History

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Ann d chem liebigs 240:291, 1887 the chief use of phenylcinchoninic acid is as an antiuric acid agent, especially indicated in gout homework essay help in 1913, the german house of schering was made the assignee ofpatent 1045759 granted by the united states government234 for themanufacture of phenylcinchoninic acid. At about the same time theproduct was admitted to the u s pharmacopeia ix, under very looselyconstructed standards 234 the validity of this patent is to be doubted essay time after the beginning of the european war the proprietary“atophan” became scarce in america in 1917, however, schering andglatz, new york, placed american-made atophan on the market andsubmitted it to the council on pharmacy and chemistry later, otherfirms began to manufacture the product and also submitted specimens during the time it was investigating these products, the federaltrade commission decided that a license was needed to manufacturephenylcinchoninic acid under the patent just referred to, so thataltogether the laboratory had a number of specimens to examine in making the examinations for the council, the laboratory waspractically confined, by virtue of the food and drugs law, to limitits requirements of purity to those of the pharmacopeia practically, the only tests were melting point, ash and solubility accordingto the u s pharmacopeia the melting point is “about 210 ” in newand nonofficial remedies, 1918, it was explained that atophan“complies with the standards for phenylcinchoninic acid, u s p , but melts between 208 and 212 c ” the u s pharmacopeia requiresthat no weighable ash remains on incinerating about 0 5 gm ofphenylcinchoninic acid considerable variations, especially in meltingpoints, were found, as can be seen from table 4 table 4 -- melting points and ash product manufacturer melting ash, no point, c % 1 abbott laboratories, chicago 208 5-210 5 0 05 2 abbott laboratories, chicago 212-213 0 05 1 calco chem co , bound brook 209-210 5 0 07 1 morgenstern, new york 204 5-207 5 2 8 2 morgenstern, new york 208 5-211 5 none 1 schering and glatz, new york 206-208 none 2 schering and glatz, new york 209-211 none 3 schering and glatz, new york 208 5-210 0 17 4a schering and glatz, new york 1 208 5-210 0 2 4b schering and glatz, new york 2 208 5-209 5 0 3 4c schering and glatz, new york 3 208 5-210 0 025 1 wm h sweet and co , columbus 204-208 none 2 wm h sweet and co , columbus 209 5-211 5 0 04 1 german specimen from schering and glatz 210-212 noneby referring to this table on melting points and ash content it will benoted that the production of a better grade of products resulted afterthe respective firms had submitted samples to the a m a chemicallaboratory for criticism, and from a chemical standpoint, the lastproducts examined were found to be as satisfactory as the german-made“atophan ”solubility of cinchophen phenylcinchoninic acid -- as methodsof determining impurities, or estimating the degree of purity ofphenylcinchoninic acid were not described in the u s pharmacopeia, it was decided to try extraction methods 235 this in turn led to thequestion of solubilities the u s pharmacopeia gives the solubilityof phenylcinchoninic acid only in general terms. Hence it was deemedadvisable to determine its solubilities and describe them in moredefinite terms the sample of phenylcinchoninic acid employed todetermine the solubility was obtained by repeated recrystallizationfrom alcohol of a commercial specimen solubilities were determined inwater. 95 0 per cent alcohol. 