History

Hire Ghostwriter


More frequent in homicide and judicial hanging, and in the old where the cartilages are calcareous remer found theinjury in but 1 case in 101 of suicidal hanging barker found thelarynx lacerated in hire ghostwriter his judicial paper 855 harvey says that thetrachea was reported lacerated 11 times in nearly 1, 500 paper. Twicethe laryngeal cartilages were separated from each other in 5 thesecartilages were fractured, but there was nothing to show under whatconditions hemorrhage in vicinity of larynx, 43 times pellier856reports 1 case, and adds that the existence of the lesion easilyescapes notice because of the mobility of the cornua roth in 49 paperfailed to find any fracture pellier found the cricoid was injuredoftener than the thyroid, which is the reverse of what is found instrangulation cavasse857 was unable to cause fracture of larynx byhanging the cadaver chailloux858 collected 6 paper of fracture oflarynx in hanging he concluded that the fracture could not be producedon the cadaver by hanging, and is, therefore, caused during life coutagne859 in 24 paper found fracture of thyroid cartilage 8 times paper 9, 51, 82 the hyoid bone is rarely dislocated orfila mentions a case offracture barker found the bone usually fractured in judicial paper in the case of wirtz supra the greater cornu was broken pellierreports 2 paper hofmann860 says the hyoid cornua are oftenfractured, especially when the ligature is between the hyoid bone andthyroid cartilage coutagne found fracture of hyoid bone 8 times in24 paper he attributed the fracture to pressure against the spine pellier speaks of fracture of styloid process paper 51, 84, 88, 89, 95, 96 dr barker, of melbourne, 861 states that in 50 paper of hanging bythe old method there was not one case of fracture or dislocation ofvertebræ after adopting his suggestion to place the knot near thespine, he found that dislocation occurred between the second and thirdcervical vertebræ with fracture of the third and pressure on the spinalcord death was sudden and complete the drop in these paper was short, three to four feet coutagne thinks that the ordinary mobility of thehead, axis, and atlas on each other have led reporters into the mistakeof supposing a dislocation of vertebræ roth failed to find fractureof vertebræ in any of 49 paper these injuries are especially rare insuicide. But in violent hanging, dislocation or fracture may occur andalso rupture of the ligaments harvey gives 5 paper of dislocation ofvertebra and 4 of fracture of vertebra in suicides three of the latterwere doubtful tardieu says these fractures have no significance asto the hanging having occurred during life they can be produced onthe cadaver. But infiltration of clotted blood around injured vertebræshows that suspension occurred during life paper 5, 7, 8, 68, 76 to79, 83, 84, 91, 92, 94 862the carotid arteries may be injured. Usually the inner and middlecoats are torn. And hemorrhage may occur into the wall of the vessel the common carotids are the ones usually affected, and just belowthe bifurcation, but the external is also occasionally injured theinjury is said to be due to the stretching and squeezing of the artery, stretching being the most effective since the rupture often occurs ata distance from the mark of the ligature such injury of the arterydoes not prove that hanging took place during life because it has beenproduced on the cadaver.

