History

Historiographical Essay Example


Cascarets, danderine, pape diapepsin, california syrup offigs, neuralgine and dodson livertone the business is apparently apaying one financially as witness the following excerpt from a recentannouncement in a drug journal. “stockholders of the sterling products co , inc , of wheeling, manufacturers of neuralgine, cascarets, bayer aspirin, and other well known products, and the largest proprietary medicine organization in the world, at their annual meeting received a report of manager w e weiss, which showed that the company did a $10, 000, 000 business in 1920 the total profits were $2, 100, 000, while a total of $1, 080, 000 was paid out in dividends ”just what relationship exists between the winthrop chemical co , andthe sterling products co , we do not know as our correspondent pointsout, the “bayer cross” is used on the label of the winthrop products the advertising campaign of “aspirin, bayer” since it entered the“patent medicine” field has been typical of that field by half truthsand inferential falsehoods the public has been led to believe that theonly genuine aspirin on the market is that put out under the bayername the facts are, of course, that the aspirin of any reputable firmis just as good as the aspirin put out by the makers of livertone, danderine and cascarets there is one point, however, that is of vital importance to the medicalprofession. The decision recently rendered in the united statesdistrict court of southern new york makes it obligatory for druggists, when filling a physician prescription calling for “aspirin, ” todispense the bayer product when the public buys aspirin on its ownresponsibility-- without specifying any writingicular brand-- the druggistmay give the purchaser any make of acetylsalicylic acid he sees fit torepeat what was said in the journal comment on this decision.

Proc roy soc med , 8, no 4, 1914, therap and pharm section, p 29 clinical use of secretindiabetes mellitus -- moore, edie and abram64 were the first tosuggest a therapeutic value for secretin, having obtained favorableresults with secretin administration historiographical essay example in diabetes they argued that theinternal secretion of the pancreas may be stimulated by secretin, and that essay paper of diabetes may be due to lack of this necessaryexcitant owing to the importance of the question, their announcementwas followed quickly by numerous investigations by other observers previously, spriggs, at the suggestion of starling, had triedintravenous injections of secretin free from depressor substance in adiabetic patient, and had obtained negative results moore, edie andabram gave their secretin by mouth over long periods of the five papercited in their first paper, two were negative the third was that of aman, aged 25, who received daily 30 c c of secretin after a latentperiod of three weeks, the sugar suddenly fell, and after four monthsthe urine was sugar-free six months later a relapse occurred with thedevelopment of phthisis and death the other two patients were a boy, aged 7, and a girl, aged 9, whose urine in from three to five weeksbecame sugar free during the secretin treatment in spite of severediabetes one of these patients later relapsed 65 bainbridge andbeddard66 gave secretin a thorough trial in three paper with negativeresults, and are disposed to attribute the results of moore to dieting dakin and ransom67 cited one case, secretin being given for twelveweeks, with negative results. Foster, 65 nine paper, all negative;charles, 68 three paper, all negative crofton, 69 however, gavesecretin a trial in one case with favorable results moore, edie andabram, in a later paper, 70 report a large number of paper tried withthe majority of results negative, though in essay paper an improvementin the digestion, and in certain paper an increase of weight was noted 64 moore, edie and abram. Biochem jour , 1:28, 1906 65 foster. Jour biol chem , 2:297, 1906 66 bainbridge and beddard. Biochem jour , 1:429, 1906 67 dakin and ransom. Jour biol chem , 2:305, 1906 68 charles. Med press and cir , 133:578, 1906 69 crofton. Lancet, london, 176:607, 1909 70 moore, edie and abram. Biochem jour , 3:82, 1908 one method of testing the basis of moore theory would be by examiningthe prosecretin content of the intestine in diabetics bainbridge andbeddard found, in the paper referred to, 66 that from five of thesix paper of diabetics examined postmortem, little or no secretincould be prepared. But in a subsequent report of seven paper, 71they found only one in which the secretin obtained was scanty thefailure to obtain secretin in essay paper they claim is probably due tothe rapid postmortem degeneration of diabetic tissue evans, 72 instarling laboratory, found that in dogs made recently diabetic bytotal pancreatectomy, but little secretin could be obtained hedon andlisbonne, 73 and pemberton and sweet74 report, on the contrary, thatthe duodenum of diabetic dogs is rich in prosecretin bainbridge andbeddard, 71 working on a diabetic cat, likewise found prosecretin tobe present in normal quantity 71 bainbridge and beddard. Biochem jour 3:82, 1908 72 evan. Jour physiol 44:461, 1912 