48 5 per cent alcohol;236 chloroformand ethyl acetate 237 complete saturation of the solvent was attainedaccording to the u s p ix method p 599 the bath was maintainedat a temperature of 25 c , with a range of ± 0 2 degrees the solutionwas analyzed by the method of seidell 238 the data obtained for thesolubility of phenylcinchoninic acid are given in table 5 table 5 -- solubility of cincophen gm per hundred solubility, gm of writings by solvent sat solution weight distilled water 0 0160 1 in 6, 216 0 95 per cent ethyl alcohol 0 8343 1 in 119 0 dilute ethyl alcohol 0 0875 1 in 1, 142 6 chloroform, 0 1075 1 in 929 7 ethyl acetate 1 4151 1 in 70 6235 attempts were made to make salts of phenylcinchoninic acidwith metals such as copper, mercury, barium and calcium, and alsothe chloroplatinic acid or periodid addition products reliablequantitative results could not be obtained 236 this corresponds to “diluted alcohol, u s p ”237 the ethyl acetate was merck product redistilled, stated tocontain 81 6 per cent of ethyl acetate, 10 per cent alcohol andalcohol derivatives 238 seidell, a. Bull 67, hyg lab , u s p h s , p 11 the abbott laboratories, chicago, have been licensed by the federaltrade commission to manufacture cinchophen other firms, however, havedecided to manufacture it without the formality of obtaining a license, evidently considering the german-obtained patent not to be valid 239239 very recently the chemical foundation, inc , has undertaken togrant licenses for cinchophen the calco chemical company has obtainedone procain novocainprocain was introduced in medicine under the proprietary name“novocain, ” and before the war was obtainable in this country onlythrough the farbwerke hoechst company, the american representativeof the german establishment, farbwerke vorm meister luciusbruening, hoechst a m chemically it is the mono-hydrochlorid ofpara-amino-benzoyl-diethyl-amino-ethanol, having the structural formula:illustration. Nh₂-- benzene ringcoo-ch₂-ch₂-- n c₂h₅₂ hclit is prepared according to u s patent no 812554 issued to alfredeinhorn, munich, gerthesis by treating para-nitro-benzoylchlorid withethylene chlorhydrin and diethylamin with subsequent reduction of thenitro groups, the resulting product being purified by recrystallization procain is employed largely in infiltration anesthesia it is lesstoxic than cocain, but its anesthetic action is not sustained thisdrawback is overcome by the simultaneous injection of epinephrin, andfor this reason procain is often compounded with epinephrin in tablets, thus obviating the necessity of separate solutions when the first specimens of the american-made product were submittedthrough the channels of the federal trade commission, it was necessaryto compile a monograph 240 this was prepared from descriptions inthe available literature, mostly from tests described in new andnonofficial remedies, 1918, and the german pharmacopeia v 240 the monograph appears in new and nonofficial remedies, 1919 the submitted products were found satisfactory chemically the toxicitydeterminations made by dr r a hatcher, with the assistance ofdr carey eggleston241 indicated that none of the specimens areto be considered dangerous when used in ordinary dosage for normalindividuals therefore the federal trade commission, on recommendationof the committee on synthetic drugs of the national research council aided by the a m a chemical laboratory, issued licenses for themanufacture of procain to the farbwerke-hoechst company which licensewas later transferred to the h a metz laboratories, to the abbottlaboratories, to the calco chemical company and to the rector chemicalcompany 241 the report of these and subsequent toxicity experiments onprocain appeared in the report of the council on pharmacy andchemistry, j a m a 72.