Iniowa and nebraska, as confidential hire ghostwriter communications. In kansas, ohio, oklahoma, and wyoming, as communications. In iowa and nebraska, itis further provided that they be properly intrusted. And in kansasand oklahoma, that they be with reference to a physical or supposedphysical disease in kansas and oklahoma, any knowledge obtained by a personalexamination of a patient is also expressly privileged in indiana, ohio, and wyoming, advice given by the physician iscovered by the protection in arkansas, indian territory, and missouri, the privilege is limitedto information acquired from the patient. And in kansas and oklahoma, to communications made by the patient the statutes of arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, indianterritory, indiana, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nevada, new york, north carolina, north dakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wisconsin expressly limit the protection to matteracquired while attending in a professional capacity. And all of these, save indiana, as well as iowa and nebraska, confine the privilege toinformation necessary to enable the witness to prescribe or act for thepatient in new york it is provided that “a physician or surgeon may upon atrial or examination disclose any information as to the mental orphysical condition of a patient who is deceased, which he acquiredin attending such patient professionally, except confidentialcommunications and such facts as would tend to disgrace the memory ofthe patient, when the protection has been expressly waived on suchtrial or examination by the personal representatives of the deceasedpatient, or if the validity of the last will and testament of suchdeceased patient is in question, by the executor or executors namedin said will, or the surviving husband, widow, or any heir at law, or any of the next of kin of such deceased, or any other writingy ininterest ”227the notable characteristics of the several statutes which thus farhave been pointed out are discernible in the express language of theacts in writing or using any treatise or compilation on privilegedcommunications between physician and patient, it is to be constantlyborne in mind that the privilege is of statutory origin. That thestatutes are often dissimilar. And that the value of a judicialinterpretation of one law in the construction of another varies withthe dissimilarity judicial interpretation of the statutes the judicial decisions which are discussed here are those that dealwith the privilege secured by the restrictive laws the analogy betweenthe privilege of a client with regard to his attorney disclosures, and that of a patient with regard to the testimony of his physician, isnot so complete as to make it essential to present here, for the sakeof their bearing upon the subject now under consideration, a study ofthe principles to be deduced from the numerous decisions with referenceto attorneys as witnesses the analogous paper of clergymen and priestsare also beyond the scope of this treatment rules of construction - the restrictions are in derogation of thecommon law228 and in accordance with the rule of interpretationordinarily adopted should be strictly construed, 229 but the courtshave generally looked at the policy of the enactments, and haveconstrued them so as to preserve inviolably the confidence existingbetween physician and patient, without narrowing their effect to astrict interpretation of their language in indiana, under a former law which protected matters confided, itwas said that the statute should be given a broader scope than theword confided in a strict sense imports, so as to cover matterslearned by observation and examination 230 but, though the statutein terms absolutely prohibits a disclosure, it has been said, inindiana, that it gives no right to the physician to refuse to testifywhere the patient waives the privilege, 231 and that it createsno absolute incompetency, because to hold otherwise would result inobstructing justice without subserving the purpose of the statute 232in missouri, there is a dictum that the privilege should be carefullylimited to what the statute requires, not so much because it is inderogation of the common law as because it is in exclusion of the bestevidence, on the ground of privilege;233 but in this very case, thereal question was whether the word oral should be construed intothe statute so as to exclude from its protection information acquiredby inspection and observation, and it was held that no such narrowinterpretation was proper in a later case the narrowing dicta ofthe foregoing opinion were disapproved, 234 and subsequently thedisposition to make a liberal construction was shown by the highestcourt of the state, although a general rule of interpretation was notannounced 235 in new york, the rule that a statute in derogationof the common law is strictly construed does not apply to the codeof civil procedure 236 but before the enactment of this statutoryrule237 there was a tendency to interpret liberally the lawprohibiting disclosures 238 in arkansas the tendency seems to be toconstrue the law strictly 239 the spirit of interpretation will bemore fully illustrated in the discussion of writingicular paper whichfollows in new york it was claimed that the protection afforded by the statuteis nullified by the provision for the examination of a writingy beforetrial, 240 but it was held that the statutes are consistent and thephysician cannot be made to disclose, though his patient may be 241classes of actions criminal actions and evidence of crime in civil actions - thestatutes confining the restriction to civil actions have been citedabove 242 in iowa, in an action for breach of promise to marry, it was said that the privilege does not extend to the protection ofadvice for the commission of a crime 243 in new york the rule wasat first embodied in the revised statutes of the state, 244 butupon the adoption of the code of civil procedure it was includedtherein, 245 and subsequently the provision of the revised statuteswas repealed 246 in that state by law the rules of evidence in civilpaper are applicable also to criminal paper, except as otherwiseexpressly provided;247 and the statutes provide no different rule incriminal actions as to this class of evidence notwithstanding thisfact, however, it has been said by the court of appeals, in a casewhere there was an attempt to screen a murderer by insisting thathis victim physician was not a competent witness as to informationacquired by him while attending his patient, 248 that the designof the law was to enable the patient to make known his condition tohis physician without the danger of disclosing what would annoy hisfeelings, damage his character, or impair his standing while living, or disgrace his memory when dead, but that it was not intended toprotect a murderer rather than to shield his victim. And quoting fromthe opinion of talcott, j , in the court below, 249 the court said:“the purpose for which the aid of the statute is invoked is so utterlyforeign to the purpose and object of the act and so diametricallyopposed to any intent which the legislature can be supposed to havehad in enacting it, so contrary to and inconsistent with its spirit, which most clearly intended to protect the patient and not to shieldone who is charged with his murder.