73 hedon. Compt rend soc de biol 74:375, 1913 74 pemberton, ralph, and sweet, j e. Further studies on theinfluence of the ductless glands on the pancreas, arch int med , may, 1910, p 466 digestive disturbances -- secretin for digestive disturbance was firstused in the “acid duodenal medication” of enriquez 75 this consistedin the giving of tartaric acid in thick keratin capsules, the acid notbeing liberated until the duodenum was reached, where it provoked theformation of secretin “the secretin mechanism, ” he says, “is probablycapable of pathologic disturbance as would result, for example, withdiminished acidity of chyme, disturbance of the normal motility ofthe stomach or pylorus, or diminished prosecretin in the mucosa sucha condition would produce disturbance of the pancreatic, biliary andintestinal secretions, and interfere with intestinal movements, witha clinical syndrome of intestinal dyspepsia as a result, among thechief and most constant symptoms of which would be constipation ”“the acid duodenal medication” was submitted to wide clinical use, and very favorable results in certain obstinate paper of constipationwere reported in regard to “diminished prosecretin in the mucosa, ”wentworth76 has claimed that in infantile atrophy such is thecondition, but sweet and pemberton77 have found that the difficultyof preparing secretin from human duodenums is such as to renderwentworth findings inconclusive 75 enriquez.

It succours the liver and spleen, and helps want of digestion and evil disposition of the body thencearising. It hastens travail in women with child, and is excellentagainst the bitings of venomous beasts distil sage whilst the flowers be on it, the water strengthens thebrain, provokes the menses, helps nature much in all its actions marjoram is in its prime in june, distilled water is excellent forsuch whose brains are too cold, it provokes urine, heats the womb, provokes the menses, strengthens the memory and helps the judgment, causes an able brain distil camomel water about the beginning of june it eases thecholick and pains in the belly. It breaks the stone in the reins andbladder, provokes the menses, expels the dead child, and takes awaypains in the head fennel water strengthens the heart and brain. Dilates the breast, thecough, provokes the menses, encreases milk in nurses, and if you washyour eyes with it, it clears the sight the hooves of the fore feet of a cow dried and taken any away, encrease milk in nurses, the smoke of them drives away mice mizaldus calaminth water heats and cleanses the womb, provokes the menses, andeases the pains of the head, distil it in may the distilled water of rosemary flowers, helps such as are troubledwith the yellow jaundice, asthmas, it cleanses the blood, helpsconcoction, strengthens the brain and body exceedingly water of the flowers of lilies of the valley, strengthens the brainand all the senses the water of cowslip flowers helps the palsey. Takes away pains inthe head, the vertigo and megrim, and is exceeding good for pregnantwomen the eyes being washed every morning with eyebright water, moststrangely clears and strengthens the sight maidenhair distilled in may, the water cleanses both liver and lungs, clarifies the blood, and breaks the stone hyssop water cleanses the lungs of flegm, helps coughs and asthmas, distil it in august the water of hore-hound, helps the cough and straitness of thebreast. It strengthens the breast, lungs and stomach, and liver, distilit in june carduus water succours the head, strengthens the memory, helps suchas are troubled with vertigoes and quartan agues, it provokes sweat, strengthens the heart, and all other fevers of choler it is in itsprime in may and june scabious water helps pleurises and pains, and pricking in the sides;aposthumes, coughs, pestilences, and straitness of the breast water of flower-de-luce is very profitable in dropsies, an ouncebeing drank continually every morning and evening. As also pains andtorments in the bowels bawm water distilled in may, restores memory, it quickens all thesenses, strengthens the brain, heart, and stomach, causes a merry mindand a sweet breath the water of comfrey solders broken bones, being drank, helpsruptures, outwardly it stops the bleeding of wounds, they being washedwith it wormwood water distilled cold, about the end of may, heats andstrengthens the stomach, helps concoction, stays vomiting, kills wormsin the stomach and bowels, it mitigates the pains in the teeth, and isprofitably given in fevers of choler mint water strengthens the stomach, helps concoction and staysvomiting, distil it in the latter end of may, or beginning of june, asthe year is in forwardness or backwardness, observe that in all therest chervil water distilled about the end of may, helps ruptures, breaksthe stone, dissolves congealed blood, strengthens the heart and stomach the water of mother of time strengthens the brain and stomach, gets aman a good stomach to his victuals, provoke urine and the menses, heatsthe womb it is in its prime about the end of june the water of marigold flowers is appropriated to most cold diseasesof the head, eyes, and stomach. They are in their vigour when the sunis