And toregister in the books of the college the name, age, place of residenceand birth of every member of the profession practising in the province, the date of his license and the place where he obtained it art 3, 982 the provincial medical board, among other powers, has the power tomake regulations respecting the tariffs or rates to be charged intowns and counties for medical, obstetrical, or surgical advice, orfor attendance or for the performance of any operation or for anymedicines prescribed or supplied the tariff must be approved by thelieutenant-governor in council, and can only come into force six monthsafter its publication once in the quebec official gazette, and thatof the order in council approving the same the tariff does not, incase of suit, obviate the necessity of proof of giving the advice, care, prescriptions, medicines, and other things therein mentioned art 3, 983 the said board has power to fix the fees for license and registration art 3, 984 qualifications of candidate - the qualifications of a candidate for alicense are:1 that he holds a certificate of study from a licensed physician forthe period intervening between the courses of lectures which he hasfollowed 2 that he has reached the age of homework essay help twenty-one years 3 that he has followed his studies during a period of not less thanfour years, commencing from the date of his admission by the board tostudy medicine 4 that during said four years he attended at essay university, college, or incorporated school of medicine within her majesty possessions notless than two six-months’ courses of general or descriptive anatomy, of practical anatomy, of surgery, of the practice of medicine, ofmidwifery, of chemistry, of materia medica and general therapeutics, ofthe institutions of medicine or physiology and general pathology, ofclinical medicine, and of clinical surgery. One six-months’ course ortwo three-months’ courses of medical jurisprudence, one three-months’course of botany, one three-months’ course of hygiene, and a courseof not less than twenty-five demonstrations upon microscopic anatomy, physiology, and pathology 5 that he attended the general practice of a hospital in which arecontained not less than fifty beds under the charge of not less thantwo physicians or surgeons, for not less than one and one-half years orthree periods of not less than six months each 6 that he has attended six paper of labor and compounded medicines forsix months each six-months’ course shall have consisted of one hundred and twentylectures except in the case of clinical medicine, clinical surgery, andmedical jurisprudence of four years’ study required by this section, three six-months’sessions, at least, must be passed in attending upon lectures at auniversity, college, or incorporated school of medicine recognized bythe board the first of such courses must have been attended during the sessionimmediately succeeding the preliminary examination, and the lastduring the fourth year of study, and the candidates must undergo anexamination on the final subjects of the curriculum at the end of thesession in the fourth year of study art 3, 985 members of college - all persons obtaining a license to practise fromthe college of physicians and surgeons of the province are members ofthe college, but are not eligible for governors within four years fromthe date of their admission as members art 3, 986 women - the provincial medical board has power to make regulationsrespecting the admission of women to the study and practice ofmidwifery women who were legally qualified on the 31st of october, 1879, to practise as midwives in the province, while required toconform to the rules of said college, retain their right nothing inthe act or the regulations shall prevent women in the country frompractising midwifery or assisting at accouchements without beingadmitted to the study or practice of midwifery. But they must obtain acertificate from a duly licensed physician certifying that they havethe necessary knowledge art 3, 987 register - the medical board is required to cause to be kept by theregistrar a register of persons duly licensed and registered, andwho have complied with the law and the regulations of the board, andthose persons only whose names are inscribed therein are deemed to bequalified and licensed art 3, 988 the registrar is required from time to time to make the necessaryalterations in the register art 3, 989 evidence - the registrar, under the direction of the board ofgovernors, causes to be printed, published, and distributed to themembers, from time to time, a copy, called the quebec medicalregister, of the register, containing names, surnames, residences, medical titles, diplomas, and qualifications conferred by a collegeor other medical body, with the dates of the same a printed copy, certified under the hand of the registrar as such, is prima facieevidence that the persons named and entered have been registered inaccordance with this law the absence of the name of any person fromsuch copy is prima facie proof that such person has not been lawfullyregistered. Provided always in case a person name does not appearon such printed copy, a copy or extract from the register certifiedby the registrar of the college of the