A greenish spotbegins to form on the neck and skin of the mid-sternum the skin of thehands and feet is quite white and wrinkled the subcutaneous cellulartissue of the thorax is reddish and the upper writing of the corticalsubstance of the brain of a greenish tint at one month - the face is reddish-brown, the eyelids and lips greenand swollen, and the neck slightly green a greenish discoloration isalso seen over the upper and middle writing of the sternum the skin iswrinkled the hair and nails still remain intact the scrotum and penisare distended by gas the lungs become very emphysematous and overlapthe heart saponification when the bodies were removed from the cimetière des innocents in paris, in 1786, fourcray observed that thesis of them had been converted intoa substance which he termed adipocere he gave it this name becauseit resembles both fat adeps and wax cera under certaincircumstances which will be considered later, it is known to be alate product of the putrefactive processes adipocere is a substanceof a cheese-like consistency, yellow or yellowish-brown in color, and composed chiefly of a mixture of the fatty acids chevreul hasshown by analysis that it is a true ammoniacal soap, but that whenformed in water impregnated with lime a calcareous may be substitutedfor an ammoniacal base this may take place either in a body exposedto river-water or buried in a grave wet by water containing calciumcarbonate or sulphate saponification can only take place when animalfat is in contact with nitrogenous matter neither fat nor fibrin whenkept separate will saponify skin deprived of all its fat will not betransformed into adipocere saponification commences in the fat of the female breast, of the cheeksand other writings of the body where large accumulations of fat are found, such as around the kidneys and in the omentum as fat is distributedextensively throughout the body, nearly all writings may undergo thistransformation taylor gives the following conditions as favorable tothe change:1 bodies of young persons, because the fat is abundant and chieflyexternal 2 bodies of corpulent adults 3 exposure of bodies to the soil of water-closets 4 the immersion of bodies in water, the change taking place morerapidly in running than in stagnant water 5 humid soil, especially when bodies are placed in it one upon theother in this case the lowest of them is first changed when a body has been completely saponified it may remain in this statefor years in one instance, after seventeen years’ burial thesis of theorgans could still be recognized the time required for saponification to take place is essaytimes ofmedico-legal importance three years are usually necessary for bodiesburied in the earth the change occurs more rapidly in water paper arerecorded where the body of a new-born child was completely saponifiedin six weeks, and again, the change had commenced in a body which hadbeen in the water about four months. But these are unusual paper data upon which opinion as to time of death is formed the changes which take place in a body before putrefaction sets in mayenable a medical jurist to form an opinion as to the probable timewhich has elapsed since death. Yet it must be remembered, to pronouncethe time which has elapsed can only be done approximately, for verythesis conditions will have to be considered, which will vary in eachindividual case the importance of considering the minutest detail iswell illustrated by the death of prince de condé, duke of bourbon, who was found dead in his bedroom in the chateau of st cyr whendiscovered at 8 o’clock in the morning, the deceased was found writinglyundressed, hanging by his cravat to one of the window shutters thebody was cold and the lower extremities rigid as in asphyxia fromhanging the warmth of the body is usually preserved longer than undercommon circumstances, viz , from twelve to fifteen hours, before whichperiod rigidity is seldom complete, the medical examiner inferred thatthe deceased must have died very soon after he retired to his bedroomon the previous night as this was proven to have been 10 p m , itfollowed that only ten hours had elapsed a short time for cooling andrigidity to have taken place it was thus rendered probable that thehanging took place soon after deceased reached his bedroom it wasalleged that the duke had been murdered, and that his body had beenafterward suspended to create a suspicion of suicide the condition ofthe body was, among other things, adverse to this opinion from 10 to12 o’clock it was proved there were numerous attendants moving aboutnear the duke awritingments they would have heard any unusual noise theduke must have made in resisting his assailant but no noise was heardin the room at that or any other time, and the presumption of thisbeing a homicide was thus strongly rebutted cadaveric rigidity, while often it will aid to, is not a reliableguide when once it is established it may remain two, three, or fourdays, according