman having had children furnished special signs thatled to identity and condemnation examination of the brain and itsmembranes, though furnishing no very notable characteristics in thematter of identification, may nevertheless be regarded as a naturalcorollary to that of the skull brain weight, which is greatestbetween thirty and forty years, 1, 200 to 1, 450 grams in man, 1, 100 to1, 500 in woman, diminishes toward the sixtieth year it is said thatthe diminution takes place a few years sooner in the opposite sex the estimated loss of weight in a person of eighty years is admittedto be from 90 to 150 grams another sign of age is the tendency todegeneration found in the pineal gland, the cortical substance, theoptic and striate thalami, and in the brain capillaries the state of the eyes, if not too decomposed, may still become a signof identity for instance, the color of the iris, an arcus senilis, a pterygium, a cataract or an operation for the same, an iridectomy, etc , are signs that occasion may utilize the trunk may show, as it has in several instances, incised woundsthat caused death before the mutilation besides, the organs thereincontained may by their weight, dimension, and tissue alterationindicate the progress of age and of degeneration modifications of thecirculatory and respiratory apparatus are obviously characteristic asage advances the only organ whose weight increases with the number ofyears, the heart, may become hypertrophied or dilated. Its coronaryarteries may undergo an alteration. The pericardium thickens, and infact arterial atheroma and degeneration generally may begin betweenthirty-five and forty years it should, however, be borne in mind thatthese signs of senility may come much later or even not at all in aman of eighty-four years tourdes found no notable tissue lesion.

Vertex of head 30 cent from table leg casereported by hurpy see p 717, case 10 11 champouillon. Same journal, 1876, xlvi , p 129 - man, age 62;first tried to suffocate himself with charcoal smoke and then hunghimself, but the rope broke and the body fell he lived two days 12 pellier. Lyon thesis, 1883, no 188, p 72 - boy, age 16, hunghimself.

Causing paralysis a combinationof numbers 1 and 2 is usually found in suicidal hanging. And probablyall of them in homicidal and judicial hanging the more protected theair-passages are from pressure the greater writing will coma or syncopehave in the cause of death mackenzie, 802 as the result of examination of 130 suicidal hangings, says that 119 died of asphyxia, 8 of asphyxia and apoplexy, 2 ofsyncope, and 1 of apoplexy alone coutagne803 thinks œdema of thelungs, “œdema carminé, ” has an important writing in causing death the following conditions tend to produce asphyxia. A tight ligature, or a loose ligature above the hyoid bone to produce coma, a looseligature pressing against the hyoid bone or larynx, especially acretified larynx to both asphyxia and congestion of brain, a ligaturejust beneath the lower jaw, or around lower writing of neck hofmann804 states that when the ligature is placed between the larynxand hyoid bone, the base of the tongue is pushed upward against theposterior wall of the pharynx, completely stopping respiration andcausing asphyxia taylor805 states that if the rope presses on orabove the larynx, the air-passages are not so completely closed aswhen pressure is below the larynx in the latter case death would beimmediate. In the former a slight amount of respiration might continue the instantaneous loss of consciousness is due, not to asphyxia alone, but to compression of the large vessels, especially the carotids, against the transverse processes of the vertebræ, causing rupture ofthe middle and inner coats, and at the same time compression of thejugular veins and pneumogastric nerves immediate unconsciousness willalmost certainly follow compression of the pneumogastrics he alsobelieves that the loss of consciousness and of power of self-helpoccur at the moment that the noose is tightened around the neck thereis no record of any one who attempted suicide by hanging seeking torecover himself, although no doubt essay would have done so if thespeedy unconsciousness had not prevented hofmann mentions the case ofa man who was found hanging, and with a loaded revolver in his hand, apparently having intended to shoot as well as hang himself, but lostconsciousness before he had time to discharge the revolver accordingto him the causes of death are three. Occlusion of the air-passages, interruption of passage of blood to brain, and compression ofpneumogastric nerves von buhl806 experimented on cadavers and concluded that in hanging, the epiglottis and arytenoids are pressed over the glottis, and thetongue and the œsophagus against the vertebræ, causing death byapnœa when the trachea was isolated from the vessels and tied, theair-passages below became dilated and the lungs emphysematous andanæmic the heart continued to beat and blood to circulate the vertebral arteries being much smaller than the carotids, thecirculatory disturbance in the brain is not adjusted with sufficientpromptness compression of the pneumogastrics, according