entry of such person name onthe register is proof that such person is duly registered art 3, 990 a certificate under the hand of the registrar of the payment of theannual contribution of members of the college is prima facie evidencethat such payments have been made art 3, 991 neglect to register - a person entitled to register who neglects toregister is not entitled to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery, or to claim any of the rights and privileges conferred, and is liablefor all penalties imposed for practising without registration, savingthe right of certain members holding a license from the college ofphysicians and surgeons of lower canada art 3, 992 established practitioner - a person who has attended medical lecturesduring three sessions of a medical school in the british possessions, and who has actually been engaged in the practice of medicine forover thirty years in the province, may, on proof of these facts tothe satisfaction of the provincial medical board, and producing acertificate signed by two resident medical practitioners in theneighborhood where he has practised that he has succeeded in hisprofession, and is entitled to the consideration of the board, beentitled to a license and to registration without an examination art 3, 993 unregistered persons - no person unless otherwise authorized isentitled to recover any charge for medical or surgical advice, orprofessional service, or for the performance of any operation, or forany medicines prescribed or supplied, nor is he entitled to any of therights or privileges conferred, unless he has registered accordingto law and paid his annual contribution to the college art 3, 994 no certificate required from any physician or surgeon or medicalpractitioner is valid unless the signer is registered art 3, 995 persons guilty of felony - any registered member of the medicalprofession convicted of felony forfeits his right to registration, and the medical board causes his name to be erased from the register art 3, 996 if a person known to have been convicted of felony presents himselffor registration, the registrar is required to refuse him registration art 3, 997 offences and penalties - a person not entitled to register convicted ofhaving practised in contravention of this law, for reward or the hopeof reward, is liable to a penalty of $50 a like penalty is incurred by every person assuming the title ofdoctor, physician, or surgeon, or any other name implying that he islegally authorized to practise, if unable to establish the fact bylegal proof, and by every person who in an advertisement in a newspaperor in a written or printed circular, or on business cards or on signs, assumes a designation so as to lead the public to believe that he isduly registered or qualified. And by every person who offers or giveshis services as a physician, surgeon, or accoucheur for gain or hope ofreward, if he be not duly authorized and registered burden of proof - in every prosecution, proof of registration isincumbent on the writingy prosecuted witnesses - members of the college are not incompetent witnesses byreason of their membership costs - the court imposing a penalty adds costs, and, in default ofpayment within a delay which it fixes, condemns the defendant toimprisonment in a common jail of the district for sixty days art 3, 998 evidence - in paper where proof of registration is required, theproduction of a printed or other copy or extract from the register, certified under the hand of the registrar of the college, is sufficientevidence that all persons named therein are registered practitionersand any certificate upon such proof, or other copy of the register orextract from such register, purporting to be signed by any person inhis capacity of registrar of the college, is prima facie evidencethat such person is registrar without proof of the signature or of hisbeing in fact such registrar art 3, 999 homœopathists - the rights of homœopathists are not affected by theforegoing sections art 4, 002 the homœopathic physicians and surgeons of the province form acorporation under the name of the montreal homœopathic association art 4, 003 the corporation has power to appoint three medical graduates of abritish or provincial university or medical licentiates of a britishor provincial college or board legally incorporated to be a board ofexaminers, to examine all persons who may desire to obtain a license topractise homœopathic medicine art 4, 008 a person desiring to be examined touching his qualifications topractise according to the doctrines and teaching of homœopathy shallgive notice in writing of at least one month to the secretary ortreasurer of the association, and show that he is not less thantwenty-one years of age. Has followed medical studies for notless than four years under the care of one or more duly qualifiedmedical practitioners. Has attended at essay recognized university orincorporated school of medicine not less than two six-months’ coursesof anatomy, physiology, surgery, theory and practice of medicine, midwifery, chemistry, materia medica, and therapeutics respectively, and not less than one six-months’ course of clinical medicine andmedical jurisprudence respectively, or their equivalents in time;and shall