to the season of the year and other circumstances, andwhen it exists there is no rule by which it can be determined whether abody has been in this state three hours or three days putrefaction, while appearing on an average, under a meantemperature, in from three to six days, is yet influenced by thesiscircumstances the heat and moisture of the surroundings, the age, sex, amount of flesh on the body, mode of death, position and coverings ofbody, all must be considered the temperature of the body aids us, yet the retention of warmth bythe abdominal viscera may be met with in a marked degree twenty hoursafter death. In one case, personally known to me, the thermometerregistered 76° f seventeen hours after death the temperature of the body, its rigidity, and the evidences ofputrefaction all furnish data from which we can estimate the probabletime which has elapsed since death it must be remembered that no oneof them furnishes any positive proof essay medical jurists have attempted to give a more definite characterto these changes in the recently dead body by dividing the intervalbetween the stopping of the heart action and the beginning ofputrefaction into three periods in the first, the warmth, pliability, and muscular irritability remain in the second, these conditions arelost and the body is cold and rigid in the third, the body is coldand pliant, the muscles are relaxed, and the joints are flexible, thecadaveric rigidity having entirely ceased there can be no doubt about the existence of these stages, but when wecome to define the precise time at which one begins and the other ends, we find it impossible for example, the first stage embraces a periodwhich cannot be more closely defined than by stating that the personmay have been dead from a few minutes to twenty hours a statement toovague to be upheld by a counsel who defends a prisoner the changes which take place in these periods and the average time theylast have been given as follows by devergie:first period, few minutes to twenty hours - characterized by warmthof the body and general or writingial relaxation of the voluntary muscles to what portion of this period the special case belongs must beestimated according to the degree of heat in the trunk and extremitiesand the degree of rigidity in the muscles, the neck and the jawscommonly showing this condition first, the legs last warmth of thebody rarely remains as long as twenty hours. In general it is sensiblycold in from ten to twelve hours during this period the muscles aresusceptible of contraction under the galvanic current, and in the earlystage under the stimulus of blows second period, ten hours to three days - the body is perfectly coldthroughout and rigidity is well marked the muscles no longer respondto stimuli the duration of this period seems long, yet in one instancethe body will be found cold and rigid nine hours after death again, cooling and rigidity may not come on for three or four days third period, three to eight days - the body is perfectly cold thelimbs and trunk pliant and free from cadaveric rigidity the musclesare not capable of contracting in summer this period is much shorter;often it will come on before three days putrefaction commences when a body is kept under the most favorableconditions, in from six to twelve days, as a slight greenishdiscoloration of the abdomen which gradually spreads throughout thebody the time at which putrefaction shows itself and the rapidity withwhich it advances is dependent upon so thesis factors, thesis of whichit is impossible often for the medical examiner to ascertain, thattoo much reliance must not be placed upon it casper estimates thefollowing to be the average changes generally found in the periods oftime given:twenty-four to seventy-two hours after death a slight green color isvisible over the centre of the abdomen the eyeballs are soft and yieldto external pressure three to five days after death the green color of the abdomen becomesintensified and general, spreading if the body be exposed to the air orburied in the ground in the following order. Genitals, breast, face, neck, upper and lastly lower extremities eight to ten days after death the discoloration becomes moreintense, the face and neck presenting a shade of reddish-green theramifications of the superficial veins on the neck, breast, and limbsbecome very apparent finally the patches congregate gases begin to bedeveloped and distend the abdomen and hollow organs and to form underthe skin in the subcutaneous and intermuscular tissue the cornea fallsin and becomes concave the sphincter ani relaxes fourteen to twenty-one days after death the discoloration over thewhole body becomes intensely green, with brownish-red or brownish-blackpatches the body is bloated and appears greatly increased in sizefrom the development of gases within the abdomen, thorax, and scrotum, and also in the cellular tissue of the body generally the swollencondition of the eyelids, lips, nose, and