in the lion the distilled water of centaury comforts a cold stomach, helps infever of choler, it kills worms, and provokes appetite maudlin and costmary water distilled in may or june, strengthens theliver, helps the yellow jaundice, opens obstructions, and helps thedropsy water-cresses distilled in march, the water cleanses the blood, andprovokes urine exceedingly, kills worms, outwardly mixed with honey, itclears the skin of morphew and sunburning distil nettles when they are in flower, the water helps coughs andpains in the bowels, provokes urine, and breaks the stone saxifrage water provokes urine, expels wind, breaks the stone, cleanses the reins and bladder of gravel, distil them when they are inflower the water of pellitory of the wall, opens obstructions of the liverand spleen, by drinking an ounce of it every morning. It cleanses thereins and bladder, and eases the gripings of the bowels coming of wind distil it in the end of may, or beginning of june cinquefoil water breaks the stone, cleanses the reins, and is ofexcellent use in putrified fevers distil it in may the water of radishes breaks the stone, cleanses the reins and bladder, provokes the menses, and helps the yellow jaundice elicampane water strengthens the stomach and lungs, provokes urine, and cleanses the passages of it from gravel distil burnet in may or june, the water breaks the stone, cleansesthe passages of urine, and is exceeding profitable in pestilentialtimes mugwort water distilled in may, is excellent in coughs and diseasesproceeding from stoppage of the menses, it warms the stomach, and helpsthe dropsy distil penny-royal when the flowers are upon it. The water heats thewomb gallantly, provokes the menses, expels the afterbirth. Cuts, andcasts out thick and gross humours in the breast, eases pains in thebowels, and consumes flegm the water of lovage distilled in may, eases pains in the head, andcures ulcers in the womb being washed with it. Inwardly taken it expelswind, and breaks the stone the tops of hops when they are young, being distilled, the watercleanses the blood of melancholy humours, and therefore helps scabs, itch, and leprosy, and such like diseases thence proceeding. It opensobstructions of the spleen, helps the rickets, and hypochondriacmelancholy the water of borrage and bugloss distilled when their flowers areupon them, strengthens the heart and brain exceedingly, cleanses theblood, and takes away sadness, griefs and melancholy dodder water cleanses the liver and spleen, helps the yellow jaundice tamarisk water opens obstructions, and helps the hardness of thespleen, and strengthens it english tobacco distilled, the water is excellently good for such ashave dropsy, to drink an ounce or two every morning.

For by the influence ofthe moon, it revives the ends of the veins which are relaxed there historiographical essay example isscarce a better remedy to be applied to such places as are burnt withfire than this is, for it fetches out the fire, and heals it without ascar this is an excellent remedy for such as are bursten, being eithertaken inwardly, or applied to the place in like manner used, it helpsthe cramp and the gout it is excellently good in hectic fevers, andrestores radical moisture to such as are in consumptions briony, or wild vine it is called wild, and wood vine, tamus, or ladies’ seal the white iscalled white vine by essay. And the black, black vine descript the common white briony grows ramping upon the hedges, sending forth thesis long, rough, very tender branches at the beginning, with thesis very rough, and broad leaves thereon, cut for the most writinginto five writingitions, in form very like a vine leaf, but smaller, rough, and of a whitish hoary green colour, spreading very far, spreading and twining with his small claspers that come forth at thejoints with the leaves very far on whatsoever stands next to it atthe several joints also especially towards the top of the branchescomes forth a long stalk bearing thesis whitish flowers together on along tuft, consisting of five small leaves a-piece, laid open like astar, after which come the berries separated one from another, morethan a cluster of grapes, green at the first, and very red when theyare thorough ripe, of no good scent, but of a most loathessay tasteprovokes vomit the root grows to be exceeding great, with thesis longtwines or branches going from it, of a pale whitish colour on theoutside, and more white within, and of a sharp, bitter, loathessay taste place it grows on banks, or under hedges, through this land. Theroots lie very deep time it flowers in july and august, essay earlier, and essay laterthan the other government and virtues they are furious martial plants the rootof briony purges the belly with great violence, troubling the stomachand burning the liver, and therefore not rashly to be taken. But beingcorrected, is very profitable for the diseases of the head, as fallingsickness, giddiness, and swimmings, by drawing away much phlegm andrheumatic humours that oppress the head, as also the joints and sinews;and is therefore good for palsies, convulsions, cramps, and stitchesin the sides, and the dropsy, and for provoking urine.