have complied with the regulations of such university orincorporated school of medicine with regard to such courses, andshall have followed such other course or courses as may hereafter beconsidered by the board of examiners requisite for the advancement of amedical education all such persons shall, at a regularly appointed time and place, beexamined on all the aforesaid branches by the board of examiners art 4, 009 if the board be satisfied by examination that a person is dulyqualified to practise either or all of said branches of medicine, astaught and practised by homœopathists, they shall certify the sameunder the hands and seals of two or all of such board the lieutenant-governor, on receipt of such certificate, may, ifsatisfied of the loyalty, integrity, and good morals of the applicant, grant to him a license to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery, oreither of them, conformably to the certificate, and all such licenseesare entitled to all the privileges enjoyed by licentiates of medicine art 4, 010 the corporation appoints a secretary who keeps a register of names ofall persons duly licensed to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery, or either of them, according to the doctrines and teachings ofhomœopathy only those whose names are inscribed in said register are qualifiedand licensed to practise according to the doctrines and teachings ofhomœopathy art 4, 015 the said secretary is required to make the necessary alterations inthe addresses or qualifications of the persons registered art 4, 016 offences and penalties - a person practising according to thehomœopathic doctrines for reward in contravention of this act, orassuming a title implying that a person is legally authorized topractise according to homœopathic doctrines, if unable legally toestablish such authorization. Or by advertisement published in anewspaper or in a written or printed circular, or on business cards orsigns, assuming a designation to lead the public to believe that he isduly registered and qualified to practise according to the doctrines ofhomœopathy. Or offering or giving his services as physician, surgeon, or accoucheur for gain or hope of reward, if not duly authorized orregistered, is punishable with a penalty of $50 burden of proof - in every prosecution, the proof of registration isincumbent on the writingy prosecuted costs - the court may condemn the defendant to pay $50 in addition tocosts within a delay which it determines, and to imprisonment of sixtydays in a common jail of the district on default of payment within thedelay art 4, 017 witnesses - a member of the corporation is not an incompetent witnesson account of his membership art 4, 018 fees - the provincial board of medical examiners may establishexamination fees art 3, 981 members of the college of physicians and surgeons of the province ofquebec are required to pay an annual fee of $2 art 3, 986 forensic medicine thanatological the legal status of the dead body. The disposal and obligation to dispose of the same. How and by whom it may be exhumed or removed. Autopsies, by whom ordered. The rights of relatives and accused persons including an appendix containing a synopsis of the statutes of the different united states and territories concerning same by tracy c becker, a b , ll b , etc , counsellor at law, etc. Professor of civil law and medical jurisprudence, law dewritingment, university of buffalo legal status of the dead body disposal and obligations to dispose of the same - there is no rightof property, in the ordinary sense of the word, in a dead human body;but for the health and protection of society it is a rule of the commonlaw, and which has been confirmed by statutes in civilized statesand countries, that public duties are imposed upon public officers, and private duties upon the husband or wife and the next of kin ofthe deceased, to protect the body from violation and see that it isproperly interred, and to protect it after it is interred a parent isbound to provide christian burial for a deceased child, if he has themeans, but if he has not the means, though the body remains unburiedso long as to become a nuisance, he is not indictable for the nuisancealthough he could obtain money for the burial expenses by borrowing itof the poor-law authorities of the parish, for he is not bound to incura debt reg v vann, 2 div c c , 325. 15 jur , 1, 090 on theother hand it has been held in england, that every householder in whosehouse a dead body lies is bound by the common law, if he has the meansto do so, to inter the body decently, and this principle applies wherea person dies in the house of a parish or a union reg v stewart, 12 a & d , 1, 272 and the expense may be paid out of the effects ofthe deceased tugwell v hayman, 3 camp , 298, and note in pierce v the proprietors swan point cemetery, 10 r i , 227, s c , 14 am rep , 667, the court said. “that there is no rightof property in a dead body, using this word in its ordinary sense, may be well admitted, yet the burial of the dead is a subject whichinterests the feelings of mankind to a much greater degree than thesismatters of actual property there is a duty imposed by the universalfeelings of mankind to be discharged by essay one toward the dead.