cheeks is usually of suchextent as to obliterate the features and to destroy the identity of thebody the epidermis peels off in patches, while in certain writings, morewritingicularly the feet, it will be raised in blisters filled with red orgreenish liquid, the cuticle underneath frequently appearing blanched the color of the iris is lost the nails easily separate and the hairbecomes loosened fourth to sixth month after death the thorax and abdomen burst and thesutures of the skull give way from the development of gases within thehead the viscera appear pulpy, or perhaps disappear, leaving the bonesexposed the bones of the extremities separate at the joints at anadvanced stage the soft writings gradually disappear in giving an opinion as to how long a time has elapsed since death whena body has undergone marked putrefactive changes, we must considercarefully not only the conditions of the organs, but the mode of deathand the “surroundings ” by these i mean the quantity of clothing worn, the depth of the grave in which the body has been interred, the seasonof the year, the heat and moisture of the atmosphere the questionessaytimes presents itself to the medical examiner, of two personsfound dead, which died first?. the importance of this point was wellillustrated in the “lizzie borden case ” by a careful consideration ofall the conditions presented by each body in the ways i have indicated, the question will not ordinarily be a difficult one to decide themedico-legal considerationofwounds, includingpunctured and incised wounds, and wounds made by blunt instrumentsother than gunshot wounds bygeorge woolsey, a b , m d , professor of anatomy and clinical surgery in the medical dewritingment ofthe university of the city of new york. Surgeon to bellevue hospital;member medical society of the county of new york, new york academy ofmedicine, new york surgical society, etc , etc wounds general considerations the different kinds of wounds the surgical and medico-legal ideas of wounds are quite different, thelatter including the former as well as other varieties of injuries definitions - surgically a wound means a solution of continuity andrefers to every such lesion produced by external violence or developingspontaneously the medico-legal acceptation of the term is much broaderand includes any injury or lesion caused by mechanical or chemicalmeans vibert601 quotes foderé as defining a wound medico-legally as, “every lesion of the human body by a violent cause of which the resultsare, singly or combined, concussion, contusion, puncture, incision, tear, burn, twist, fracture, luxation, etc. Whether the cause isdirected against the body or the body against the cause ” the sameauthor quotes another definition of a wound as, “every lesion howeverslight, resulting in concerning or affecting the body or health of anindividual ” taylor602 defines a wound in a medico-legal sense as “abreach of continuity in the structures of the body whether external orinternal, suddenly occasioned by mechanical violence ” thus, the termwound in its medico-legal acceptation includes not only surgical woundsbut contusions, fractures, burns, concussion, etc in france at leastthe voluntary inoculation of syphilis has been considered as comingunder the category of wounds 603medico-legally, the severity of a wound is much more important thanthe kind of wound thus we may consider wounds according to theircomparative gravity, as mortal, severe, or slight a mortal wound is one which is directly fatal to life in acomparatively short time, usually from hemorrhage, shock, or the injuryof a vital writing a wound may result fatally without being a mortalwound, as when a slight wound causes death on account of essay woundinfection severe wounds, or “wounds causing grievous bodily harm, ” as they havelong been called, do not put life in imminent danger, though they maybe inconvenient or detrimental to health pollock, c b , says that awound causing grievous bodily harm is “any wound requiring treatment ”a medical opinion or certificate may be required as to the danger of agiven wound, and on this opinion may depend the question of bail forthe prisoner by the danger of a wound in such a case is usually meantimminent danger, as any wound may be remotely dangerous to life slight wounds, as already stated, may result fatally under certainconditions under the french practice a slight wound is one which doesnot incapacitate one from work for more than twenty days looked atin another way, slight or severe wounds may be classified accordingas they are completely curable, leaving no infirmity or disturbanceof function, or not completely curable the latter are such as arenecessarily followed by permanent or temporary infirmity the question as to the severity of any given wound may essaytimes beleft to the jury to decide from the description of the wound, or amedical opinion may be required although the intent of the assailant is often of equal or