towaller, 807 has caused subjects to fall to the ground as if struck bylightning he holds that the unconsciousness in hanging is the resultof the compression of the pneumogastric nerves and not of the arteries thanhöfer808 knew a student who had acquired a certain dexterity incompressing these nerves one day he compressed the two nerves, hispulse stopped and he became unconscious thanhöfer809 tried bilateralcompression of pneumogastrics in a young man sentenced to be executed the pulse fell at once and the heart soon stopped. The eyes were fixedand glassy it was essay time before he regained consciousness and fortwo days there was malaise hofmann says that the compression irritates and, in a higher degree, paralyzes the pneumogastric nerves and causes disturbance of the actionof the heart faure810 denies that the constriction of the vessels of the neck hasany effect in the production of symptoms811 coutagne believes that the pressure on the pneumogastric nerve is a factor in causing death he hung two dogs. In one the pneumogastric nerves were dissected out and placed in front of the ligature. This dog no 1 lived a quarter of an hour and died of pure asphyxia with efforts at inspiration continued to the end the other dog no 2, in which the nerves were compressed, died in five minutes in both, the abdominal organs were congested and the cavities of the heart were full the lungs of the first were dry and uniformly red. Of the second were resisting, crepitant, and quite œdematous no subpleural ecchymoses in either the experiments on animals by corin812 led him to conclude that pressure on the pneumogastrics caused increased frequency of the heart-beat and slowing of respiration pellier813 considers the subject quite fully it would appear that the pressure on the pneumogastrics disposes to stop the action of the heart and cause rapid, perhaps instant death the pressure on the carotids causes cerebral anæmia and is then only a secondary cause levy814 does not think the action of the pneumogastrics is sufficiently well known tidy states that a dog lived for three hours suspended by a rope placedabove an opening in the windpipe. And that smith815 mentions the caseof a criminal who was hung. Chovet tried to save the man by making anopening in the trachea before the execution and introducing a smalltube the man was alive forty-five minutes after the drop, but couldnot be resuscitated, although the surgeon bled him in a small proportion of paper of hanging, homicidal and judicial, death occurs by dislocation of the spine this is said to have beenfirst noticed by the celebrated louis, who states that the parisexecutioner was in the habit of giving a violent rotary movement tothe body of the convict as the trap was sprung, causing a dislocationof the odontoid process and compression of the cord and almost instantdeath taylor816 says that for dislocation the body must be heavy andthe fall long and sudden devergie817 found this to occur in abouttwo per cent of paper it is said that the paris hangman placed theslip-knot under the chin in front, which is as dr haughton suggests death may occur from secondary causes after apparent recovery. Fromcongestion of brain and other lesions of the nervous system.

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Although essaytimes thefeatures are calm in the latter case there may have been syncope the eyes are homework help algebra 1 usually staring, prominent, and congested, and the pupilsdilated casper764 doubts their prominence budin and coyne765state that in asphyxia the dilation of the pupil progresses to amaximum and then convulsions occur ophthalmoscopic examination duringthe dyspnœa of asphyxia shows a lessened fulness of the retinal vessels the tongue is often swollen, dark, protruding, and essaytimes bitten maschka766 states that if the ligature lies above the hyoid bone, thetongue will be drawn backward. If over or below the bone, the tip ofthe tongue may appear more or less between the jaws the hands are usually clinched and may have in their grasp articleswhich, under the circumstances, have a medico-legal value the external generative organs are essaytimes congested. Erection ofthe penis may have taken place and persisted the vagina may be moist tardieu, devergie, and casper767 deny that these appearances areusual involuntary discharges of urine, fæces, and seminal fluid may haveoccurred there is nothing characteristic in their appearance all the external appearances of asphyxia are usually more marked instrangulation than in hanging internal appearances - the mark usually there is hemorrhage into theloose connective tissue under the mark and in the subjacent muscles;in most paper isolated and circumscribed, but essaytimes extendingbeyond the line of the mark hemorrhage from compression by the fingersis more marked than that from ligature 768 essaytimes there is onlyfulness of the subcutaneous veins the carotid arteries may suffer rupture of their inner and middlecoats, especially in atheromatous subjects and when the compressionhas been great friedberg769 states that the injury of the carotid, if there is hemorrhage into its