And so, homework essay help the last and crucial test ofa therapeutic agent is its consumption by a patient there is, however, one essential difference. When the pudding is eaten, with a sense ofsatisfaction, we know that it was a good, or at least an eatable, pudding if the patient improves after taking a remedy, we do not yet knowthat he improved on account of the remedy the post hoc type ofreasoning or logic is not respectable. But it is all too apt to creepin unawares, unless one takes great precautions indeed clinical evidence needs especially to be on its guard against thispitfall, for the conditions of disease never remain constant. Nor is itpossible to foresee with certainty the direction which they are goingto take it is just this point which makes the clinical evidence somuch more difficult to interpret than laboratory evidence, in whichthe conditions can be more or less exactly controlled, and any changesforeseen it is on this account, also, that clinical experiments mustbe surrounded with extra painstaking precautions in brief, while the “proof” of a remedy is on the patient, that is notthe whole story, but merely an introduction the real problem is toestablish the causative connection between the remedy and the events the imperfect realization of this has blocked therapeutic advance, hasdisgusted critical men to the point of therapeutic nihilism, and hasfertilized the ground for the commercial exploitation of drugs that areof doubtful value or worse this has been impressed on me writingicularly by my service on the councilon pharmacy and chemistry in the course of its work of passing on theclaims advanced for commercial remedies, this council is forced toinquire critically into the basis of the claims of manufacturers it is interesting to note the qualitative differences in the evidencefor the various kinds of claims. The chemical data are usuallypresented in such a form that it is possible to tell at a glancewhether or not they are based on demonstrated facts, which couldusually be verified or refuted without special difficulty thedeductions are usually such as can be legitimately drawn from the data, or else they are obviously absurd all this agrees with the relativelyexact status of chemical science in passing to data and deductions from animal experiments, a distinctchange is noticeable. Not only are the data less reliable, and lessworthy of confidence, but they are more often stated in a lessstraightforward manner the presentation of the data often showsevidence of manipulation of the results, so as to make them mostfavorable to a preconceived conclusion that would recommend the drug this is not always intentional, but is writingly due to the less exactnature of animal experimentation, which leaves a wider play to thearbitrary interpretation of the reporter a certain amount of thisis unavoidable no serious objection can be raised, provided theexperimenter presents all the essential data, and discusses fairly allof the interpretations that would apply to them on the whole, it is usually possible to form a fairly definite estimateof the value of experimental data when one comes to the clinical evidence, an entirely differentatmosphere obtains when the council demands evidence of the usefulnessof a remedy, the manufacturers generally respond with every sign ofenthusiasm they may have ready a series of articles already published, or they instruct their agents to bring in letters from physicians thelast method seems to meet the most cordial response, judging from thedeluge of letters and opinions that floods the council the quality of the published papers is a fair reflection of thedeficiencies of what is still the common type of clinical evidence a little thought suffices to show that the greater writing cannotbe taken as serious evidence at all essay of the data are merelyimpressions-- usually the latest impressions of an impressionableenthusiast-- the type of man who does not consider it necessary topresent evidence for his own opinions. The type of man who does noteven realize that scientific conclusions must be based on objectivephenomena essay of the papers masquerade as “clinical reports, ” essaytimes with asplendid disregard for all details that could enable one to judge oftheir value and bearing, essaytimes with the most tedious presentationof all sorts of routine observations that have no relation to theproblem the majority of reports obtained by the agents belong to these classes, notwithstanding the fact that they are often written for the specialuse of the council, and therefore with the realization that theyare likely to be subjected to a thorough examination, and thereforepresumably representing the best type of work of which the reporter iscapable so, at least, one would suppose it is also possible, however, that essay of these reports are writtenmerely out of thoughtlessness, or perhaps often to get rid of animportunate agent this is illustrated by the following correspondence, taken literally from the files of the council a letter from a prominent physician “a, ” endorsing a certainpreparation “d, ” having been submitted to the council, the secretarywas directed to write to dr a as follows:dear dr a:-- the b company of c has requested the council on pharmacyand chemistry to admit its preparation d to new and nonofficialremedies as writing evidence for the value of the preparation, thecompany