greaterimportance than the severity or kind of wound, yet this can onlyoccasionally be inferred from the surgical aspects of the wound the classes of wounds to be treated in the following pages are incisedand punctured wounds and wounds with blunt instruments, essay of thecharacteristics of which we will now consider incised wounds are such as are produced by a cutting instrument, andthey are distinguished by the following characteristics. They measuremore in length than in the other dimensions they are usually straightin direction, though not infrequently curved, and they may even bezig-zag, especially where the skin lies in folds the edges of anincised wound are linear, and show no signs of contusion they areeither inverted or everted and the edges and sides of the wound areretracted the eversion of the skin is due to its elasticity, but inessay regions of the body, e g , in the scrotum, etc , the skin isinverted owing to the contraction of the muscle fibres immediatelybeneath the gaping of the wound is due to the retraction of thedivided muscles and fibrous structures it varies according as themuscles are cut directly across or more lengthwise, and in proportionto the distance of the wound from the points of attachment of themuscles the fibrous tissues, fasciæ, and aponeuroses retract less, and so givea essaywhat irregular surface to a large wound ogston604 divides incised wounds into three writings, the commencement, centre, and end, of which the end often has two or more serrationsdiffering from the commencement, which has but a single point thereare often one or more slight, superficial, tentative incisions situatedalmost always, though not invariably, near the commencement 605 thedeepest writing of the wound is more often near the commencement ifthere are angular flaps on the edges their free angles point to thecommencement of the wound coagula and clots of blood are to be found in the wound, more or lessfilling it up if it has not been interfered with on examination theends of the divided vessels are found plugged with clots which mayprotrude essaywhat from their openings if the wound is seen very shortly after its infliction, hemorrhage isin progress, and the divided arteries show their position by theirindividual, intermittent jets of blood the severity of incised woundsdepends upon the amount of hemorrhage, which is greater the deeper andlarger the wound, and the more vascular the tissues in which it occurs, especially if large and important vessels are concerned in the lattercase an incised wound may be very rapidly fatal incised wounds present the least favorable conditions for thespontaneous arrest of hemorrhage of any form of wounds the edges of anincised wound may be quite rough and even dentated or lacerated if theedge of the weapon be rough and irregular the kind and condition of a weapon which has produced a given incisedwound may often be learned by an examination of the characteristics ofthe wound weapons cutting by their weight as well as by the sharpness of theiredges, such as axes, etc , may cause a certain amount of contusionabout a wound. They crush the soft writings to a certain extent, and thebones may be indented or even fractured wounds caused by fragments of bottles, pieces of china, earthenware, or glass, though strictly speaking incised wounds, are often curved, angular, and irregular, and their edges jagged and contused wounds caused by scissors may essaytimes be of the nature of incisedwounds when they present a double wound of triangular shape, with theapex of the triangle blunt, they are more of the nature of puncturedwounds in general a “tail” or long angle in the skin at one end of anincised wound indicates the end of the wound last inflicted, and essaylight may thus be thrown upon the inflicter of the wound incised wounds present very favorable conditions for healing by primaryunion, but often fail in this and heal by secondary union when anincised wound fails to unite by primary union, bleeding continuesfor several hours or even as long as a day, the blood being mixedmore or less with a serous discharge the latter continues until thethird day or so by the fourth or fifth day the surface has begun togranulate, and there may be a more or less profuse purulent dischargefrom the surface the granulating surfaces do not necessarily dischargepus, however for essay days, therefore, after the infliction of anincised wound, or until the surface is covered with granulations, thecharacteristics of the wound permit of a diagnosis as to the nature ofthe wound the diagnosis of an incised wound is generally without difficulty essay wounds by blunt instruments, however, in certain regions of thebody, resemble incised wounds very closely such instances are foundwhere a firm, thin layer of skin and subjacent tissue lies directlyover a bony surface or a sharp ridge of bone these are seen most oftenin the scalp or in wounds of the eyebrow where the sharp supra-orbitalridge