middle and internal coats, is a proofthat the strangulation occurred during life, and probably from pressureof the fingers on the neck, without any regard to any disease of theartery he reports two paper the examiner should be careful not toinjure the artery with his forceps the vessels may contain clots the neck occasionally suffers extreme injury, and, owing to theviolence used, this occurs oftener in strangulation than inhanging 770 occasionally the neck is broken the hyoid bone may be fractured see case 5 maschka771 saw one casein eighteen of erdrosselung and five paper in fifteen of erwürgen the trachea is essaytimes torn, or may be folded on itself the cartilages of the larynx, especially if calcareous, may befractured this is more likely to affect the thyroid than cricoid the fracture would appear to occur only as the result of enormousforce. Especially in the young in whom the cartilages are so elastic the experiments of keiller772 on cadavers led him to conclude thatfalls on the larynx, even from a height and with superadded force, areunlikely to fracture that organ. That severe pressure or violent blowsagainst the larynx from before backward may cause fracture. But thatsevere lateral pressure, as in ordinary throttling, is more likely thanother forms of violence to fracture the alæ of the thyroid or even thecricoid cartilages and also the hyoid bone taylor773 states that dr inman, of liverpool, had informed him of a case of splitting of ringsof windpipe from pressure see paper 5, 13 maschka774 in fifteenpaper of choking found six fractures of the larynx chailloux775 has collected eight paper of fracture of larynx instrangulation they were all made with the fingers the experimentsof cavasse776 seem to show that there is no great difficulty infracturing the thyroid in strangulation internal appearances due to asphyxia - the veins of the entire bodyare distended with very dark and very fluid blood, while the arteries, especially in the young, are mostly empty experiments on the loweranimals have shown that the pulmonary artery and systemic veins to thefinest ramifications are distended with dark blood 777the heart - the right side, especially the auricle, is usually fullof dark fluid blood, due to the mechanical impediment to the passageof blood through the lungs if the heart continues to beat after therespiration has ceased the right ventricle is commonly well contracted, like the left cavities, and nearly empty, the lungs being muchcongested essaytimes the left cavities of the heart contain blood thiswould be most likely to occur if the heart should stop in the diastole essaytimes clots are found in the right ventricle maschka778 foundclots in the heart 25 times in 234 paper of asphyxia the lungs are usually much congested, resembling red hepatization, except that the blood is darker hemorrhages apoplexies into thesubstance of the lungs are common tardieu found patches of emphysemadue to rupture of the surface air-vesicles, giving the surface ofthe lung the appearance of a layer of white false membrane ogstonadmits this occurrence in pure strangulation but to a less extent inmixed paper liman779 found the lung surface uneven, bosselated, the prominences being of a clearer color and due to emphysema the lungs were in the same condition of congestion and emphysemain strangulation, suffocation, and hanging he failed to find theapoplexies described the lungs are essaytimes anæmic in healthy young subjects, especiallychildren, the blood-vessels of the lungs often empty themselvesafter the heart stops the lungs may, therefore, be bloodless, butemphysematous from the violent efforts to breathe page experimentson the lower animals showed the lungs of a pale reddish color andnot much distended. A few dilated air-cells might be seen towardtheir anterior borders, and there might be small hemorrhages over thesurface his experiments appear to show that subpleural ecchymosesoccur as a result of violent and repeated efforts to breathe amongother experiments780 he stopped the mouth and nostrils of a youngcalf long enough to excite violent efforts at respiration. It wasthen instantly killed by pithing the lungs were found pale red, not congested, but showed subpleural ecchymoses page believedthese were due to the changed relation between the capacity of thethorax and volume of lungs liman found these ecchymoses in paper ofstrangulation, hanging, drowning, poisoning, hemorrhage, and œdema ofbrain, in the new-born, etc he failed to find them in essay paper ofsuffocation he believes them due to blood pressure from stasis inthe blood-vessels ssabinski781 made thesis experiments on dogs andcats to ascertain the presence or absence of subpleural ecchymoses instrangulation, drowning, section of pneumogastrics, opening of pleuralsac, compression of chest and abdomen, closure of mouth and nose, burial in pulverulent materials, etc similar hemorrhages may appearon the mucous and serous membranes, as the respiratory, digestive, andgenito-urinary tracts, and pleuræ, pericardium, peritoneum, membranesof brain, and the ependyma these are essaytimes minute and stellate, at others irregular in shape.