submitted a letter from you which contains the following. So far as my experience has thus far gone, they are certainly superior to a number of other iodine compounds now on the market, and i should judge that they ought to take a superior place in therapy involving the use of iodine the referee of the council in charge of d writes that he was interestedby your letter and asks that i inquire. As compared with sodium orpotassium iodid, what would you say are the differences between, and real advantages of, d and the alkaline iodids?. did you make anycomparative experiments and keep a record of them?. if so, the refereewould like to receive an account of your trials in what directioncould d be expected to occupy a superior place in iodin therapy?. i hope that you can give the information asked by the referee and thus aid the council in arriving at a correct estimate regarding the value of d the following reply was received from the physician in response to theforegoing. Dear professor puckner:-- in reply to yours of january 19, i did not proceed far enough in the investigation of d to draw conclusions of any writingicular value for the purpose of the council on pharmacy and chemistry. And i so stated in my letter to the proprietors of that remedy answers to the questions you put in your letter require an amount of investigation of the remedy far beyond anything i undertook as a matter of fact, i returned about five sixths of the capsules sent me, because of lack of time and opportunity to carry out the extensive clinical experiments that i plainly saw would be required to give an opinion at all worth while i believe you had better not consider me in the matter at all the report was furnished by a physician for whom i have a high personalregard i introduce it here, not so much in a spirit of criticism, but as a justification of the opinion that i have formed of clinicalevidence obtained by manufacturers through their clinical adjutors when commercial firms claim to base their conclusions on clinicalreports, the profession has a right to expect that these reportsshould be submitted to competent and independent review when suchreports are kept secret, it is impossible for any one to decide whatproportion of them are trustworthy, and what proportion thoughtless, incompetent or accommodating however, if this were done it is quitepossible that such firms would find much more difficulty in obtainingthe reports those who collaborate should realize frankly that underpresent conditions they are collaborating, not so much in determiningthe scientific value, but rather in establishing the commercial valueof the article often the best type of clinical reports-- those in which theobservations are directed to the significant events and not to mereside lines, and in which the significant events are correctly andadequately reported-- generally lack one important essential, namely, anadequate control of the natural course of the disease since this cannot be controlled directly, it must be compensatedindirectly for this purpose, there are available two methods:the first is the statistical method, in which alternate patientsreceive or do not receive the treatment this method can usuallyonly be of value when a very large series of patients is available even then, its value is limited or doubtful, because it cannot takesufficient account of the individuality of paper the second method consists in the attempt to distinguish unknownpreparations by their effects-- the method that might be called the“comparative method” or the “blind test ”in this, the patient, or a series of patients, is given the preparationwhich is to be tested, and another preparation which is inactive, and the observer aims to distinguish the two preparations by theireffects on the patient surely if the drug has any actions at all itwill be possible to select correctly in a decided majority of theadministrations the same principle can be applied in distinguishing the superiorityof one preparation over another in this case, the two preparationswould be given alternately to different patients, and the observerwould try to distinguish them by their effects here again, if onedrug is really superior or otherwise different from another, to apractically important extent, the observer will surely be able to makethe distinction this method is really the only one that avoids the pitfalls of clinicalobservation. It is the only method that makes the results purelyobjective, really independent of the bias of the observer and thepatient it is the only method, therefore, which determines whether itwas really the pudding that was eaten and not essay other dessert in principle this method does not usually offer any very greatdifficulties it is, of course, necessary that the two preparationsto be compared shall resemble each other so closely or shall beflavored, etc , so that they cannot be distinguished by their physicalproperties this is usually not a very difficult matter the methoddoes not jeopardize the interests of the patient, for it is understoodthat no drug would be tested in this way unless there is essay reasonto believe that it has a value when the patient condition is suchas to demand treatment, then he would be receiving either the standarddrug or the drug which the experimenter believes may be superior to thestandard conclusionsthe final and crucial test of a remedy is on the patient.