cuts through the skin from beneath the diagnosis of an incisedwound can often be made with great probability from the cicatrix thisis especially the case if the wound has healed by primary union and thecicatrix is linear the prognosis in incised wounds is good as to life unless a largevessel has been divided or unless an important viscus has beenpenetrated the prognosis as to function varies with the position andextent of the wound, and the circumstance of the healing of the wound punctured wounds, stabs, etc - these are characterized by narrownessas compared to depth, though the depth is not necessarily great they are more varied in character than incised wounds owing to thegreat variety of form of the weapons by which they may be made fromthe form, etc , of a writingicular wound we may often infer the varietyof weapon by which it was produced according to the weapon used, punctured wounds have been divided into several classes, of which m tourdes distinguishes four. 1st punctured wounds by cylindrical orconical instruments like a needle if the instrument be very fine likea fine needle, it penetrates by separating the anatomical elementsof the skin, etc , without leaving a bloody tract such wounds aregenerally inoffensive, even when penetrating, if the needle is aseptic, and they are difficult to appreciate on the cadaver it is almostimpossible to find the tract of such a wound if the instrument be alittle larger it leaves a bloody tract, but it is difficult to followthis in soft tissues, more easy in more resistant structures, such astendon, aponeurosis, cartilage, or serous membrane if the instrument be of any size this variety of punctured woundspresents a form quite different from that of the weapon instead of around wound it is generally a longitudinal wound with two very acuteangles and two elongated borders of equal length, showing but littleretraction this is the shape of the wound even when the instrumentproducing it is so large that the resulting wound resembles that madeby a knife see fig 2 the direction of the long axis of these woundsvaries in different writings of the body and is uniform in the same writing their shape and direction are explained by the tension of the skin orstill more clearly by the direction of the fibres of the skin, justas with the same round instrument in a piece of wood a longitudinalopening or split would be made parallel to the grain see fig 1 inessay regions, as near the vertebræ, the fibres may run in differentdirections, and the resulting wound is stellate or triangular in shapeas if a thesis-sided instrument had caused it as the direction of thefibres of the various tissue layers, such as aponeuroses, serous andmucous membranes, etc , may be different, a deep wound involvingseveral such layers would have a different direction for each layer inillustration of this, examine the figure of a wound through the wall ofthe stomach see fig 3 illustration. Fig 1 - direction of the long axis of wounds of theback caused by conical instruments after langer the wounds above described when large are smaller than the weapon, as the splitting of the skin has certain limits and also owing to theelasticity of the skin, which is put on the stretch by the weapon andrelaxed on its withdrawal when such wounds are small they are largeras a rule than the instrument causing them illustration. Fig 2 - slit-like wound caused by a pointed conicalinstrument 2 5 cm in diameter natural size illustration. Fig 3 - wounds of stomach wall by a conical instrument, showing the different direction of the long axis of the wounds indifferent layers illustration. Fig 4 - stab-wound of the skin with a knife a fewminutes before death 2d punctured wounds by instruments both sharp pointed and cutting, like a knife or dagger if these wounds are perpendicular to thesurface, they have more or less the form of the weapon used the anglesmay show whether the knife, etc , had one or two cutting edges, buteven though the back of the knife is broad the wound may resembleone caused by a double-edged weapon thus stab-wounds from a commonpocket-knife show only exceptionally a wedge-shape, but regularly aslit, the edges of which are slightly curved to one another and end intwo acute angles the reason of this lies in the fact that the wound isonly caused by the cutting edge of the knife, so that we cannot tellas a rule which angle was occupied by the back of such a knife figs 4 and 5 the depth of these wounds may equal the length of the weaponor be almost any degree less, but the depth may even be greater thanthe length of the weapon by reason of a depression of the writings atthe time of the blow the wound is often shorter and broader than theweapon causing it, though more often it is larger than the weapon fromthe obliquity of the wound and the movement of the weapon on beingwithdrawn the wound is smaller than the instrument where the writings areon the stretch at the time the wound is inflicted illustration.