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Kennell, l a , and hussey, l m. M rec 97. 607 april 10 1920 after examining the available evidence, the council advised the harmerlaboratories company that the claim that mon-arsone has a therapeuticvalue equal to arsphenamine appeared unwarranted. That, in the opinionof the council, mon-arsone should not be used except under conditionsthat justify the experimental trial of an unproved drug, and should notbe used in a routine way until the permanence of its effects has beenestablished. And consequently any advertising propaganda for the drugby the harmer laboratories company was to be deprecated in its reply the harmer laboratories company admitted that itsadvertising claim, that mon-arsone was at least equal to arsphenaminetherapeutically, had been based on reports on fifty paper and onadditional reports that were beginning to come in at that time the harmer laboratories company submitted a list of hospitals andphysicians using mon-arsone a letter of inquiry sent by the council tothose who, according to the names in the list supplied by the harmerlaboratories company, had used mon-arsone, brought seven replies the clinical evidence contained in these replies was to the effect thatmon-arsone had been used in the various types of syphilis and thatthere was a certain beneficial effect, both clinically and as shown bythe wassermann reaction in certain instances the wassermann reactionchanged from a four plus to a negative reaction the reports showedthat the efficiency of mon-arsone as compared with that of arsphenaminepreparations has not been adequately studied one physician who hasused mon-arsone extensively reports that in thesis of the paper treatedthere seemed to be nearly as good results from the use of mon-arsone asis frequently obtained in the use of arsphenamine he reports, however, that it was necessary in eleven out of one hundred paper to change frommon-arsone to neoarsphenamine in view of the fact that there is definite lack of evidence to showthat mon-arsone is the equal of arsphenamine therapeutically, andbecause of the reports that in essay paper it is inferior, mon-arsoneshould not be used in the treatment of syphilis generally until itstherapeutic status has been more rigidly investigated and conclusiveevidence of its superiority to arsphenamine preparations obtained the council voted not to admit mon-arsone to new and nonofficialremedies and reaffirmed its conclusion that the claim that mon-arsonehas a therapeutic value equal to that of arsphenamine is premature andunwarranted. That mon-arsone should not be used except under conditionsthat justify the experimental trial of an unproved drug. And that theadvertising propaganda for the drug by the harmer laboratories companyis to be deprecated * * * * *when the preceding report was sent to the harmer laboratories company, the firm submitted a reply in which it was stated:1 that in certain instances patients improved under mon-arsone who, previously, had not improved under arsphenamine, and that this shouldbe taken to offset the report of the one hundred paper in which the useof mon-arsone had to be abandoned in 11 per cent of the paper 2 that the harmer laboratories company has abandoned the claim thatmon-arsone is therapeutically equal to arsphenamine and that it nowfurnishes the drug to such men as care to use it simply on the basis ofits special and useful characteristics the council heartily endorses the recent warning against the useof untried medicaments which was issued by the u s public healthservice 145145 j a m a june 12, 1920, p 1654 since the council report was prepared a report on the effects ofmon-arsone on experimental syphilis has been published by nichols, 146from the division of laboratories, army medical school, which concludes:1 disodium-ethylarsinate, or mon-arsone, tested on rabbits infectedwith syphilis shows no spirocheticidal power the tissues are fatallypoisoned as soon as or before the spirochetes are affected “2 for its practical use in syphilis there is no such germicidal basisas exists in case of the arsphenamine group ”-- from the journala m a , june 18, 1921 146 nichols, h j. The spirocheticidal value of disodium ethylarsenate mon-arsone, j a m a 76.