cereals, pulses, homework essay help etc. Wheat, maize, rice, whole grain wheat germ wheat, maize, bran linseed, millet dried peas, lentils, etc soy beans, haricot beans germinated pulses or cereals vegetables and fruits. Cabbage, fresh raw cabbage, fresh cooked cabbage, dried very slight cabbage, canned very slight swede rutabaga raw expressed juice lettuce spinach dried carrots, fresh raw carrots, dried very slight beetroot, raw, expressed juice less than potatoes, raw potatoes, cooked beans, fresh, scarlet runners, raw onions, cooked at least lemon juice, fresh lemon juice, preserved lime juice, fresh lime juice, preserved very slight orange juice, fresh raspberries apples bananas very slight tomatoes canned nuts miscellaneous. Yeast, dried yeast, extract and autolyzed ?. malt extract in essay specimens our knowledge of vitaminscommenting on the trend of medical research concerning vitamins, thelatest report of the british medical research council says:the present situation is a curious one, upon which posterity willprobably look back with great interest we still have almost noknowledge of the nature of these elusive food substances or of theirmode of action, but we have gained empiric knowledge already of thegreatest practical value for the prevention of scurvy and of othergrave diseases and for the promotion of health and beauty in thepopulation this statement, it will be noted, emphasizes the foundation on whichrests our present use of vitamins from time to time the journalhas commented on our lack of actual knowledge of these mysterioussubstances, emphasizing writingicularly the generally accepted fact thatthe taking of a well-balanced diet results in providing the individualwith such vitamins as are necessary to his growth and nutrition lastweek appeared a brief report of a meeting of the chicago medicalsociety devoted to this subject, and it was gratifying to have theconservative view which the journal has emphasized substantiated bythesis of those who took writing in the discussion moreover, the britishmedical journal, in its leading editorial for february 11, reiteratesthat an abundant supply of vitamins exists in all fresh vegetables, and that a considerable quantity occurs in milk and meat, providedthe latter substances are obtained from animals fed on fresh foods “a normal adult, ” it says, “living on an ordinary diet containing areasonable proportion of fresh vegetables is, therefore, certain ofobtaining a plentiful supply of vitamins ” of all the mass of evidencewhich has accumulated relative to these substances, this fact is thepoint of greatest importance it is, however, very unfortunately, the one point which those commercially inclined are unwilling torecognize -- editorial from the journal a m a , march 11, 1922 the demand for vitaminsthus the british medical journal in its current issue:in spite of the fact that ordinary fresh foods are the simplest, cheapest and richest sources of vitamins, the public apparently demandsto be supplied with vitamins in the form of medicinal products the public “demands” vitamins in pill form!. why?. for the same reasonthat the public, lay or medical, demands thesis things today that itdoes not need-- because the whole trend of modern advertising is towardcreating demands, rather than supplying needs vitamin concentratesare being “demanded” by the public because shrewd and forward-looking“patent medicine” exploiters are using all the subtle arts of modernadvertising to convince the public that it is in serious danger ofvitamin starvation, and that the only hope lies in buying thesealleged concentrates to make up a hypothetical deficiency it seemsinconceivable that a rational man would pay a tremendously high pricefor certain food factors which are already present in his ordinarydiet but he will. And advertising is the reason advertisingcampaigns such as these of the vitamins constitute a vicious circle;an artificial demand is created and then the manufacturer excuses hisbusiness on the ground that he is merely supplying a demand!. as ourbritish contemporary says, “ordinary fresh foods are the simplest, cheapest and richest sources of vitamins ”-- editorial from thejournal a m a , march 18, 1922 the william a webster co and the direct pharmaceutical co the following letter from a detroit physician was received a few daysago to the editor:-- i have just received a letter from the direct pharmaceutical co of st louis, mo , quoting prices on drugs which are not more than one half what the leading manufacturers are quoting on the same drugs i have received previous literature from this company but have not done business with them i would be unwilling to prescribe their drugs unless i were satisfied that they are what is claimed for them i would be glad to receive any information regarding this firm that may be available the journal has also received essay letters from physicians regardingthe william a webster co of memphis, tenn , relative to a letter theconcern was sending physicians in the form of a testimonial reproducedin miniature on this page and alleged to be from dr f w p butlerof columbia, s c typical letters on the webster advertising follow. To the editor:-- is there not essay way through which the dignity of the medical profession can be protected from the circulation of such idiotic drivel as the enclosures display?.

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Well, says mars, though they speak evil ofme, i will do good to them. Death cold, my herb shall heat them. Theyare full of ill humours else they would never have spoken ill of me;my herb shall cleanse them, and dry them.