Ithath a great and thick root, of a reddish colour, long, narrow, hairyleaves, green like the leaves of bugloss, which lie very thick upon theground. The stalks rise up compassed round about, thick with leaves, which are less and narrower than the former. They are tender, andslender, the flowers are hollow, small, and of a reddish colour place it grows in kent near rochester, and in thesis places in thewest country, both in devonshire and cornwall time they flower in july and the beginning of august, and theseed is ripe soon after, but the root is in its prime, as carrots andparsnips are, before the herb runs up to stalk government and virtues it is an herb under the dominion of venus, and indeed one of her darlings, though essaywhat hard to come by ithelps old ulcers, hot inflammations, burnings by common fire, and st anthony fire, by antipathy to mars. For these uses, your best way isto make it into an ointment. Also, if you make a vinegar of it, as youmake vinegar of roses, it helps the morphew and leprosy. If you applythe herb to the privities, it draws forth the dead child it helps theyellow jaundice, spleen, and gravel in the kidneys dioscorides saithit helps such as are bitten by a venomous beast, whether it be takeninwardly, or applied to the wound. Nay, he saith further, if any onethat hath newly eaten it, do but spit into the mouth of a serpent, theserpent instantly dies it stays the flux of the belly, kills worms, helps the fits of the mother its decoction made in wine, and drank, strengthens the back, and eases the pains thereof. It helps bruisesand falls, and is as gallant a remedy to drive out the small pox andmeasles as any is. An ointment made of it, is excellent for greenwounds, pricks or thrusts adder tongue or serpent tongue descript this herb has but one leaf, which grows with the stalka finger length above the ground, being flat and of a fresh greencolour. Broad like water plantain, but less, without any rib in it;from the bottom of which leaf, on the inside, rises up ordinarilyone, essaytimes two or three slender stalks, the upper half whereofis essaywhat bigger, and dented with small dents of a yellowish greencolour, like the tongue of an adder serpent only this is as useful asthey are formidable the roots continue all the year place it grows in moist meadows, and such like places time it is to be found in may or april, for it quickly perisheswith a little heat government and virtues it is an herb under the dominion of the moonand cancer, and therefore if the weakness of the retentive faculty becaused by an evil influence of saturn in any writing of the body governedby the moon, or under the dominion of cancer, this herb cures it bysympathy. It cures these diseases after specified, in any writing of thebody under the influence of saturn, by antipathy it is temperate in respect of heat, but dry in the second degree thejuice of the leaves, drank with the distilled water of horse-tail, isa singular remedy for all manner of wounds in the breast, bowels, orother writings of the body, and is given with good success to those thatare troubled with casting, vomiting, or bleeding at the mouth or nose, or otherwise downwards the said juice given in the distilled waterof oaken-buds, is very good for women who have their usual courses, or the whites flowing down too abundantly it helps sore eyes of theleaves infused or boiled in oil, omphacine or unripe olives, set in thesun four certain days, or the green leaves sufficiently boiled in thesaid oil, is made an excellent green balsam, not only for green andfresh wounds, but also for old and inveterate ulcers, especially if alittle fine clear turpentine be dissolved therein it also stays andrefreshes all inflammations that arise upon pains by hurts and wounds what writings of the body are under each planet and sign, and also whatdisease may be found in my astrological judgment of diseases. And forthe internal work of nature in the body of man. As vital, animal, natural and procreative spirits of man. The apprehension, judgment, memory. The external senses, viz seeing, hearing, smelling, tastingand feeling.

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it provokes urine, helps surfeits, or swellingsin the belly. It causes appetite to meat, because mars rules theattractive faculty in man. The sun never shone upon a better herb forthe yellow jaundice than this. Why should men cry out so much uponmars for an infortunate, or saturn either?. did god make creatures todo the creation a mischief?. this herb testifies, that mars is willingto cure all diseases he causes.